Joseph as a Type of Christ

A list of 75 similarities

Gen 30-50; Acts 7:9-19; Heb 11:21-22

Joseph in Egypt Chronology

Comparison Chart of 75 Joseph/Christ Shadows, Types, Antitypes and similarities

 

See also:

Click to ViewList of 25 similarities of Moses as a type of Apostle Paul

Click to ViewList of 13 ways the Jewish temple was a type of the Church

Click to ViewList of 15 Abraham and Christian antitypes of Genesis 15

Click to ViewList of 11 Exodus Route types of our salvation in Christ

Click to ViewReplacement Theology: The church (body of Christ) replaced the Jewish Temple

Click to ViewPhysical Jews were types of spiritual Christians by faith not blood!

 

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List of 75 Joseph/Christ Shadows and Antitypes
Gen 30-50; Acts 7:9-19; Heb 11:21-22

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“Shadow of what was to come, but the substance belongs to Christ” Col 2:17

Joseph

Christ

1.

Miraculous birth Jacob was 90 years old, Rachel was barren, Mary was a virgin

Gen 30:22-24; 37:3

Mt 1:18; Lk 1:31-33

2.

Spoke truth in exposing sinful behavior of others knowing he would be hated and ostracized.

Gen 37:2

Mt 15:12; 23:1f; Lk 20:19; Mt 14:4

3.

Both were shepherds

Gen 37:2

John 10:11

4.

Beloved sons of wealthy fathers

Gen 37:3

Mt 3:17

5.

Hated by his brothers without a cause

Gen 37:4,8

Jn 7:5; 15:25; Mk 3:21

6.

Hated for telling the truth and prophesying

Gen 37:5

John 8:40; 7:7; 3:32

7.

Foretold of future exalted position as king

Gen 37:5-8

Mt 24:30-31; 26:64

8.

Destined to become kings from birth

Gen 37:8

John 18:37

9.

Both parents “treasured in their hearts” the news that their children would be a future king.

Gen 37:11

Lk 2:20, 2:19

10.

Persecuted out of jealousy

Gen 37:11; Acts 7:9

Mt 27:18; Mk 15:10

11.

Willingly went at father’s request and authority

Gen 37:13

Jn 8:42

12.

Lived with father before sent on divine mission

Gen 37:14

Jn 17:5

13.

Ridiculed for being a king

Gen 37:19

Lk 22:63-65

14.

Plotted against by his own brethren

Gen 37:20

Mt 26:4,15; John 11:53

15.

Said to Joseph: “Then let us see what will become of his dreams”. Said of Jesus: “He trusts in God; let God rescue Him now, if He delights in Him; for He said, ‘I am the Son of God”

Gen 37:20

Mt 27:43

16.

Suffered bitterly at hands of brethren

Psalm 105:17-18

Heb 12:2

17.

Stripped of his robe

Gen 37:23

Jn 19:23-24

18.

Judah offered to sell Joseph for 20 pieces of silver. Judah in Greek is Judas who sold Jesus for 30 pieces of silver.

Gen 37:26-28

Mt 1:2-3

19.

Sold for slave price in pieces of silver (20p in 1900 BC, 30p in 33 AD, inflation) Through archeology, we know the price of one slave increased through inflation.

Gen 37:28

Zech 11:13

Mt 26:14-16

20.

Leaders attempted to rescue him from hands of brethren: Reuben was eldest; Pilate

Gen 37:21

Mt 27:24; John 19:12

21.

Two lesser punishments suggested than death: pit/sold + prisoner swap/scourge

Gen 37:22,27

John 18:39; 19:1; Mt 12:40

22.

Joseph pleaded for his life but Jesus was silent

Gen 42:21

Is 53:7; Acts 8:32; Mt 26:39-42; Lk 22:41-44

23.

Two leaders acted as judges: Reuben/Judah + Pilate/Herod Antipas

Gen 37:21,26

Luke 23:1,8

24.

Leaders finally gave in to peer pressure and went along with plot

Gen 37:31

Mark 15:15

25.

Goat blood was sprinkled on Joseph’s coat. Jesus, our scapegoat/Passover goat/lamb, had his own blood sprinkled on his own coat. Passover animal could be goat: Ex 12:5. Scapegoat: Leviticus 16:8

Gen 37:31

Scourging caused bleeding. 1 Cor 5:7;

26.

False story of his death told and deceived many for a long time, animal/blood on coat. Disciples stole body

Gen 37:31-33

Mt 28:13-15

27.

Taken to Egypt as youth after escaping death (Herod the great)

Gen 37:28

Matthew 2:14

28.

Became a servant

Gen. 39:1-2

Mt 20:28; Phil 2:7

29.

Tempted without sin

Gen 39:6-20

Mt 4:1-11

30.

Falsely Accused

Gen 39:14

Mt 26:59-62

31.

Unlike many other Bible characters, no sin of Joseph is recorded. Jesus was truly sinless.

silent

Isa 53:9; 1 Pet 2:22; 2 Cor 5:21

32.

Suffered for another’s sin (false accusation)

Gen 39:20

1 Pe 1:21-24

33.

Confined in jail/custody, thrown into a pit literally a well, pit; Gen 37:24

Gen 40:15

Mt 27:2; John 18:12

34.

Inspired by the Holy Spirit

Gen 40:8; 41:38

Lk 4:18

35.

Sentenced with 2 criminals, one saved, one lost

Gen 40:1-3

Lk 23:32-33

36.

Cup bearer release from prison after 3 days: jail/grave

Gen 40:13

1 Cor 15:3-4

37.

The baker was lifted up on a tree: crucifixion

***3 days +Tree/ Tree + 3 days***

Gen 40:19

Gal 3:13; Acts 5:30 lit. wood

38.

“Green years” followed by “Dry years”

Gen 41:29–30

Luke 23:31

39.

Put “over the house” Joseph, Moses, Solomon, Christ

Gen 41:40

Acts 7:47; Heb 3:2-6

40.

Both exalted after suffering

Gen 41:41

Luke 24:26; Phil 2:9-11

41.

All will pay homage and every knee will bow

Gen 41:40-43

Phil 2:10; Heb 1:6

42.

Both given all power and authority, save one: Pharaoh/God

Gen 41:42-44

Mt 28:18

43.

Both wore royal robes and dressed as a king, Jacob wore pharaoh’s royal robe with necklace. Jesus wore purple robe while being mocked with crown of thorns.

Gen 41:42

Mark 15:17–18

44.

Joseph given seal ring for 7 abundance years before 7 years of famine and death. Jesus broke 7 seals that caused famine and death.

Gen 41:42

Rev 6:1

45.

Both had priestly connections: Joseph married Asenath whose father was a priest of On.  Christ = Melchizedek

Gen 41:45,50

Heb 5:10

46.

Began “ministry” at 30 years old

Gen 41:46

Lk 3:23

47.

Brothers stared at each other and went to get food

Gen 42:1–3

John 21:2–3

48.

All must go to him for bread

Gen 41:55-57; 42:6

Jn 6:35

49.

Unrecognized by his own

Gen 42:8

Jn 1:11; 31-33; Luke 24:16; 20:14; 21:4

50.

Tested his brethren for worthiness

Gen 42:15

1 Peter 1:7

51.

10 brothers condemned to prison and released after 3 days. Jesus condemned and rose from dead after three days.

Gen 42:17–18

Acts 10:40-41

52.

Betrayers felt remorse. Joseph’s 10 brothers/Judas

Gen 42:21

Mt 27:3

53.

Accusers, betrayers held responsible for shed blood

Gen 42:22

Mt 27:25

54.

Both wept for the wicked

Gen 45:2

Luke 19:41

55.

Identified the primary betrayer: Simeon/Judas Gen 49:5-7
Ancient Jewish Targum identified Simeon as primary ringleader to kill Joseph. “And Simeon and Levi, who were brothers in counsel, said each man to his brother, Behold, this master of dreams cometh. And now come let us kill him and throw him into one of the pits and say that an evil beast bath devoured him; arid we shall see what will be the interpretation of his dreams.” (Jewish Targums of Onkelos and Jonathan Ben Uzziel On the Pentateuch, J. W. Etheridge, Gen 37:19, 1892 AD). Jesus gave bread to Judas to identify him as the betrayer.

Gen 42:24

John 13:25-26

56.

Righteous judgement: Joseph spared innocent (Reuben-oldest) for the guilty Simeon (next oldest) who spent several years in jail until the brothers returned. Jesus is our perfect judge who can separate the sheep from the goats. Simeon got the worst land in the Negev and was absorbed into Judah and Levi got no land at all.

Gen 42:24

Mt 25:31–32; John 5:22-23, 27

57.

Amazing grace given to wicked: Joseph returned his brother’s food money, Jesus’ Grace to us.

Gen 42:27-28

Romans 5:6–11

58.

Breaking bread and foot washing together

Gen 43:24-25, 34

John 13:5

59.

Astonishment at Joseph/Jesus

Gen 43:33

Mark 11:18

60.

Innocent suffers outside city: Benjamin was arrested outside the city/Jesus crucified outside Jerusalem.

Gen 44:4

Hebrews 13:12

61.

Substitutionary atonement: innocent Benjamin for wicked brothers. Jesus for sinners.

Gen 44:16-17

Isa 53:5-6; 1 Cor 5:21

62.

Innocent torn in pieces: Joseph-animal/Christ-scourging

Gen 44:28

Mark 15:15

63.

Both forgave those who wronged them

Gen 45:4, 14-15

Luke 23:34

64.

Became saviour of the people

Gen 45:5; 47:25

Mt 1:21; 1 Jn 4:14

65.

Joseph/Christ suffered according to predetermined plan of God

Gen 45:5–7

Acts 2:23; 3:18; Eph 3:11

66.

Self-anger and sorrow at hurting Joseph/Jesus

Gen 45:5

Acts 2:36–38

67.

First news that Joseph/Jesus were alive was not believed. Jacob  would not believe Joseph was alive. The male disciples would not believe Mary when she reported Jesus alive.

Gen 45:26

Lk 24:10–11; Mk 16:9-12

68.

Fearful hearts brought to peace: Joseph/Jesus

Gen 50:2; 43:23

John 20:19

69.

Substitutionary atonement: Innocent Joseph/Christ suffered for guilty brethren.

Gen 50:17-18

Isa 53

70.

Evil turned into blessing

Gen 50:20

1 Pe 2:24

71.

Turned intentional harm into good

Gen 50:20-21

 

72.

