Water from a Rock: "Christ, the Rock of our Salvation"Mt. Sinai (Lawz) and Kadesh (Petra)
Mt. Sinai and Kadesh Barnea
"Waters of Massah/Meribah"
"The rock was Christ." (1 Cor 10:4)
The imagery of God being "the Rock of our salvation" is an anti-type found throughout the Bible and had its origin with the Exodus when God brought water out of the rock through Moses.
Twice during the exodus (Sinai and Kadesh), Israel complained to God and twice Moses brought water out of rock miraculously with his staff.
There are two different places in the Bible called "waters of Meribah"; Sinai and Kadesh: "He named the place [at Sinai] Massah [test] and Meribah [quarrel] because of the quarrel of the sons of Israel, and because they tested the Lord, saying, "Is the Lord among us, or not?" Exodus 17:7: "Those were the waters of Meribah [at Kadesh], because the sons of Israel contended with the Lord, and He proved Himself holy among them." Numbers 20:13
We have always wondered why Israel did not have the faith to just ask God for water. After all, they just saw the 10 plaques, the parting the Red Sea and have been getting Manna every morning by miracle. But their faithlessness was unable to connect the dots and realize that if God gave them miraculous food, perhaps he could do the same with water. What is worse is that after the complained the first time at Rephidim and water came out of the rock at the foot of Sinai, they were confronted with a need for water about a year and a half later and complained a second time. Finally after spending 38 years at Kadesh, they learned to rely on God for water. Now, when they are thirsty, they sing a song to God instead of complaining. What a joy that must have been to the heavenly father. Baby grew up! "From there they continued to Beer, that is the well where the Lord said to Moses, "Assemble the people, that I may give them water." Then Israel sang this song: "Spring up, O well! Sing to it! "The well, which the leaders sank, Which the nobles of the people dug, With the scepter and with their staffs." And from the wilderness they continued to Mattanah," Numbers 21:16-18
When Moses struck the rock at Kadesh with his staff, God charged him for "breaking faith" and forbade Moses to enter the promised land. (Numbers 20:8-13) It may have been because he struck the rock twice instead of "speaking" to the rock or it might be because he made it appear that Moses, not God was the one bringing forth the water, "Shall WE bring forth water? Perhaps a combination of both.
At Petra the wadi that flows through the Siq is called, "the wadi of Moses." This is an ancient tradition. There are at least 7 springs at Petra, but they could not support any sizable population. But to reject Petra for Ein el-Qudeirat on the basis that Qudeirat had a large natural water supply and Kadesh none, is as ridiculous as it is faithless. The water at Ein el-Qudeirat is estimated to support a few thousand people at the most. This is short sighted, since it could not support 2.5 million Israelites in the wilderness. And ignoring that the water supply was miraculous, is faithless.
There were 2.5 million Hebrews at Kadesh. If each needed 40 litres per day for basic survival, that means that the river of Moses would need to supply 100 million litres of water every day. That is equal to 100,000 cubic meters of water ever day. Niagara falls, with a flow rate of 5,830m3/sec, could supply the daily needs of 2.5 million Israelites at Kadesh every 17 seconds. The Upper Grand river in Ontario Canada, in the winter when flows are very slow, flows at 6 m3.s which amounts to 500,000 cubic meters per day. That means that a river 1/5 the size of the Upper Grand River would supply all the Hebrews needs every day.
The Muslims believe Kadesh was at Petra and there are two texts in the Qur'an that tell the story. These texts are worthless, since Muhammad merely copied from known Christian and Jewish sources. The Koran has a well established pattern of copying Bible stories, but changing them to give them a Meccan twist. The Koran also contains known myths, that are presented as true stories. "And remember Moses prayed for water for his people; We said: "Strike the rock with thy staff." Then gushed forth therefrom twelve springs. Each group knew its own place for water. So eat and drink of the sustenance provided by God, and do no evil nor mischief on the (face of the) earth. And remember ye said: "O Moses! we cannot endure one kind of food (always); so beseech thy Lord for us to produce for us of what the earth groweth, - its pot-herbs, and cucumbers, Its garlic, lentils, and onions." He said: "Will ye exchange the better for the worse? Go ye down to any town, and ye shall find what ye want!" They were covered with humiliation and misery; they drew on themselves the wrath of God. This because they went on rejecting the Signs of God and slaying His Apostles without just cause. This because they rebelled and went on transgressing. ... Thenceforth were your hearts hardened: They became like a rock and even worse in hardness. For among rocks there are some from which rivers gush forth; others there are which when split asunder send forth water; and others which sink for fear of God. And God is not unmindful of what ye do." (Qur'an 2:60-61,74)
The true location of Kadesh Barnea may in fact be a place with no water at all today. It could be anywhere on the Transjordan Arabah. However it is clearly either at Petra or just north of Petra.
A. The Waters of Meribah at Sinai:
Since there was a large miraculous flow of water at Mt. Sinai that kept Israel alive for over a year, efforts have been made to identify this water source at the various candidate locations. (Mt. Musa in the Sinai Peninsula and Mt Lawz in north Saudi Arabia)
There is no known place at Mt. Musa in the Sinai Peninsula that would be the place the rock split and the water came out. But since it was a miracle, it may have started and then stopped after Israel moved on. Earthquakes and sand storms and normal erosion would easily hide the rock.
At Jebel Al-Lawz, some have suggested that a slit-rock feature on the western slopes, is the place where Moses made the water flow when he struck it with his staff. Below is one example, there are others that have been suggested. The problem is that with the large number of split rocks coupled with the large number of earthquakes over the last 3400 years, we can almost be certain that if this is what the rock looked like at the time of Moses, it would have dramatically changes over time. To make matters worse, the rocks they propose are on the wrong side of Lawz, namely west of the summit. But Israel never set foot on that side of Lawz. They approached Mt. Sinai from the south west and camped due east of the Summit. Rephidim is also located on the east side of the summit of Lawz.
If we were going to look for the split rock, it would start by identifying either springs on the eastern slopes of Lawz or ancient wadi's that have dried up. These wadis, would have been dormant for 3400 years so they are likely very hard to find, being buried or filled in sand.
Unfortunately the opportunity to do archeological research at Mt. Al-Lawz is non-existent, since the Muslims of Saudi Arabia have a vested interest in not verifying the Jewish exodus from Egypt into the promised land.
B. The Waters of Meribah at Kadesh:
We know from Genesis 14:7 that Kadesh is called "En-mishpat". The Hebrew for "En-mishpat" means "spring of judgement". This spring was known to Abraham. But in Moses' time, Kadesh is described as a "wretched, waterless place" that had no figs or grain in the area. There may have been a small spring and a few dozen fig trees, but this is far too little to support Israel in the wilderness. It was going to take a miracle.
The fact that there is an ancient spring from 2000 BC does not prove that the spring was still flowing at the time of the exodus in 1446 BC. In fact, there is no evidence at the time of the exodus that there was any spring at all.
The narrative doesn't say, "the people complained they were dying of thirst because the spring was too small". It says the people described Kadesh as a wretched, waterless place with no grain or figs to eat. Now if there was a small spring but it was unable to support 2.5 million Hebrews, I would find it quite natural that they would still call it a waterless place. In other words, the tiny amount of water will result in their death from thirst. If Israel was at Ein el Qudeirat (which can supply water for about 1000 people) they would have complained it was a waterless place just the same. It takes a lot of water to support 2.5 million people in the desert.
Although Kadesh Barnea had a spring at the time of Abraham (2000 BC) Gen 14:6-7, it was either dried up or far too small to support the population of the exodus which numbered 2.5 million. That takes a large amount of water, much more than any of the springs we see today.
Something else the narrative does not say is, "an Moses struck the rock and the flow of water from the spring that was then turned into a river." Instead it says Kadesh was a waterless place and Moses struck the rock in a place no water was coming out of and it began to gush out like a river. There is no evidence of any kind of spring at Kadesh at time of the Exodus. Even if the spring Abraham drank from was still running, where Moses struck the rock was not at the site of this spring.
One of the problems in the search for Kadesh, is that people are looking for locations with the largest springs. This is why Ein el Qudeirat was mistakenly chosen as Kadesh. Qudeirat is the largest natural oasis in the Sinai for a radius of 100 KM. But even Qudeirat is much too small today to support a population of 2.5 million.
By miracle, Moses strikes "the rock" at Kadesh and water flows: Num 20:1-5; Ezek 47:19; 48:28. The modern choices for Kadesh always focused on locations with the largest natural water supply TODAY. The water started to flow by miracle, and likely stopped after Israel left. So the search for Kadesh should include locations with evidence of large amounts of water flowing in the past, but not the necessarily the present.