Comforted those who betrayed him and felt guilt. Disciples were comforted of guilt of abandoning Jesus at the cross Except John, who was the only one who was at the trials and the foot of the cross.

Gen 50:21

Jn 20:19

73.

After Joseph/Christ became king both began summing up of all things, making pharaoh/God all in all.

Gen 47:13-20

Eph 1:10; Col 1:17-20

74.

Hebrews under Joseph and Christians under Christ were exempt from losing their blessings, but enjoyed “all physical/spiritual blessings” while the rest suffered.

Gen 47:27

Eph 1:3; Rev 12:5-6

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This “low chronology” follows K. A. Kitchen and O. Keel. Papyrus Berlin BM 10012 marks the heliacal rising of Sothis (Sirius) on year 7 of Sesostris III which dates to 1830 BC. Douglas Petrovich PhD follows the high chronology which gives a date of 1872 BC. The difference in low/high is based upon the assumption of where the heliacal rising was observed from: Memphis/Lahun (high) vs. Elephantine (low).

Egyptian Chronology of the 12th Dynasty Pharaohs

 

High Chronology: 1979-1801

(R. A. Parker, D. Petrovich)

Low Chronology: 1937-1759

(High - 42 years)

K. A. Kitchen, O. Keel)

Amenemhat I (29)

1979-1950

1937-1908

Sesostris I (44)

1960-1916

1918-1874

Amenemhat II (35)

1919-1884

1877-1842

Sesostris II (9)

1887-1878

1845-1836

Sesostris III (38)

1878-1840

7th = 1872

1836-1798

7th = 1830

Amenemhat III (46)

1859-1813

1817-1771

Amenemhat IV (9)

1814-1805

1872-1763

Sobekneferu (4)

1805-1801

1763-1759

 

See also:

BM 10012 Lahun Egyptian Chronology Papyrus

 

 

 Heliacal rising of Sirius: 1830 BC

El-Lahun Berlin Museum Papyrus 10012

and the 12th Dynasty, Year 7 of Pharaoh Sesostris III

Detailed outline

 

Joseph as a Type of Christ: A list of 75 similarities

Joseph: “May God add”

Gen 30-50; Acts 7:9-19; Heb 11:21-22

Introduction:

A. Joseph enters Egypt:

1.      The true Bible story Joseph being sold into slavery as a type of our salvation in Christ is one of the most important themes in the Bible.

2.      It is clear that Joseph was a type of Christ throughout his entire life.

3.      With a carefully constructed time chronology using the latest archeological information we have identified more than 70 different ways that Joseph was a type of Christ.

 

B. Overview of Joseph:

1.      Joseph the favorite: Gen 37:3

a.       Received special coat

b.      Enjoyed firstborn blessings

c.       Received extra portion of land: Gen 48:22

d.      Jacob gave special blessing: Gen 49:22-26; Deut 33:13-17

2.      Joseph the dreamer: Gen 37:19

3.      Joseph the man: Gen 37:2; 41:38

4.      Joseph the King: Gen 42:6; Ax 7:10

5.      Joseph the provider: Gen 41:46-50; 47:13:26; 50:20; Ps 105:16-24

6.      Joseph the forgiving comforter: Gen 45:1-15; 46:28-30; 50:15-21

 

C. Hidden Old Testament types in the New Testament that are not identified by the Holy Spirit

1.      Some good Christians are “absolutists” who will only accept types if they are identified as such in the New Testament.

a.       Adam is specifically said to be a type of Christ in Rom 5:14: "Nevertheless death reigned from Adam until Moses, even over those who had not sinned in the likeness of the offense of Adam, who is a type of Him who was to come." (Romans 5:14)

b.      Abraham’s sacrifice of Isaac is said to be a type of the resurrection of Christ in Hebrews 11:19: "He considered that God is able to raise people even from the dead, from which he also received him back as a type." (Hebrews 11:19)

c.       These are the only two types specifically identified in the New Testament by the Holy Spirit.

d.      With this formula, the “absolutists” believe there are only TWO examples of types in the entire Bible.

2.       Symbols and shadows also identified in the New Testament:

a.       The Tabernacle was a shadow of the church: "The Holy Spirit is signifying this, that the way into the holy place has not yet been disclosed while the outer tabernacle is still standing, which is a symbol for the present time. Accordingly both gifts and sacrifices are offered which cannot make the worshiper perfect in conscience," (Hebrews 9:8–9)

b.       Food and Jewish holy days like the sabbath: "Therefore no one is to act as your judge in regard to food or drink or in respect to a festival or a new moon or a Sabbath day— things which are a mere shadow of what is to come; but the substance belongs to Christ." (Colossians 2:16–17)

c.       The entire Old Testament law: "For the Law, since it has only a shadow of the good things to come and not the very form of things, can never, by the same sacrifices which they offer continually year by year, make perfect those who draw near." (Hebrews 10:1)

3.      The problem for the “absolutists” is self evident:

a.       While two specific details are identified as types by the Holy Spirit, the rest is wide open.

b.      We are told the that tabernacle and temple is a type, but we are not told ANYWHERE how or what is typical. While we are told in Rev 5:8 that prayers are represented by incense, we are left to connect the specific dots.

c.       We are not told how food, drink or annual monthly and weekly festivals are a type of New Testament theology but are left to deduce it ourselves through wisdom.

                                                               i.      While we are told in Heb 4-5 that an eternal sabbath rest remains for Christians in heaven, the narrative never specifically calls it a type or shadow or anything. The Holy Spirit leaves it to the reader to INFER the type between the weekly sabbath and our eternal sabbath rest in heaven.

                                                             ii.      While we are told “Christ our Passover has been sacrificed for us” 1 Cor 5:7, it is not called a type or shadow. Once again we must infer such.

d.      To say the entire law of Moses is typical of New Testament theology is a very broad brush indeed.

4.      Examples of clear types in the Old Testament were we must infer the connection:

a.       There are hundreds of these types in the Old Testament that are NOT specifically identified in the New Testament.

b.      The story of the garden of Eden is a type of paradise restored in heaven.

c.       The story of Joseph in Egypt, slavery, exodus, baptism into Moses, Mt. Sinai then 38 years at Kadesh Barnea and finally crossing the Jordan into the promised land of “heaven” is universally accepted yet it is all inferential.

d.      Of course this outline is about a clear and unmistakable pattern of 75 direct parallels between the Joseph and Christ yet nowhere does the Holy Spirit say that Joseph was a type of Christ.

e.      Even more dramatic is the fact that Stephen narrates the entire story of Joseph in Acts 7:9-19 but never makes any specific connection between Joseph as a type and Christ.

5.      Non-Christian Jews deny that the Torah has any types of anything in the New Testament.

a.       The parallel between Joseph and Christ is so compelling, it can be as effective as Isa 53 in converting Jews to faith in Christ if they are truth seekers and honest.

b.      For our non-Christian Jewish friends who scoff and snort that these are mere coincidences or taken widely out of context in non-Jewish methods of interpretation, such a criticism is as hypocritical as it is historically unjewish:

                                                               i.      It is historically unjewish because first century Jews made far broader and loosy-goosy connections between scriptures than the Joseph-Christ similarities.

                                                             ii.      It is hypocritical because modern rabbis go much further than their first century brethren in making strained and unbiblical connections between scripture and modern Jewish practice.

                                                           iii.      Modern Jews and Rabbis who reject that both Isaac and Joseph were both types of Christ are being very UNJEWISH and it is Christians who following the principles of ancient Jewish Rabbinical interpretation methods.

c.       If you are familiar at all with the Talmud and the Midrash, you will know that the rabbis applied all kinds of obscure verses to the Messiah and to the Messianic era, often taking them totally out of context (for a representative sampling, see below, 4.34). For the most part, these Jewish sages clearly were not looking at an entire portion of Scripture—a whole psalm or chapter—when they cited the verses in question. Rather, what got their attention was a word association, or an association of ideas, or an even more distant link connecting the given verse or phrase with the Messiah. This was quite common in Rabbinic interpretation during the first thousand years of this era, but it was not limited to the Rabbinic writings, especially two thousand years ago. At that time it was common in other, non-Rabbinic Jewish circles to cite verses atomistically (i.e., without relation to the larger context). This is especially common in the Talmudic and midrashic writings, and while the New Testament authors sometimes engage in this practice, for the most part their method was more sober and systematic than this. It should not surprise us, then, if the New Testament sometimes applies just one relevant verse from a larger context that is not relevant. This was normal Jewish interpretation for the day.” (Answering Jewish objections to Jesus: Messianic prophecy objections, M. L. Brown, Vol. 3, p 127, 2003 AD)

d.      “Thus, while they may not actually believe that a given prophet delivered a specific prophecy about the Messiah—and consequently, they do not believe that Yeshua specifically fulfilled that prophecy—they often feel that the New Testament author who cited that prophecy was following normal Jewish/Rabbinic patterns of interpretation, as reflected in the Talmud, Targums, and Midrash. In other words, just as the Talmudic rabbis interpreted the Hebrew Bible, so also did the authors of the New Testament, almost all of whom were Jews. What is even more interesting is that some recent scholarly studies have demonstrated that the (Jewish) methods of interpretation reflected in the New Testament are more sober and biblically consistent than those of the (Jewish) Dead Sea Scrolls and later Jewish literature (meaning classical Rabbinic literature).” (Answering Jewish objections to Jesus: Messianic prophecy objections, M. L. Brown, Vol. 3, p 166, 2003 AD)

6.      Jews today who reject that Isaac was a type of Christ’s resurrection and Joseph as a general type of Christ as “twisting, stretching and ignoring the context” are themselves hypocritically guilty of the this very crime but TEN TIMES WORSE!!!

a.       Kosher prohibition of never eating dairy and meat at the same meal is based upon “You shall not boil a young goat in its mother’s milk.” (Ex 34:26; Deut 14:21). Moses obviously permitted the boiling of calves in milk, just not milk from their own mother. Indeed the ancient Hebrews routinely boiled their meat in milk. Dairy cows and meat cows are two different species making it impossible to violate the law of Moses. But today any meat and any milk product is prohibited at a single meal. They consume milk but no meat for breakfast and meat but no milk at the evening meal. And forget about beef pepperoni on your pizza!