Populations settle near large reliable water supplies. For example in Jerusalem today the Gihon spring flows large amounts of clean cold water. We find a major city built directly over top of this spring. David built his fortress gates to primarily protect the water. So in the search for Kadesh, we could look for evidence of past or present civilizations in otherwise waterless places. Interestingly, we find just such a large civilization at Petra.
We know miracle river of water did stop flowing, because none exists today. When it stopped flowing is unknown. If such a large amount of water flowed after Israel left Kadesh, it would have become a major populated center and we would find archeological evidence of such. There would be numerous references to this large water supply in connection with the Jewish exodus in ancient writings. But there is complete silence in archeology and historical records. However we do find a major civilization that specialized in channeling and redirecting an ancient water supply at Petra. This irrigation system set up by the Nabataeans in 350 BC has been abandoned for thousands of years.
At Petra, the 1 km long Siq that the water was channeled down is called, the "wadi of Moses" according to ancient tradition. Eusebius writes in 325 AD: "Mt Hor: or. Mountain on which Aaron died near the city of Petra. There is now pointed out the rock which flowed for Moses (which Moses struck and gave water to the people)." (The Onomasticon and the Exodus route. by Eusebius, 325AD)
C. What the Bible says about Moses bringing water from the Rock:
- Water at Sinai: "Then all the congregation of the sons of Israel journeyed by stages from the wilderness of Sin, according to the command of the Lord, and camped at Rephidim, and there was no water for the people to drink. Therefore the people quarreled with Moses and said, "Give us water that we may drink." And Moses said to them, "Why do you quarrel with me? Why do you test the Lord?" But the people thirsted there for water; and they grumbled against Moses and said, "Why, now, have you brought us up from Egypt, to kill us and our children and our livestock with thirst?" So Moses cried out to the Lord, saying, "What shall I do to this people? A little more and they will stone me." Then the Lord said to Moses, "Pass before the people and take with you some of the elders of Israel; and take in your hand your staff with which you struck the Nile, and go. "Behold, I will stand before you there on the rock at Horeb; and you shall strike the rock, and water will come out of it, that the people may drink." And Moses did so in the sight of the elders of Israel. He named the place Massah and Meribah because of the quarrel of the sons of Israel, and because they tested the Lord, saying, "Is the Lord among us, or not?" Exodus 17:1-7
- Sinai: "Who turned the rock into a pool of water, The flint into a fountain of water." Psalm 114:8 (there is flint at Lawz, but none at Petra)
- Kadesh: "Then they turned back and came to En-mishpat (that is, Kadesh), and conquered all the country of the Amalekites, and also the Amorites, who lived in Hazazon-tamar." Genesis 14:7
- Water at Kadesh: "Then the sons of Israel, the whole congregation, came to the wilderness of Zin in the first month; and the people stayed at Kadesh. Now Miriam died there and was buried there. There was no water for the congregation, and they assembled themselves against Moses and Aaron. The people thus contended with Moses and spoke, saying, "If only we had perished when our brothers perished before the Lord! "Why then have you brought the Lord's assembly into this wilderness, for us and our beasts to die here? "Why have you made us come up from Egypt, to bring us in to this wretched place? It is not a place of grain or figs or vines or pomegranates, nor is there water to drink." Numbers 20:1-5
- Kadesh: "The Lord spoke to Moses that very same day, saying, "Go up to this mountain of the Abarim, Mount Nebo, which is in the land of Moab opposite Jericho, and look at the land of Canaan, which I am giving to the sons of Israel for a possession. "Then die on the mountain where you ascend, and be gathered to your people, as Aaron your brother died on Mount Hor and was gathered to his people, because you broke faith with Me in the midst of the sons of Israel at the waters of Meribah-kadesh, in the wilderness of Zin, because you did not treat Me as holy in the midst of the sons of Israel. "For you shall see the land at a distance, but you shall not go there, into the land which I am giving the sons of Israel." Deuteronomy 32:48-52
- Kadesh: "Those were the waters of Meribah, because the sons of Israel contended with the Lord, and He proved Himself holy among them." Numbers 20:13
- Kadesh: "Aaron will be gathered to his people; for he shall not enter the land which I have given to the sons of Israel, because you rebelled against My command at the waters of Meribah." Numbers 20:24
- Kadesh: "for in the wilderness of Zin, during the strife of the congregation, you rebelled against My command to treat Me as holy before their eyes at the water." (These are the waters of Meribah of Kadesh in the wilderness of Zin.)" Numbers 27:14
- "They did not thirst when He led them through the deserts. He made the water flow out of the rock for them; He split the rock and the water gushed forth." Isaiah 48:21
- "He opened the rock and water flowed out; It ran in the dry places like a river." Psalm 105:41
- "He changes rivers into a wilderness And springs of water into a thirsty ground; A fruitful land into a salt waste, Because of the wickedness of those who dwell in it. He changes a wilderness into a pool of water And a dry land into springs of water;" Psalm 107:33-35
- "You shall not put the Lord your God to the test, as you tested Him at Massah." Deuteronomy 6:16
- "Again at Taberah and at Massah and at Kibroth-hattaavah you provoked the Lord to wrath." Deuteronomy 9:22
- "Do not harden your hearts, as at Meribah, As in the day of Massah in the wilderness," Psalm 95:8
- "You called in trouble and I rescued you; I answered you in the hiding place of thunder; I proved you at the waters of Meribah. Selah." Psalm 81:7
- "and all drank the same spiritual drink, for they were drinking from a spiritual rock which followed them; and the rock was Christ." 1 Corinthians 10:4
Part II: Anti-type: Christ, the Rock of Salvation:
There is a clear anti-type of Jesus being the Rock of Moses from which comes the water of life.
All the varied imagery of "rock" in the Bible has its origin with Moses' rock that he struck at Sinai and Kadesh in order to bring water to the exodus Hebrews.
If there were two single rocks at Sinai and Kadesh, as opposed to a crevice in Mt Lawz or the 1 km long Siq at Petra, the Hebrews would probably have started worshipping them. They worshipped the brass snake of Moses that he
A. The two Exodus Rocks Moses struck:
"Behold, I will stand before you there on the rock at Horeb; and you shall strike the rock, and water will come out of it, that the people may drink." And Moses did so in the sight of the elders of Israel." Exodus 17:6
"He led you through the great and terrible wilderness, with its fiery serpents and scorpions and thirsty ground where there was no water; He brought water for you out of the rock of flint." Deuteronomy 8:15
Seven times God is referred to as the Rock in the "song of Moses:
1. "The Rock! His work is perfect, For all His ways are just; A God of faithfulness and without injustice, Righteous and upright is He." Deuteronomy 32:4
2. "He made him ride on the high places of the earth, And he ate the produce of the field; And He made him suck honey from the rock, And oil from the flinty rock," Deuteronomy 32:13
3. "But Jeshurun grew fat and kickedó You are grown fat, thick, and sleekó Then he forsook God who made him, And scorned the Rock of his salvation." Deuteronomy 32:15
4. "You neglected the Rock who begot you, And forgot the God who gave you birth." Deuteronomy 32:18
5. "How could one chase a thousand, And two put ten thousand to flight, Unless their Rock had sold them, And the LORD had given them up?" Deuteronomy 32:30
6. "Indeed their rock is not like our Rock, Even our enemies themselves judge this." Deuteronomy 32:31
7. "And He will say, 'Where are their gods, The rock in which they sought refuge?" Deuteronomy 32:37
Hanna, the mother of Samuel echoed the Exodus rock of water in her prayer for a son. This is before David's Rock of Escape at Engedi and proves it was common for the average Jew to refer to God as their Rock! "There is no one holy like the Lord, Indeed, there is no one besides You, Nor is there any rock like our God." 1 Samuel 2:2
David echoes the Rock of Exodus:
-"He split the rocks in the wilderness And gave them abundant drink like the ocean depths. He brought forth streams also from the rock And caused waters to run down like rivers. ... Behold, He struck the rock so that waters gushed out, And streams were overflowing; Can He give bread also? Will He provide meat for His people? ... And they remembered that God was their rock, And the Most High God their Redeemer." Psalm 78:15-16,20,35
-Echoing Moses in Deut 32:13, David says: "But I would feed you with the finest of the wheat, And with honey from the rock I would satisfy you." Psalm 81:16
-"He opened the rock and water flowed out; It ran in the dry places like a river." Psalm 105:41
-"Who turned the rock into a pool of water, The flint into a fountain of water." Psalm 114:8
Isaiah echoes the Rock of the Exodus and introduces Christ as the Rock of Offence. Of course these are one and the same Rock: Christ (1 Cor 10:4). Christ is both the Rock of salvation and the Rock of Offence.
Nehemiah refers to the Exodus rock: "You provided bread from heaven for them for their hunger, You brought forth water from a rock for them for their thirst, And You told them to enter in order to possess The land which You swore to give them." Nehemiah 9:15
Habakkuk echoes the exodus rock Moses and David: "Are You not from everlasting, O Lord, my God, my Holy One? We will not die. You, O Lord, have appointed them to judge; And You, O Rock, have established them to correct." Habakkuk 1:12.