b.      Mosaic Sabbath law says you will not “kindle [ie. start] a fire on the Sabbath.” Ex 35:3. Yet today Jews will ride on elevators that automatically go top to bottom, opening the door, then closing before moving to the next floor up or down but it is a sin to actually push the button outside to call the elevator or inside to direct it to the floor you want. The pushing of the button creates an electric “spark” which they say violates the law of Moses in Ex 35:3. So they can’t push the button, but the huge electric motors that drive the elevator are fine to ride in. Most modern kitchen appliances have a selectable “Sabbath Mode”, which when selected will not allow the fridge light to come on when the door is opened etc. It should be painfully obvious that if it is a sin to push an elevator button for fear of “kindling a fire” then every Jew the world over must turn off the main electrical breaker in his house Friday afternoon and back on Sunday morning… just in time to attend a Christian church!!!

c.       "The Pharisees and some of the scribes gathered around Him when they had come from Jerusalem, and had seen that some of His disciples were eating their bread with impure hands, that is, unwashed. (For the Pharisees and all the Jews do not eat unless they carefully wash their hands, thus observing the traditions of the elders; and when they come from the market place, they do not eat unless they cleanse themselves; and there are many other things which they have received in order to observe, such as the washing of cups and pitchers and copper pots.)" (Mark 7:1–4)

d.      There are many, many examples of how modern Rabbinical Judaism make laws that “twist, stretch and ignore the context” of the original verse in the Torah.

e.      Jesus condemned this kind of rule making in Mt 23; Mk 7:7-9; "Then some Pharisees and scribes came to Jesus from Jerusalem and said, “Why do Your disciples break the tradition of the elders? For they do not wash their hands when they eat bread.” And He answered and said to them, “Why do you yourselves transgress the commandment of God for the sake of your tradition?" (Matthew 15:1–3)

7.      Those who see an Old Testament type in everything!

a.       Yes, it is a judgement call, agreed. But remember you are not looking for one elephant in the clouds, but a chain of 10 elephants holding trunk to tail!

b.      There can be coincidental parallels in the stories of the Old Testament which were never intended by the Holy Spirit to be types.

 

I. Chronology of Jacob, Esau, Joseph in Egypt:

1.           In 2006 BC Jacob and Esau were born: Gen 25:26

2.           In 1991 BC Abraham dies age 175: Gen 25:8

3.           In 1950 BC:

a.            Isaac blesses Jacob who steals Esau’s firstborn blessing and Jacob flees to Laban in Haran: Gen 28.

b.            Esau conquers Horites: Deut 2:12,22.

4.           In 1943 BC, after 7 years in Haran, Jacob marries Leah and Rachel

5.           In 1929 BC, after 21 years in Haran, Jacob flees Laban and returns to Canaan

6.           In 1926 BC Esau moves to Seir and establishes Edom: Gen 36:6-8

7.           In 1916 BC:

a.            Joseph was born to Jacob at age 90 through Rachel: Gen 30:24

b.            Joseph was Jacob’s first born to Rachel, his favorite wife. This is why Joseph was Jacob’s favorite son.

8.           In 1900 BC:

a.            The story of Sinuhe is written which says, “Jeush, the mountain chief from Edom”.

b.            Edomite chief Jeush, son of Esau named in Gen 36:5,18

c.            Jeush is Esau’s son: Gen 36:18

d.            See full outline on the The Biography of Sinuhe

9.           In 1899 BC

a.            Joseph, age 17, is sold into slavery by his brothers at Dothan to the Ishmaelites.

b.            Potiphar, Pharaoh’s officer, the captain of the bodyguard buys Joseph: Gen 37:36

c.            Potipher makes Joseph his personal servant and manager of his house: Gen 39:4

10.       In 1888 BC

a.            Joseph interprets the dreams of the butler and baker who are release/hung after three days.

b.            Joseph remains in prison for two more years.

11.       In 1887 BC, Pharaoh Sesostris II begins his 9 year reign (1887-1878BC)

12.       In 1886 BC

a.            Joseph interprets dreams of Pharaoh Sesostris II of the fat and lean cows/wheat.

b.            Joseph, age 30 becomes king of Egypt: Gen 41:46

c.            Joseph marries Asenath, daughter of a priest of On (pagan Egyptian god).

d.            Isaac dies age 180: Gen 35:28-29.

e.            The beginning of the 14 year time clock for the 7 years of plenty and 7 years of famine.

f.             “Joseph oversees construction of the dyke that would regulate the water-flow from the Bahr Yusef into the Fayyum, as well as the building of the adjacent city of Lahun, including workers’ quarters, 10 villas for governmental officials, his pyramidal complex, and a temple and mortuary complex. Joseph oversees construction of Wah-sut (at Abydos) also begins. Development of irrigation—including the reclamation of more arable land in the Fayyum by manipulating the water-level of Lake Moeris—and enormous growth in mining and quarrying activities (eg. Sinai Peninsula, etc.)” (Doug Petrovich, 2017 AD)

13.       Between 1884-1880 BC Joseph’s wife, Asenath give birth to both Ephraim and Manasseh who would be raised as Egyptians and learn to read and write Egyptian hieroglyphs: Genesis 41:50–51

14.       In 1878 BC

a.            Pharaoh Sesostris II dies

b.            Pharaoh Sesostris III begins reign: 1878 – 1840 BC

15.       In 1877 BC

a.            Year 2 of 7 year famine

b.            Jacob sends his 10 sons to get food in Egypt.

16.       In 1876 BC

a.            Year 3 of the 7 years of famine.

b.            Jacob enters Egypt

c.            Beginning of 430 years in Egypt

d.            In 1876 BC, when the Hebrews moved to Goshen it was year three of the Famine. During this period, all the people of Egypt had to sell their livestock, land to Joseph and become slaves of Pharaoh but the Hebrews were exempt (Genesis 47:27). When the famine ended, the Hebrews were land rich and prosperous. Only Joseph (and the Hebrews) and Pharaoh owned land. Add to this that Goshen, (Avaris, Tel el Dab’a) is at the starting point of the “Way of Horus” which was the main trading road between Egypt up the coast to Byblos and Assyria etc. and the Hebrews were in control of a major ancient shipping port. This explains, in addition to their invention of the first alphabet, why they became so prosperous. This incredible prosperity continued until the defeat of the Hyksos in 1556 BC and the rise of the 18th “Moses-dynasty” pharaohs “who knew not Joseph”. 1556 BC marks the end of Hebrew “easy living” in Egypt and the beginning of the oppression which lasted 110 years until the Exodus in 1446 BC. Even at Kadesh Barnea (Petra), they were again located at a major shipping intersection of international trade for 38 years. The high literacy rate combined with the business experience explains in part the commercial successes Jews have even in the present day.

17.       In 1872 BC

a.            In 1872 BC 7 year famine ends

b.            Year 7 (inclusive counting) of Sesostris III is calculated using Paprus Berlin 10012A discovered at Lahun. R.A. Parker calculates the year to 1872 BC.

18.       In 1859 BC:

a.            Jacob dies at age 147: Gen 49:33

b.            Joseph’s sons Ephraim and Manasseh move to Goshen: (Avaris, Tel el Dab’a)

c.            Joseph, Ephraim and Manasseh invent the first alphabet on earth for the Hebrew language.

19.       In 1806 Joseph dies at age 110: Gen 50:26

20.       In 1446 BC, after 430 years, Moses leads the Hebrews out of Egypt: Ex 12:40

21.       In 1406 BC, after 40 years to the day, Joshua crosses the Jordan: Josh 3:1

 

II. Did inspired Stephen get it wrong? Jacob enters Egypt with 70 or 75 persons?

A. Atheists, Jews, Muslims, Mormons all trash the Bible saying Stephen got the number wrong.

1.      Atheists, Muslims and Mormons attack the entire Bible: Tanakh and New Testament.

2.      Jews view the Tanakh as inspired (just as Christians do) but attack the entire New Testament as corrupt and full of contradictions and errors.

3.      There are no contradictions or errors in any of the 66 books of the Old and New Testament.

 

B. Jewish Rabbi Tovia Singer attacks the inspired New Testament, Stephen and the book of Acts:

Tovia Singer:Stephen’s account of historical events in Acts 7:2-53 diverges considerably from the historical record of the Jewish Scriptures. Among the significant errors in Stephen’s speech is his assertion that Joseph for his father and all his relatives to join him in Egypt, which we are told in Acts 7:14 was seventy-five people.” (Lets Get Biblical, Rabbi Tovia Singer, p 234, 2014 AD)

Acts 7:14-16: "Then Joseph sent word and invited Jacob his father and all his relatives to come to him, seventy-five persons in all.”(Acts 7:14-16)

1.       Rabbi Tovia Singer has attacked the New Testament when there is a bigger gun pointing right back at him with the Old Testament, but he is either unaware of this, or dishonest about it. Having read his materials in detail, we suspect, he is simply uninformed… again.

a.         First, it is important to note that we defend, EQUALLY, the inspiration and historicity of both the Old and New Testaments.

b.        Second, there are differences in textual manuscript copies of all Bible books, but they are minor.

c.         Third if you removed from the Bible the entire verse within which was found a textual variation, it would make absolutely no theological or historical difference. This what Jesus meant when He said, “Scripture cannot be broken” (John 10:35)

d.        Fourth, there are ten times more textual variants in the Tanakh alone, then there are in the New Testament AND the Old Testament combined. In other words, the New Testament is far superior to the Tanakh, if we use Rabbi Tovia Singer’s own measuring stick against himself! He really shot himself in the foot here, but he either doesn’t know it or is being dishonest about the truth of textual variants in the Bible.

e.        Fifth, complete copies of the New Testament date to the 4th century AD, whereas the oldest copy of the Old Testament (The Tanakh) is 11th century AD. Once again the New Testament is significantly more reliable than the Old in this regard.

f.          Sixth, while we have two complete copies of the New Testament in its original autograph language of Greek, we do not have a single bible verse in the original autograph language of the Torah (first five books of Moses), which was composed in either Hieroglyphic-Hebrew or Paleo-Hebrew. We have one single bible verse found in the Silver benediction scroll of Numbers 25 which dates to about 701 BC. The oldest extant copies of any old testament manuscript is found in the Dead Sea scrolls which use “Aramaic Hebrew” not the original “Paleo-Hebrew”. Even worse, the oldest complete copy of the Old Testament (Tanakh) is the Masoretic Text, which dates to 1008 AD, which is up to four Hebrew scripts removed from the autograph originals of 1446 BC. Once again the New Testament wins by a factor of 10!

2.       Conclusion: Stephen got it right! The New Testament has 10 times fewer “variants” (like 70 vs 75 persons) than the Tanakh AND oldest manuscripts of the New Testament are 10 times closer to the autograph copies, than the Old Testament.

 

C. 75 Persons going down to Egypt is NOT wrong:

1.      Rabbi Tovia Singer is correct when he says that the Masoretic text (11th century AD text) says that 70, not 75 persons entered Egypt:

a.       "and the sons of Joseph, who were born to him in Egypt were two; all the persons of the house of Jacob, who came to Egypt, were seventy." (Genesis 46:27, Masoretic)

b.      "All the persons who came from the loins of Jacob were seventy in number, but Joseph was already in Egypt." (Exodus 1:5, Masoretic)

c.       "Your fathers went down to Egypt seventy persons in all, and now the Lord your God has made you as numerous as the stars of heaven." (Deuteronomy 10:22, Masoretic)

2.      Five manuscripts MUCH OLDER than the Masoretic are in agreement on 75 persons (not 70):

a.       Acts 7:15 reads 75

b.      325 AD: The LXX reads “seventy-five” in both Gen. 46:17 and Ex. 1:5, (= 66 + 9 sons of Joseph)

c.       100 BC: Dead Sea Scroll reads 75 persons: 4QGen-Exoda 17–18:2

d.      100 BC: Dead Sea Scroll reads 75 persons: 4QExodb 1:5

e.      30 AD: Philo, On the Migration of Abraham 199: “all the souls which came out of Jacob were seventy and five

3.      There are a variety of ways of computing the number who went down to Egypt within the Torah itself!

a.       The Septuagint in Duet 10:22 say 70 went down to Egypt:

                                                               i.      "With seventy people your fathers went down into Egypt, but now the Lord your God made you as the stars of heaven in number.”" (Deuteronomy 10:22)

                                                             ii.      Two other places in the Septuagint say 75 but Deut 10:22 says 70.

b.      “The first number given to Jacob’s descendants is sixty-six (v. 26). This group is identified as those who migrated to Egypt with Jacob. Excluded from that caravan are Er and Onan, for they are already dead (v. 12; see 38:7, 10), as well as Joseph, Manasseh, and Ephraim, who are already in Egypt. Thus, eliminating those five names from the seventy listed brings the number to sixty-five, but sixty-six is obtained by the addition of Dinah. The second number computed for Jacob’s offspring is seventy (v. 27). The increase from sixty-six in v. 26 to seventy in v. 27 is arrived at by the inclusion of Jacob himself, Joseph, and Joseph’s two children. The LXX’s seventy-five35 comes about by the deletion of Jacob and Joseph and the addition of nine sons of Joseph instead of two. It is clear that seven (and multiples thereof) is prominent in this genealogy, whose total number of entries is 70. Rachel has fourteen descendants, and Bilhah has seven. Together they have twenty-one. Together Leah and Bilhah have forty-nine descendants. The seventh son of Jacob listed in this genealogy is Gad. Gen. 29–30 (see 30:11) is the only other Jacobite genealogy in which Gad is placed in the seventh position. Interestingly, the numerical value of the seventh-placed Gad is seven (g = 3; d = 4).” (NICOT, Victor Hamilton, Gen 46:27, 1995 AD)

4.      Philo, a non-Christian Jew was aware that the Hebrew and Greek texts before him used both 70 and 75 and goes into a lengthily discussion about it.

a.       This proves that Stephen, through inspiration was quoting the valid number of 70.

b.      The truth is that there must have been two different textual traditions in these passages.

c.       The problem is not that Stephen contradicted the Torah, but that the Torah “diverges considerably” [quoting Singer] with itself!

d.      Again, these kinds of textual variations exist 10 times more frequently in the Old Testament than the New but they are all minor and do not change the meaning or message of scripture and are no cause for concern for Christians and Jews alike. They also do not provide any solid evidence for the Atheists etc. that the Bible is unreliable. Indeed, the Bible is the most historically validated book on earth!

e.      “Very appropriately, therefore, does the companion of knowledge think it right to leave the region of the outward sense, by name Charran; (198) and he leaves it when he is seventy-five years old; and this number is on the confines of the nature discernible by the outward senses, and that intelligible by the intellect, and of the older and younger, and also of perishable and imperishable nature; (199) for the elder, the imperishable ratio, that comprehensible by the intellect, exists in the seventy; the younger ratio, discernible by the outward senses, is equal in number to the five outward senses. In this latter also the practiser of virtue is seen exercising himself when he has not yet been able to carry off the perfect prize of victory;—for it is said, that all the souls which came out of Jacob were seventy and five;”—(200) for to him, while wrestling, and not shrinking at all from the truly sacred contest, for the acquisition of virtue, belong the souls which are the offspring of the body, and which have not yet acquired reason, but are still attracted by the multitude of the outward senses. For Jacob is the name of one who is wrestling and engaged in a contest and trying to trip up his antagonist, not of one who has gained the victory. (201) But when he appeared to have gained ability to behold God, his name was changed to Israel, and then he uses only the computation of seventy, having extirpated the number five, the number of the outward senses; for it is said, that “thy fathers went down to Egypt, being seventy souls.” This is the number which is familiar to Moses the wise man: for it happened that those who were selected as carefully picked men out of the whole multitude, were seventy in number; and those all elders, not only in point of age, but also in wisdom and counsel, and in prudence, and in ancient integrity of manners. (202) And this number is consecrated and dedicated to God when the perfect fruits of the soul are offered up. For, on the feast of tabernacles, besides all other sacrifices, it is ordered that the priest should offer up seventy heifers for a burnt offering. Again, it is in accordance with the computation of seventy that the phials of the princes are provided, for each of them is of the weight of seventy shekels; since whatever things are associated and confederate together in the soul, and dear to one another, have a power which is truly attractive, namely, the sacred computation of seventy, which Egypt, the nature which hates virtue, and loves to indulge the passions, is introduced as lamenting; for mourning among them is computed at seventy days. This number, therefore, as I have said before, is familiar to Moses, but the number of the five outward senses is familiar to him who embraces the body and external things, which it is customary to call Joseph; for he pays such attention to those things, that he presents his own uterine brother, the offspring of the outward sense, for he had no acquaintance at all with those who were only his brothers as sons of the same father, with five exceedingly beautiful garments, thinking the outward senses things of exceeding beauty, and worthy of being adorned and honoured by him. (204) Moreover, he also enacts laws for the whole of Egypt, that they should honour them, and pay taxes and tribute to them every year as to their kings; for he commands them to take a fifth part of the corn, that is to say, to store up in the treasury abundant materials and nourishment for the five outward senses, in order that each of them might rejoice while filling itself unrestrainedly with suitable food, and that it might weigh down and overwhelm the mind with the multitude of things which were thus brought upon it; for during the banquet of the outer senses; the mind is labouring under a famine, as, on the contrary, when the outward senses are fasting, the mind is feasting.” (Philo, Migration 197-204)

5.      Finally, we turn to Stephen’s speech before the Sanhedrin, one which is supposedly riddled with historical error. How could this be possible for this Jewish man who, according to Acts, was “full of faith and of the Holy Spirit” (Acts 6:5) and “full of God’s grace and power” (6:8) and of whom it is recorded that the Jews who opposed him “could not stand up against his wisdom or the Spirit by whom he spoke” (6:10)? Their answer is quite simple: First, some of the contradictions are only apparent such as Acts 7:14, where Stephen says, “Joseph sent for his father Jacob and his whole family, seventy-five in all,” whereas “Genesis 46:27 (MT) sets the figure at seventy (i.e., sixty-six plus Jacob, Joseph, and the latter’s two sons).” This, however, presents no difficulty, and, as has often been pointed out, “Genesis 46:27 in the LXX, for example, does not include Jacob and Joseph but does include nine sons of Joseph in the reckoning, thereby arriving at ‘seventy-five souls’ all together who went down to Egypt. And with this number both Exodus 1:5 (LXX) and 4QExoda at 1:5 agree.” So then, a Hebrew, biblical scroll from Qumran along with the LXX both counted the number at seventy-five rather than seventy, so Stephen was in good company with his figures here. This is hardly an error!” (Answering Jewish objections to Jesus: New Testament objections, M. L. Brown, Vol. 4, 2007 AD)

6.      Josephus says 70 went down to Egypt:

a.       While Rabbi Tovia Singer might delight that Josephus uses “70” instead of “75”, this in itself refutes his false claim that Josephus is a corrupt and unreliable product of the Byzantine church. Singer is on record that the church corrupted the text of Josephus by making the numbers of Gen 5 and 11 conform to the Septuagint in opposition to the Masoretic text. But the fact that the early church took note of the difference of 70 and 75, and Josephus reads 70, is proof the church did not tamper with the text of Josephus. Further, Philo, a Jews early first century historian, uses both 75 AND the larger genealogical numbers in Gen 5,11, both of which agree with the Septuagint. All this appears to be above Singer’s comprehension.

b.      “All the Greek copies of Josephus have the negative particle here, that Jacob himself was not reckoned one of the seventy souls that came into Egypt; but the old Latin copies want it, and directly assure us that he was one them. It is therefore hardly certain which of these was Josephus’s true reading, since the number seventy is made up without him, if we reckon Leah for one; but if she be not reckoned, Jacob must himself be one to complete the number.” (The works of Josephus, F. Josephus, W. Whiston, W., Antiquities 2.183, footnote, 1987 AD)

c.       “It behooves you to remember, that our grandfather Jacob came down into Egypt, by reason of a famine, with seventy souls only of our family” (Josephus Antiquities 6.89)

d.      “Jacob, encouraged by this dream, went on more cheerfully for Egypt with his sons, and all belonging to them. Now they were in all seventy. I once, indeed, thought it best not to set down the names of this family, especially because of their difficult pronunciation [by the Greeks]; (177) but, upon the whole, I think it necessary to mention those names, that I may disprove such as believe that we came not originally from Mesopotamia, but are Egyptians. Now Jacob had twelve sons; of these Joseph was come thither before. We will therefore set down the names of Jacob’s children and grandchildren. (178) Reuben had four sons—Anoch, Phallu, Assaron, Charmi; Simeon had six—Jamuel, Jamin, Avod, Jachin, Soar, Saul; Levi had three sons—Gersom, Caath, Merari; Judas had three sons—Sala, Phares, Zerah; and by Phares two grandchildren—Esrom and Amar; Issachar had four sons—Thola, Phua, Jasob, Samaron; (179) Zabulon had with him three sons—Sarad, Helon, Jalel. So far is the posterity of Lea; with whom went her daughter Dinah. These are thirty-three. (180) Rachel had two sons, the one of whom, Joseph, had two sons also, Manasses and Ephraim. The other, Benjamin, had ten sons—Bolau, Bacchar, Asabel, Geras, Naaman, Jes, Ros, Momphis, Opphis, Arad. These fourteen added to the thirty-three before enumerated, amount to the number forty-seven; (181) and this was the legitimate posterity of Jacob. He had besides, by Bilhah, the handmaid of Rachel, Dan and Nephthali; which last had four sons that followed him—Jesel, Guni, Issari, and Sellim. Dan had an only begotten son, Usi. (182) If these be added to those before mentioned, they complete the number fifty-four. Gad and Asher were the sons of Zilpha, who was the handmaid of Lea. These had with them, Gad seven—Saphoniah, Augis, Sunis, Azabon, Aerin, Eroed, Ariel. (183) Asher had a daughter, Sarah, and six male children, whose names were Jomne, Isus, Isoui, Baris, Abar and Melchiel. If we add these, which are sixteen, to the fifty-four, the forementioned number [70] is completed, Jacob not being himself included in that number.” (Josephus, Antiquities 2.176–183)