Paul completes the circle by applying all the "Rock of Salvation" terminology to Christ as the Rock from which water sprang forth for Moses at Sinai and Kadesh: "and all drank the same spiritual drink, for they were drinking from a spiritual rock which followed them; and the rock was Christ." 1 Corinthians 10:4
B. Engedi: The "Rock of Escape" of David's refuge
David directly refers to the Rock of Exodus: Psalm 78:15-16,20,35 (see above)
Engedi inspired a second set of images of God as the rock of salvation that had their origin in the Exodus. We see David referring to God as the Engedi Rock who saved him. Examples of this are:
-"So Saul returned from pursuing David and went to meet the Philistines; therefore they called that place the Rock of Escape. "David went up from there and stayed in the strongholds of Engedi." 1 Samuel 23:28-29
-"He said, "The Lord is my rock and my fortress and my deliverer; My God, my rock, in whom I take refuge, My shield and the horn of my salvation, my stronghold and my refuge; My savior, You save me from violence." 2 Samuel 22:2
-"The Lord is my rock and my fortress and my deliverer, My God, my rock, in whom I take refuge; My shield and the horn of my salvation, my stronghold." Psalm 18:2
-"For in the day of trouble He will conceal me in His tabernacle; In the secret place of His tent He will hide me; He will lift me up on a rock." Psalm 27:5
Many of the Psalms of David focus on Engedi. But it is clear that David knew about the Rock of water in the wilderness and viewed this as a second example of God being the Rock. (Psalm 78:15-16,20,35)
David's use of "The Rock", therefore, combines the historical origin during the exodus where water came from the rock and his present experience at Engedi.
Clear examples of this are:
"For who is God, besides the Lord? And who is a rock, besides our God?" 2 Samuel 22:32
"The Lord lives, and blessed be my rock; And exalted be God, the rock of my salvation," 2 Samuel 22:47
"The God of Israel said, The Rock of Israel spoke to me, 'He who rules over men righteously, Who rules in the fear of God," 2 Samuel 23:3
"For who is God, but the Lord? And who is a rock, except our God," Psalm 18:31
"The Lord lives, and blessed be my rock; And exalted be the God of my salvation," Psalm 18:46
"Let the words of my mouth and the meditation of my heart Be acceptable in Your sight, O Lord, my rock and my Redeemer." Psalm 19:14
" A Psalm of David. To You, O Lord, I call; My rock, do not be deaf to me, For if You are silent to me, I will become like those who go down to the pit." Psalm 28:1
"Incline Your ear to me, rescue me quickly; Be to me a rock of strength, A stronghold to save me." Psalm 31:2
"For You are my rock and my fortress; For Your name's sake You will lead me and guide me." Psalm 31:3
"I will say to God my rock, "Why have You forgotten me? Why do I go mourning because of the oppression of the enemy?" Psalm 42:9
"From the end of the earth I call to You when my heart is faint; Lead me to the rock that is higher than I." Psalm 61:2
"He only is my rock and my salvation, My stronghold; I shall not be greatly shaken." Psalm 62:2,6
"On God my salvation and my glory rest; The rock of my strength, my refuge is in God." Psalm 62:7
"Be to me a rock of habitation to which I may continually come; You have given commandment to save me, For You are my rock and my fortress." Psalm 71:3
"He will cry to Me, 'You are my Father, My God, and the rock of my salvation.'" Psalm 89:26
"To declare that the Lord is upright; He is my rock, and there is no unrighteousness in Him." Psalm 92:15
"But the Lord has been my stronghold, And my God the rock of my refuge." Psalm 94:22
" O come, let us sing for joy to the Lord, Let us shout joyfully to the rock of our salvation." Psalm 95:1
" A Psalm of David. Blessed be the Lord, my rock, Who trains my hands for war, And my fingers for battle;" Psalm 144:1
C. Isaiah combines Moses and David's Rocks:
See the "I Am" echo passages of Isaiah.
- Moses rock provided water and food. David's rock provided security and protection. Isaiah combines the imagery of the two into a single Rock: The Father and the Son.
- It is well documented in Isaiah that he employs imagery applied to the Father, that Jesus applies to himself in the New Testament. See this study for a full discussion of how Isaiah applied "I am" passages to the Father. These included: "I am the first and last, I am the creator, I am the way, I am the rock". Yet Jesus echoed these Isaiah passages and applied them directly to himself! The "I Am" echo passages of Isaiah.