 

D. Stephen was right: 75 persons went down to Egypt.

1.      Summary of Evidence:

a.       Three Jewish manuscripts that predate Christianity, verify that the text of the day read “75 persons went down to Egypt: Two dead sea scrolls and Philo, the Jewish historian.

b.      The Septuagint uses 75 in two verses and 70 in a third.

c.       The 11th century AD Masoretic Hebrew text uses 70 in all three places of the Old Testament.

d.      Josephus, Philo, the Masoretic and the Septuagint all demonstrate a wide range of ways of computing who went down to Egypt.

e.      While Josephus uses 70 in agreement with the Masoretic Hebrew Text, he quotes the larger genealogical numbers in Gen 5 and 11 in agreement with the Septuagint.

f.        Hebrew and Greek manuscripts in the first century AD both contained both numbers (70 and 75)

2.      When Rabbi Tovia Singer attacks Stephen in Acts 7 as mistaken in an effort to trash the Christian Bible, the conclusion is that the New Testament is 10 times more reliable than the Tanakh in regard to extant manuscript witnesses. The Old Testament has 10 times more variations in it like the one he points out in Acts 7:15 (70 vs. 75 persons).

a.       Singer’s “shoot from the hip blindfolded” unscholarly lies become counterproductive and self-destructive to his own cause. Yet even a superficial survey of his criticisms of Christianity shows Tovia to be an untrustworthy information source and very wrong in the majority of what he teaches.

b.      For example, in an effort to avoid the idea of the virgin birth of Mary (Isa 7:14) Singer makes the ridiculous claim that none of the Old Testament (except for the first five books) were translated into Greek before 100 AD. He then goes on to say that all Greek copies of Isaiah were translated by the Church. Of course this is false, given we have the Septuagint scroll of the Greek Minor prophets that dates to 50 BC: (see full outline)

                                                               i.      "The original Septuagint was a Greek translation of only the Torah (the five books of Moses) nothing else. Therefore the book of Isaiah was not even part of the Septuagint translated by learned Jews thousands of years ago, as [Christian] missionaries routinely claim. Rather the book of the Tanach is a part of the Prophets, the second section of Jewish scriptures, and was forged by the church many centuries later. … The first century Roman historian Josephus Flavius, similarly states that under Ptolemy Philadephius, only the Law was translated" (Let's Get Biblical, Tovia Singer, Missionaries Defends Matthew by citing the Septuagint., vol 1, p49, 2014 AD)

                                                             ii.      "The Septuagint in our hands is not a Jewish document, but rather a Christian recension. The original Septuagint, translated some 2,200 years ago by 72 Jewish scholars, was a Greek translation of the Five Books of Moses alone, and is no longer in our hands. It therefore did not contain the Books of the Prophets or Writings of the Hebrew Bible such as Isaiah, from which you asserted Matthew quoted. The Septuagint as we have it today, which includes the Prophets and Writings as well, is a product of the Church, not the Jewish people. … Christians such as Origin and Lucian (third and fourth century C.E.) edited and shaped the Septuagint that missionaries use to advance their untenable arguments against Judaism. In essence, the present Septuagint is largely a post-second century Christian translation of the Bible, used zealously by the Church throughout its history as an indispensable apologetic instrument to defend and sustain Christological alterations of the Jewish Scriptures… Accordingly, the Jewish people never use the Septuagint in their worship or religious studies because it is recognized as a corrupt text." (Let's Get Biblical, Tovia Singer, The Virgin Birth: A Christian Defends Matthew by Insisting That the Author of the First Gospel Relied on the Septuagint When He Quoted Isaiah to Support the Virgin Birth, vol 2, p52, 2014 AD)

                                                           iii.      TOVIA SINGER REFUTED: Read the full outline of the Greek Septuagint scroll of the 12 minor prophets that dates to 50 BC.

3.      Perhaps Rabbi Tovia Singer should do more study on all those subjects he knows nothing about but comes across as an expert to those who blindly follow him, but themselves are uninformed. A classic example of what Jesus said: "And He also spoke a parable to them: “A blind man cannot guide a blind man, can he? Will they not both fall into a pit?" (Luke 6:39)

 

E. When Jews attack the reliability of the New Testament they attack themselves 10 times worse.

1.       Christians never attack the Tanakh as being full of “contradictions and historical errors” because they understand most of these are irrelevant and insignificant.

2.       It must be disheartening for Jews to learn that when their Rabbis claim the New Testament is full of “contradictions and historical errors”, that the Tanakh has 10 times MORE of exactly the same kind of “contradictions and historical errors”.

3.       Rabbis who lead these attacks are either ignorant of the facts of textual transmission for the Old and New Testament, dishonest or hypocritical.

4.       It is blind sighted for these Rabbi Tovia Singer to defend the textual variants in the Tanakh, then attack the few and lesser significant textual variants in the New Testament. He make himself look like a “sloppy uneducated hick”. Furthermore, Atheists, Muslims and Mormons love to quote these kinds of discussions as FALSE proof that the Bible is worthless. Rabbi Tovia Singer should stop destroying his own Tanakh. This is fight he lost before he started.

5.       In this spirit, Christians rise above such worthless attacks on scripture and this is the reason we refuse to generate the long list of “alleged contradictions in the Tanakh”. We don’t need to because the Muslims have done the job already. READ 101 ALLEGED CONTRADICTIONS IN THE BIBLE CLAIMED BY MUSLIMS REFUTED.

6.       Having said this, the 66 books of the Bible are the most reliable collection of literature on earth bar none.

7.       Jesus said: “Scripture cannot be broken”! That is why Christians defend the entire Bible including the Tanakh.

 

III. Full quotations: Joseph, A type of Christ:

1.      Miraculous birth Jacob was 90 years old, Rachel was barren, Mary was a virgin:

a.       "Then God remembered Rachel, and God gave heed to her and opened her womb. So she conceived and bore a son and said, “God has taken away my reproach.” She named him Joseph, saying, “May the Lord give me another son.”" (Genesis 30:22–24)

b.      "Now Israel loved Joseph more than all his sons, because he was the son of his old age; and he made him a varicolored tunic." (Genesis 37:3)

c.       "Now the birth of Jesus Christ was as follows: when His mother Mary had been betrothed to Joseph, before they came together she was found to be with child by the Holy Spirit." (Matthew 1:18)

d.      "And behold, you will conceive in your womb and bear a son, and you shall name Him Jesus. He will be great and will be called the Son of the Most High; and the Lord God will give Him the throne of His father David; and He will reign over the house of Jacob forever, and His kingdom will have no end.”" (Luke 1:31–33)

2.      Spoke truth in exposing sinful behavior of others knowing he would be hated and ostracized:

a.       "These are the records of the generations of Jacob. Joseph, when seventeen years of age, was pasturing the flock with his brothers while he was still a youth, along with the sons of Bilhah and the sons of Zilpah, his father’s wives. And Joseph brought back a bad report about them to their father." (Genesis 37:2)

b.      "Then the disciples came and said to Him, “Do You know that the Pharisees were offended when they heard this statement?”" (Matthew 15:12)

c.       "Then Jesus spoke to the crowds and to His disciples," (Matthew 23:1)

d.      "The scribes and the chief priests tried to lay hands on Him that very hour, and they feared the people; for they understood that He spoke this parable against them." (Luke 20:19)

e.      "For John had been saying to him, “It is not lawful for you to have her.”" (Matthew 14:4)

3.      Both were shepherds:

a.       "These are the records of the generations of Jacob. Joseph, when seventeen years of age, was pasturing the flock with his brothers while he was still a youth, along with the sons of Bilhah and the sons of Zilpah, his father’s wives. And Joseph brought back a bad report about them to their father." (Genesis 37:2)

b.      "“I am the good shepherd; the good shepherd lays down His life for the sheep." (John 10:11)

4.      Beloved sons of wealthy fathers:

a.       "Now Israel loved Joseph more than all his sons, because he was the son of his old age; and he made him a varicolored tunic." (Genesis 37:3)

b.      "and behold, a voice out of the heavens said, “This is My beloved Son, in whom I am well-pleased.”" (Matthew 3:17)

5.      Hated by brothers without a cause:

a.       "His brothers saw that their father loved him more than all his brothers; and so they hated him and could not speak to him on friendly terms." (Genesis 37:4)

b.      "Then his brothers said to him, “Are you actually going to reign over us? Or are you really going to rule over us?” So they hated him even more for his dreams and for his words." (Genesis 37:8)

c.       "For not even His brothers were believing in Him." (John 7:5)

d.      "But they have done this to fulfill the word that is written in their Law, ‘They hated Me without a cause.’" (John 15:25)

6.      Hated for telling the truth and prophesying:

a.       "Then Joseph had a dream, and when he told it to his brothers, they hated him even more." (Genesis 37:5)

b.      "But as it is, you are seeking to kill Me, a man who has told you the truth, which I heard from God; this Abraham did not do." (John 8:40)

c.       "The world cannot hate you, but it hates Me because I testify of it, that its deeds are evil." (John 7:7)

d.      "What He has seen and heard, of that He testifies; and no one receives His testimony." (John 3:32)

7.      Foretold of future exalted position as king:

a.       "Then Joseph had a dream, and when he told it to his brothers, they hated him even more. He said to them, “Please listen to this dream which I have had; for behold, we were binding sheaves in the field, and lo, my sheaf rose up and also stood erect; and behold, your sheaves gathered around and bowed down to my sheaf.” Then his brothers said to him, “Are you actually going to reign over us? Or are you really going to rule over us?” So they hated him even more for his dreams and for his words." (Genesis 37:5–8)

b.      "And then the sign of the Son of Man will appear in the sky, and then all the tribes of the earth will mourn, and they will see the Son of Man coming on the clouds of the sky with power and great glory. And He will send forth His angels with a great trumpet and they will gather together His elect from the four winds, from one end of the sky to the other." (Matthew 24:30–31)

c.       "Jesus said to him, “You have said it yourself; nevertheless I tell you, hereafter you will see the Son of Man sitting at the right hand of Power, and coming on the clouds of heaven.”" (Matthew 26:64)

8.      Destined to become kings from birth:

a.       "Then his brothers said to him, “Are you actually going to reign over us? Or are you really going to rule over us?” So they hated him even more for his dreams and for his words." (Genesis 37:8)

b.      "Therefore Pilate said to Him, “So You are a king?” Jesus answered, “You say correctly that I am a king. For this I have been born, and for this I have come into the world, to testify to the truth. Everyone who is of the truth hears My voice.”" (John 18:37)

9.      Both parents “treasured in their hearts” the news that their children would be a future king:

a.       "His brothers were jealous of him, but his father kept the saying in mind." (Genesis 37:11)

b.      "The shepherds went back, glorifying and praising God for all that they had heard and seen, just as had been told them." (Luke 2:20)

c.       "But Mary treasured all these things, pondering them in her heart." (Luke 2:19)

10.   Persecuted out of jealousy: "His brothers were jealous of him, but his father kept the saying in mind." (Genesis 37:11)

a.       "“The patriarchs became jealous of Joseph and sold him into Egypt. Yet God was with him," (Acts 7:9)

b.      "For he knew that because of envy they had handed Him over." (Matthew 27:18)

c.       "For he was aware that the chief priests had handed Him over because of envy." (Mark 15:10)

11.  Willingly went at father’s request and authority:

a.       "Israel said to Joseph, “Are not your brothers pasturing the flock in Shechem? Come, and I will send you to them.” And he said to him, “I will go.”" (Genesis 37:13)

b.      "Jesus said to them, “If God were your Father, you would love Me, for I proceeded forth and have come from God, for I have not even come on My own initiative, but He sent Me." (John 8:42)

12.  Lived with father before sent on divine mission:

a.       "Then he said to him, “Go now and see about the welfare of your brothers and the welfare of the flock, and bring word back to me.” So he sent him from the valley of Hebron, and he came to Shechem." (Genesis 37:14)

b.      "Now, Father, glorify Me together with Yourself, with the glory which I had with You before the world was." (John 17:5)

13.  Ridiculed for being a king:

a.       "They said to one another, “Here comes this dreamer!" (Genesis 37:19)

b.      "Now the men who were holding Jesus in custody were mocking Him and beating Him," (Luke 22:63)

14.  Plotted against by his own brethren:

a.       "Now then, come and let us kill him and throw him into one of the pits; and we will say, ‘A wild beast devoured him.’ Then let us see what will become of his dreams!”" (Genesis 37:20)

b.      "and they plotted together to seize Jesus by stealth and kill Him." (Matthew 26:4)

c.       "and said, “What are you willing to give me to betray Him to you?” And they weighed out thirty pieces of silver to him." (Matthew 26:15)

d.      "So from that day on they planned together to kill Him." (John 11:53)

15.  Said to Joseph: “Then let us see what will become of his dreams”. Said of Jesus: “HE TRUSTS IN GOD; LET GOD RESCUE Him now, IF HE DELIGHTS IN HIM; for He said, ‘I am the Son of God”:

a.       "Now then, come and let us kill him and throw him into one of the pits; and we will say, ‘A wild beast devoured him.’ Then let us see what will become of his dreams!”" (Genesis 37:20)

b.      "He trusts in God; let God rescue Him now, if He delights in Him; for He said, ‘I am the Son of God.’ ”" (Matthew 27:43)

16.  Suffered bitterly at hands of brethren; Psalm 105:17-18; crucifixion

a.       "He sent a man before them, Joseph, who was sold as a slave. They afflicted his feet with fetters, He himself was laid in irons;" (Psalm 105:17–18)

b.       "fixing our eyes on Jesus, the author and perfecter of faith, who for the joy set before Him endured the cross, despising the shame, and has sat down at the right hand of the throne of God." (Hebrews 12:2)

17.  Stripped of his robe; Gen 37:23; Jn 19:23-24

a.       "Now then, come and let us kill him and throw him into one of the pits; and we will say, ‘A wild beast devoured him.’ Then let us see what will become of his dreams!”" (Genesis 37:20)

b.      "He trusts in God; let God rescue Him now, if He delights in Him; for He said, ‘I am the Son of God.’ ”" (Matthew 27:43)

18.  Judah offered to sell Joseph for 20 pieces of silver. Judah in Greek is Judas who sold Jesus for 30 pieces of silver.

a.       "Judah said to his brothers, “What profit is it for us to kill our brother and cover up his blood? Come and let us sell him to the Ishmaelites and not lay our hands on him, for he is our brother, our own flesh.” And his brothers listened to him. Then some Midianite traders passed by, so they pulled him up and lifted Joseph out of the pit, and sold him to the Ishmaelites for twenty shekels of silver. Thus they brought Joseph into Egypt." (Genesis 37:26–28)

b.      "Abraham was the father of Isaac, Isaac the father of Jacob, and Jacob the father of Judah [Greek: Judas] and his brothers. Judah [Greek: Judas] was the father of Perez and Zerah by Tamar, Perez was the father of Hezron, and Hezron the father of Ram." (Matthew 1:2–3)

19.  Sold for slave price in pieces of silver (20p in 1900 BC, 30p in 33 AD, inflation) Through archeology, we know the price of one slave increased through inflation:

a.       "Then some Midianite traders passed by, so they pulled him up and lifted Joseph out of the pit, and sold him to the Ishmaelites for twenty shekels of silver. Thus they brought Joseph into Egypt." (Genesis 37:28)

b.      "Then the Lord said to me, “Throw it to the potter, that magnificent price at which I was valued by them.” So I took the thirty shekels of silver and threw them to the potter in the house of the Lord." (Zechariah 11:13)

c.       "Then one of the twelve, named Judas Iscariot, went to the chief priests and said, “What are you willing to give me to betray Him to you?” And they weighed out thirty pieces of silver to him. From then on he began looking for a good opportunity to betray Jesus." (Matthew 26:14–16)

20.   Leaders attempted to rescue him from hands of brethren: Reuben: eldest, Pilate:

a.       "But Reuben heard this and rescued him out of their hands and said, “Let us not take his life.”" (Genesis 37:21)

b.      "When Pilate saw that he was accomplishing nothing, but rather that a riot was starting, he took water and washed his hands in front of the crowd, saying, “I am innocent of this Man’s blood; see to that yourselves.”" (Matthew 27:24)

c.       "As a result of this Pilate made efforts to release Him, but the Jews cried out saying, “If you release this Man, you are no friend of Caesar; everyone who makes himself out to be a king opposes Caesar.”" (John 19:12)

21.  Two lesser punishments suggested than death: pit/sold + prisoner swap/scourge:

a.       "Reuben further said to them, “Shed no blood. Throw him into this pit that is in the wilderness, but do not lay hands on him”—that he might rescue him out of their hands, to restore him to his father." (Genesis 37:22)

b.      "Come and let us sell him to the Ishmaelites and not lay our hands on him, for he is our brother, our own flesh.” And his brothers listened to him." (Genesis 37:27)

c.       "But you have a custom that I release someone for you at the Passover; do you wish then that I release for you the King of the Jews?”" (John 18:39)

d.      "Pilate then took Jesus and scourged Him." (John 19:1)

e.      "for just as Jonah was three days and three nights in the belly of the sea monster, so will the Son of Man be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth." (Matthew 12:40)

22.  Joseph pleaded for his life to brothers. Jesus pleaded for his life to God but was silent after arrest:

a.       "Then they said to one another, “Truly we are guilty concerning our brother, because we saw the distress of his soul when he pleaded with us, yet we would not listen; therefore this distress has come upon us.”" (Genesis 42:21)

b.      "He was oppressed and He was afflicted, Yet He did not open His mouth; Like a lamb that is led to slaughter, And like a sheep that is silent before its shearers, So He did not open His mouth." (Isaiah 53:7)

c.       "Now the passage of Scripture which he was reading was this: “He was led as a sheep to slaughter; And as a lamb before its shearer is silent, So He does not open His mouth." (Acts 8:32)

d.      "And He went a little beyond them, and fell on His face and prayed, saying, “My Father, if it is possible, let this cup pass from Me; yet not as I will, but as You will.” And He came to the disciples and found them sleeping, and said to Peter, “So, you men could not keep watch with Me for one hour? Keep watching and praying that you may not enter into temptation; the spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak.” He went away again a second time and prayed, saying, “My Father, if this cannot pass away unless I drink it, Your will be done.”" (Matthew 26:39-42)

e.       "And He withdrew from them about a stone’s throw, and He knelt down and began to pray, saying, “Father, if You are willing, remove this cup from Me; yet not My will, but Yours be done.” Now an angel from heaven appeared to Him, strengthening Him. And being in agony He was praying very fervently; and His sweat became like drops of blood, falling down upon the ground." (Luke 22:41-44)

23.  Two leaders acted as judges: Reuben/Judah + Pilate/Herod Antipas:

a.       "But Reuben heard this and rescued him out of their hands and said, “Let us not take his life.”" (Genesis 37:21)

b.      "Judah said to his brothers, “What profit is it for us to kill our brother and cover up his blood?" (Genesis 37:26)

c.       "Then the whole body of them got up and brought Him before Pilate." (Luke 23:1)

d.      "Now Herod was very glad when he saw Jesus; for he had wanted to see Him for a long time, because he had been hearing about Him and was hoping to see some sign performed by Him." (Luke 23:8)

24.  Leaders finally gave in to peer pressure and went along with plot:

a.       "So they took Joseph’s tunic, and slaughtered a male goat and dipped the tunic in the blood;" (Genesis 37:31)

b.      "Wishing to satisfy the crowd, Pilate released Barabbas for them, and after having Jesus scourged, he handed Him over to be crucified." (Mark 15:15)