- "For you have forgotten the God of your salvation And have not remembered the rock of your refuge. Therefore you plant delightful plants And set them with vine slips of a strange god." Isaiah 17:10
- "Trust in the Lord forever, For in God the Lord, we have an everlasting Rock." Isaiah 26:4
- "You will have songs as in the night when you keep the festival, And gladness of heart as when one marches to the sound of the flute, To go to the mountain of the Lord, to the Rock of Israel." Isaiah 30:29
- "He will dwell on the heights, His refuge will be the impregnable rock; His bread will be given him, His water will be sure." Isaiah 33:16
- "'Do not tremble and do not be afraid; Have I not long since announced it to you and declared it? And you are My witnesses. Is there any God besides Me, Or is there any other Rock? I know of none.' " Isaiah 44:8
- "They did not thirst when He led them through the deserts. He made the water flow out of the rock for them; He split the rock and the water gushed forth." Isaiah 48:21
- "Listen to me, you who pursue righteousness, Who seek the Lord: Look to the rock from which you were hewn And to the quarry from which you were dug." Isaiah 51:1
D. David and Isaiah introduce Christ as the rock of offence:
"The stone which the builders rejected Has become the chief corner stone." Psalm 118:22
"Then He shall become a sanctuary; But to both the houses of Israel, a stone to strike and a rock to stumble over, And a snare and a trap for the inhabitants of Jerusalem." Isaiah 8:14
"Many will stumble over them, Then they will fall and be broken; They will even be snared and caught." Isaiah 8:15
"Jesus said to them, "Did you never read in the Scriptures, 'The stone which the builders rejected, This became the chief corner stone; This came about from the Lord, And it is marvelous in our eyes'?" Matthew 21:42
"Have you not even read this Scripture: 'The stone which the builders rejected, This became the chief corner stone;" Mark 12:10
"But Jesus looked at them and said, "What then is this that is written: 'The stone which the builders rejected, This became the chief corner stone'?" Luke 20:17
"He is the stone which was rejected by you, the builders, but which became the chief corner stone." Acts 4:11
"having been built on the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Christ Jesus Himself being the corner stone," Ephesians 2:20
"just as it is written, "Behold, I lay in Zion a stone of stumbling and a rock of offense, And he who believes in Him will not be disappointed." Romans 9:33
"and, "A stone of stumbling and a rock of offense"; for they stumble because they are disobedient to the word, and to this doom they were also appointed." 1 Peter 2:8
E. Christ's usage of Rock imagery:
"Therefore everyone who hears these words of Mine and acts on them, may be compared to a wise man who built his house on the rock. And the rain fell, and the floods came, and the winds blew and slammed against that house; and yet it did not fall, for it had been founded on the rock." Matthew 7:24-25
"I also say to you that you are Peter, and upon this rock I will build My church; and the gates of Hades will not overpower it." Matthew 16:18
F. Jesus, the water of life, "came forth" out of the rock:
"and laid it in his own new tomb, which he had hewn out in the rock; and he rolled a large stone against the entrance of the tomb and went away." Matthew 27:60
"Joseph bought a linen cloth, took Him down, wrapped Him in the linen cloth and laid Him in a tomb which had been hewn out in the rock; and he rolled a stone against the entrance of the tomb." Mark 15:46
In 325 AD, Eusebius said you could still see the rock that Moses struck to provide water for the Hebrews at Petra. The path the water flowed from the rock is called the "Wadi of Moses" and the "Siq". This is still marked on all modern maps today. The wadi of Moses is still active as a drainage system in heavy rains today, although they have taken steps to prevent flash flooding down the Siq. It flows down the 1 km Siq, turns 90 degrees right at the "treasury", then winds its way down into the Arabah Valley.
We have no idea where Moses struck the Rock at Mt. Sinai. Although several rocks have been proposes, they cannot be the Rock because they are on the wrong side (western) of Jebel Al-Lawz. The fact remains that a river of water flowed from Lawz towards the east for a year. Evidence of this old river bed might be difficult to locate, given 3500 years of sand storms.
The imagery of Christ as "The Rock", as well as all the varied "rock" imagery throughout the Bible, has its origin in Moses at Sinai and Kadesh.
Moses striking the rock lays the foundation of a major Bible anti-type applied directly to Christ as the Rock that provides food and water for salvation, safety, security and judgement.
By Steve Rudd: Contact the author for comments, input or corrections.
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