25.  Goat blood was sprinkled on Joseph’s coat. Jesus, our scapegoat/Passover goat/lamb, had his own blood sprinkled on his own coat. Passover animal could be goat or sheep, scourging caused bleeding, Scapegoat:

a.       "‘Your lamb shall be an unblemished male a year old; you may take it from the sheep or from the goats." (Exodus 12:5)

b.      "Aaron shall cast lots for the two goats, one lot for the Lord and the other lot for the scapegoat." (Leviticus 16:8)

c.       "So they took Joseph’s tunic, and slaughtered a male goat and dipped the tunic in the blood;" (Genesis 37:31)

d.      "Clean out the old leaven so that you may be a new lump, just as you are in fact unleavened. For Christ our Passover also has been sacrificed." (1 Corinthians 5:7)

26.  False story of his death told and deceived many for a long time, animal/blood on coat. Disciples stole body:

a.       "So they took Joseph’s tunic, and slaughtered a male goat and dipped the tunic in the blood; and they sent the varicolored tunic and brought it to their father and said, “We found this; please examine it to see whether it is your son’s tunic or not.” Then he examined it and said, “It is my son’s tunic. A wild beast has devoured him; Joseph has surely been torn to pieces!”" (Genesis 37:31–33)

b.      "and said, “You are to say, ‘His disciples came by night and stole Him away while we were asleep.’ And if this should come to the governor’s ears, we will win him over and keep you out of trouble.” And they took the money and did as they had been instructed; and this story was widely spread among the Jews, and is to this day." (Matthew 28:13–15)

27.  Taken to Egypt as youth after escaping death (Herod the great):

a.       "Then some Midianite traders passed by, so they pulled him up and lifted Joseph out of the pit, and sold him to the Ishmaelites for twenty shekels of silver. Thus they brought Joseph into Egypt." (Genesis 37:28)

b.      "So Joseph got up and took the Child and His mother while it was still night, and left for Egypt." (Matthew 2:14)

28.  Became a servant:

a.       "Now Joseph had been taken down to Egypt; and Potiphar, an Egyptian officer of Pharaoh, the captain of the bodyguard, bought him from the Ishmaelites, who had taken him down there. The Lord was with Joseph, so he became a successful man. And he was in the house of his master, the Egyptian." (Genesis 39:1–2)

b.      "just as the Son of Man did not come to be served, but to serve, and to give His life a ransom for many.”" (Matthew 20:28)

c.       "but emptied Himself, taking the form of a bond-servant, and being made in the likeness of men." (Philippians 2:7)

29.  Tempted without sin:

a.       "So he left everything he owned in Joseph’s charge; and with him there he did not concern himself with anything except the food which he ate. Now Joseph was handsome in form and appearance. It came about after these events that his master’s wife looked with desire at Joseph, and she said, “Lie with me.” But he refused and said to his master’s wife, “Behold, with me here, my master does not concern himself with anything in the house, and he has put all that he owns in my charge. There is no one greater in this house than I, and he has withheld nothing from me except you, because you are his wife. How then could I do this great evil and sin against God?” As she spoke to Joseph day after day, he did not listen to her to lie beside her or be with her. Now it happened one day that he went into the house to do his work, and none of the men of the household was there inside. She caught him by his garment, saying, “Lie with me!” And he left his garment in her hand and fled, and went outside. When she saw that he had left his garment in her hand and had fled outside, she called to the men of her household and said to them, “See, he has brought in a Hebrew to us to make sport of us; he came in to me to lie with me, and I screamed. When he heard that I raised my voice and screamed, he left his garment beside me and fled and went outside.” So she left his garment beside her until his master came home. Then she spoke to him with these words, “The Hebrew slave, whom you brought to us, came in to me to make sport of me; and as I raised my voice and screamed, he left his garment beside me and fled outside.” Now when his master heard the words of his wife, which she spoke to him, saying, “This is what your slave did to me,” his anger burned. So Joseph’s master took him and put him into the jail, the place where the king’s prisoners were confined; and he was there in the jail." (Genesis 39:6–20)

b.      "Then Jesus was led up by the Spirit into the wilderness to be tempted by the devil. And after He had fasted forty days and forty nights, He then became hungry. And the tempter came and said to Him, “If You are the Son of God, command that these stones become bread.” But He answered and said, “It is written, ‘Man shall not live on bread alone, but on every word that proceeds out of the mouth of God.’ ” Then the devil took Him into the holy city and had Him stand on the pinnacle of the temple, and said to Him, “If You are the Son of God, throw Yourself down; for it is written, ‘He will command His angels concerning You’; and ‘On their hands they will bear You up, So that You will not strike Your foot against a stone.’ ” Jesus said to him, “On the other hand, it is written, ‘You shall not put the Lord your God to the test.’ ” Again, the devil took Him to a very high mountain and showed Him all the kingdoms of the world and their glory; and he said to Him, “All these things I will give You, if You fall down and worship me.” Then Jesus said to him, “Go, Satan! For it is written, ‘You shall worship the Lord your God, and serve Him only.’ ” Then the devil left Him; and behold, angels came and began to minister to Him." (Matthew 4:1–11)

c.       "Then Jesus was led up by the Spirit into the wilderness to be tempted by the devil. And after He had fasted forty days and forty nights, He then became hungry. And the tempter came and said to Him, “If You are the Son of God, command that these stones become bread.” But He answered and said, “It is written, ‘Man shall not live on bread alone, but on every word that proceeds out of the mouth of God.’ ” Then the devil took Him into the holy city and had Him stand on the pinnacle of the temple, and said to Him, “If You are the Son of God, throw Yourself down; for it is written, ‘He will command His angels concerning You’; and ‘On their hands they will bear You up, So that You will not strike Your foot against a stone.’ ” Jesus said to him, “On the other hand, it is written, ‘You shall not put the Lord your God to the test.’ ” Again, the devil took Him to a very high mountain and showed Him all the kingdoms of the world and their glory; and he said to Him, “All these things I will give You, if You fall down and worship me.” Then Jesus said to him, “Go, Satan! For it is written, ‘You shall worship the Lord your God, and serve Him only.’ ” Then the devil left Him; and behold, angels came and began to minister to Him." (Matthew 4:1–11)

30.  Falsely Accused:

a.       "she called to the men of her household and said to them, “See, he has brought in a Hebrew to us to make sport of us; he came in to me to lie with me, and I screamed." (Genesis 39:14)

b.      "Now the chief priests and the whole Council kept trying to obtain false testimony against Jesus, so that they might put Him to death. They did not find any, even though many false witnesses came forward. But later on two came forward, and said, “This man stated, ‘I am able to destroy the temple of God and to rebuild it in three days.’ ” The high priest stood up and said to Him, “Do You not answer? What is it that these men are testifying against You?”" (Matthew 26:59–62)

31.  Unlike many other Bible characters, no sin of Joseph is recorded. Jesus was truly sinless:

a.       "who committed no sin, nor was any deceit found in His mouth;" (1 Peter 2:22)

b.       "His grave was assigned with wicked men, Yet He was with a rich man in His death, Because He had done no violence, Nor was there any deceit in His mouth." (Isaiah 53:9)

c.       "He made Him who knew no sin to be sin on our behalf, so that we might become the righteousness of God in Him." (2 Corinthians 5:21)

32.  Suffered for another’s sin (false accusation):

a.       "So Joseph’s master took him and put him into the jail, the place where the king’s prisoners were confined; and he was there in the jail." (Genesis 39:20)

b.      "who through Him are believers in God, who raised Him from the dead and gave Him glory, so that your faith and hope are in God. Since you have in obedience to the truth purified your souls for a sincere love of the brethren, fervently love one another from the heart, for you have been born again not of seed which is perishable but imperishable, that is, through the living and enduring word of God. For, “All flesh is like grass, And all its glory like the flower of grass. The grass withers, And the flower falls off," (1 Peter 1:21–24)

33.  Confined in jail/custody, thrown into a pit literally a well, pit:

a.       "and they took him and threw him into the pit. Now the pit was empty, without any water in it." (Genesis 37:24)

b.      "For I was in fact kidnapped from the land of the Hebrews, and even here I have done nothing that they should have put me into the dungeon.”" (Genesis 40:15)

c.       "and they bound Him, and led Him away and delivered Him to Pilate the governor." (Matthew 27:2)

d.      "So the Roman cohort and the commander and the officers of the Jews, arrested Jesus and bound Him," (John 18:12)

34.  Inspired by the Holy Spirit:

a.       "Then they said to him, “We have had a dream and there is no one to interpret it.” Then Joseph said to them, “Do not interpretations belong to God? Tell it to me, please.”" (Genesis 40:8)

b.      "Then Pharaoh said to his servants, “Can we find a man like this, in whom is a divine spirit?”" (Genesis 41:38)

c.       "The Spirit of the Lord is upon Me, Because He anointed Me to preach the gospel to the poor. He has sent Me to proclaim release to the captives, And recovery of sight to the blind, To set free those who are oppressed," (Luke 4:18)

35.  Sentenced with 2 criminals, one saved, one lost:

a.       "Then it came about after these things, the cupbearer and the baker for the king of Egypt offended their lord, the king of Egypt. Pharaoh was furious with his two officials, the chief cupbearer and the chief baker. So he put them in confinement in the house of the captain of the bodyguard, in the jail, the same place where Joseph was imprisoned." (Genesis 40:1–3)

b.      "Two others also, who were criminals, were being led away to be put to death with Him. When they came to the place called The Skull, there they crucified Him and the criminals, one on the right and the other on the left." (Luke 23:32–33)

36.  Cup bearer release from prison after 3 days: jail/grave:

a.       "within three more days Pharaoh will lift up your head and restore you to your office; and you will put Pharaoh’s cup into his hand according to your former custom when you were his cupbearer." (Genesis 40:13)

b.      "For I delivered to you as of first importance what I also received, that Christ died for our sins according to the Scriptures, and that He was buried, and that He was raised on the third day according to the Scriptures," (1 Corinthians 15:3–4)

37.  The baker was lifted up on a tree: crucifixion. ***3 days +Tree/ Tree + 3 days***:

a.       "within three more days Pharaoh will lift up your head from you and will hang you on a tree, and the birds will eat your flesh off you.”" (Genesis 40:19)

b.      "Christ redeemed us from the curse of the Law, having become a curse for us—for it is written, “Cursed is everyone who hangs on a tree”—" (Galatians 3:13)

c.       "The God of our fathers raised up Jesus, whom you had put to death by hanging Him on a cross [literally: wood]." (Acts 5:30)

38.   “Green years” followed by “Dry years”:

a.       "Behold, seven years of great abundance are coming in all the land of Egypt; and after them seven years of famine will come, and all the abundance will be forgotten in the land of Egypt, and the famine will ravage the land." (Genesis 41:29–30)

b.      "For if they do these things when the tree is green, what will happen when it is dry?”" (Luke 23:31)

39.  Put “over the house” Joseph, Moses, Solomon, Christ:

a.       "You shall be over my house, and according to your command all my people shall do homage; only in the throne I will be greater than you.”" (Genesis 41:40)

b.      "But it was Solomon who built a house for Him." (Acts 7:47)

c.       "He was faithful to Him who appointed Him, as Moses also was in all His house. For He has been counted worthy of more glory than Moses, by just so much as the builder of the house has more honor than the house. For every house is built by someone, but the builder of all things is God. Now Moses was faithful in all His house as a servant, for a testimony of those things which were to be spoken later; but Christ was faithful as a Son over His house—whose house we are, if we hold fast our confidence and the boast of our hope firm until the end." (Hebrews 3:2–6)

40.  Both exalted after suffering:

a.       "Pharaoh said to Joseph, “See, I have set you over all the land of Egypt.”" (Genesis 41:41)

b.      "Was it not necessary for the Christ to suffer these things and to enter into His glory?”" (Luke 24:26)

c.       "For this reason also, God highly exalted Him, and bestowed on Him the name which is above every name, so that at the name of Jesus every knee will bow, of those who are in heaven and on earth and under the earth, and that every tongue will confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father." (Philippians 2:9–11)

41.  All will pay homage and every knee will bow:

a.       "You shall be over my house, and according to your command all my people shall do homage; only in the throne I will be greater than you.” Pharaoh said to Joseph, “See, I have set you over all the land of Egypt.” Then Pharaoh took off his signet ring from his hand and put it on Joseph’s hand, and clothed him in garments of fine linen and put the gold necklace around his neck. He had him ride in his second chariot; and they proclaimed before him, “Bow the knee!” And he set him over all the land of Egypt." (Genesis 41:40–43)

b.      "so that at the name of Jesus every knee will bow, of those who are in heaven and on earth and under the earth," (Philippians 2:10)

c.       "And when He again brings the firstborn into the world, He says, “And let all the angels of God worship Him.”" (Hebrews 1:6)

42.  Both given all power and authority, save one: Pharaoh/God:

a.       "Then Pharaoh took off his signet ring from his hand and put it on Joseph’s hand, and clothed him in garments of fine linen and put the gold necklace around his neck. He had him ride in his second chariot; and they proclaimed before him, “Bow the knee!” And he set him over all the land of Egypt. Moreover, Pharaoh said to Joseph, “Though I am Pharaoh, yet without your permission no one shall raise his hand or foot in all the land of Egypt.”" (Genesis 41:42–44)

b.      "And Jesus came up and spoke to them, saying, “All authority has been given to Me in heaven and on earth." (Matthew 28:18)

43.  Both wore royal robes and dressed as a king, Jacob wore pharaoh’s royal robe with necklace.

a.       Jesus wore purple robe while being mocked with crown of thorns:

b.       "Then Pharaoh took off his signet ring from his hand and put it on Joseph’s hand, and clothed him in garments of fine linen and put the gold necklace around his neck." (Genesis 41:42)

c.       "They dressed Him up in purple, and after twisting a crown of thorns, they put it on Him; and they began to acclaim Him, “Hail, King of the Jews!”" (Mark 15:17–18)

44.  Joseph given seal ring for 7 abundance years before 7 years of famine and death. Jesus broke 7 seals that caused famine and death:

a.       "Then Pharaoh took off his signet ring from his hand and put it on Joseph’s hand, and clothed him in garments of fine linen and put the gold necklace around his neck." (Genesis 41:42)

b.      "Then I saw when the Lamb broke one of the seven seals, and I heard one of the four living creatures saying as with a voice of thunder, “Come.”" (Revelation 6:1)

45.  Both had priestly connections: Joseph married Asenath whose father was a priest of On.  Christ = Melchizedek:

a.       "Then Pharaoh named Joseph Zaphenath-paneah; and he gave him Asenath, the daughter of Potiphera priest of On, as his wife. And Joseph went forth over the land of Egypt." (Genesis 41:45)

b.      "Now before the year of famine came, two sons were born to Joseph, whom Asenath, the daughter of Potiphera priest of On, bore to him." (Genesis 41:50)

c.       "being designated by God as a high priest according to the order of Melchizedek." (Hebrews 5:10)

46.  Began “ministry” as king at 30 years old:

a.       "Now Joseph was thirty years old when he stood before Pharaoh, king of Egypt. And Joseph went out from the presence of Pharaoh and went through all the land of Egypt." (Genesis 41:46)

b.      "When He began His ministry, Jesus Himself was about thirty years of age, being, as was supposed, the son of Joseph, the son of Eli," (Luke 3:23)

47.  Brothers stared at each other and went to get food:

a.       "Now Jacob saw that there was grain in Egypt, and Jacob said to his sons, “Why are you staring at one another?” He said, “Behold, I have heard that there is grain in Egypt; go down there and buy some for us from that place, so that we may live and not die.” Then ten brothers of Joseph went down to buy grain from Egypt." (Genesis 42:1–3)

b.      "Simon Peter, and Thomas called Didymus, and Nathanael of Cana in Galilee, and the sons of Zebedee, and two others of His disciples were together. Simon Peter said to them, “I am going fishing.” They said to him, “We will also come with you.” They went out and got into the boat; and that night they caught nothing." (John 21:2–3)

48.  All must go to him for bread:

a.       "So when all the land of Egypt was famished, the people cried out to Pharaoh for bread; and Pharaoh said to all the Egyptians, “Go to Joseph; whatever he says to you, you shall do.” When the famine was spread over all the face of the earth, then Joseph opened all the storehouses, and sold to the Egyptians; and the famine was severe in the land of Egypt. The people of all the earth came to Egypt to buy grain from Joseph, because the famine was severe in all the earth." (Genesis 41:55–57)

b.      "Now Joseph was the ruler over the land; he was the one who sold to all the people of the land. And Joseph’s brothers came and bowed down to him with their faces to the ground." (Genesis 42:6)

c.       "Jesus said to them, “I am the bread of life; he who comes to Me will not hunger, and he who believes in Me will never thirst." (John 6:35)

49.  Unrecognized by his own:

a.       "But Joseph had recognized his brothers, although they did not recognize him." (Genesis 42:8)

b.      "He came to His own, and those who were His own did not receive Him." (John 1:11)

c.       "I did not recognize Him, but so that He might be manifested to Israel, I came baptizing in water.” John testified saying, “I have seen the Spirit descending as a dove out of heaven, and He remained upon Him. I did not recognize Him, but He who sent me to baptize in water said to me, ‘He upon whom you see the Spirit descending and remaining upon Him, this is the One who baptizes in the Holy Spirit.’" (John 1:31–33)

d.      "But their eyes were prevented from recognizing Him." (Luke 24:16)

e.      "But when the vine-growers saw him, they reasoned with one another, saying, ‘This is the heir; let us kill him so that the inheritance will be ours.’" (Luke 20:14)

f.        "for they all out of their surplus put into the offering; but she out of her poverty put in all that she had to live on.”" (Luke 21:4)

50.  Tested his brethren for worthiness:

a.       "by this you will be tested: by the life of Pharaoh, you shall not go from this place unless your youngest brother comes here!" (Genesis 42:15)

b.      "so that the proof of your faith, being more precious than gold which is perishable, even though tested by fire, may be found to result in praise and glory and honor at the revelation of Jesus Christ;" (1 Peter 1:7)

51.  10 brothers condemned to prison and released after 3 days. Jesus condemned and rose from dead after three days:

a.       "So he put them all together in prison for three days. Now Joseph said to them on the third day, “Do this and live, for I fear God:" (Genesis 42:17–18)

b.      "God raised Him up on the third day and granted that He become visible, not to all the people, but to witnesses who were chosen beforehand by God, that is, to us who ate and drank with Him after He arose from the dead." (Acts 10:40–41)

52.  Betrayers felt remorse. Joseph’s 10 brothers/Judas:

a.       "Then they said to one another, “Truly we are guilty concerning our brother, because we saw the distress of his soul when he pleaded with us, yet we would not listen; therefore this distress has come upon us.”" (Genesis 42:21)

b.      "Then when Judas, who had betrayed Him, saw that He had been condemned, he felt remorse and returned the thirty pieces of silver to the chief priests and elders," (Matthew 27:3)

53.  Accusers, betrayers held responsible for shed blood:

a.       "Reuben answered them, saying, “Did I not tell you, ‘Do not sin against the boy’; and you would not listen? Now comes the reckoning for his blood.”" (Genesis 42:22)

b.      "And all the people said, “His blood shall be on us and on our children!”" (Matthew 27:25)

54.  Both wept for the wicked:

a.       "He wept so loudly that the Egyptians heard it, and the household of Pharaoh heard of it." (Genesis 45:2)

b.      "When He approached Jerusalem, He saw the city and wept over it," (Luke 19:41)

55.  Identified the primary betrayer: Simeon/Judas. Ancient Jewish Targum identified Simeon as primary ringleader to kill Joseph. “And Simeon and Levi, who were brothers in counsel, said each man to his brother, Behold, this master of dreams cometh. And now come let us kill him and throw him into one of the pits and say that an evil beast bath devoured him; arid we shall see what will be the interpretation of his dreams.” (Jewish Targums of Onkelos and Jonathan Ben Uzziel On the Pentateuch, J. W. Etheridge, Gen 37:19, 1892 AD). Jesus gave bread to Judas to identify him as the betrayer: 

a.       "“Simeon and Levi are brothers; Their swords are implements of violence. “Let my soul not enter into their council; Let not my glory be united with their assembly; Because in their anger they slew men, And in their self-will they lamed oxen. “Cursed be their anger, for it is fierce; And their wrath, for it is cruel. I will disperse them in Jacob, And scatter them in Israel." (Genesis 49:5–7)

b.      "He turned away from them and wept. But when he returned to them and spoke to them, he took Simeon from them and bound him before their eyes." (Genesis 42:24)

c.       "He, leaning back thus on Jesus’ bosom, said to Him, “Lord, who is it?” Jesus then answered, “That is the one for whom I shall dip the morsel and give it to him.” So when He had dipped the morsel, He took and gave it to Judas, the son of Simon Iscariot." (John 13:25–26)

56.  Righteous judgement: Joseph spared innocent (Reuben-oldest) for the guilty Simeon (next oldest) who spent several years in jail until the brothers returned. Jesus is our perfect judge who can separate the sheep from the goats. Simeon got the worst land in the Negev and was absorbed into Judah and Levi got no land at all:

a.       "He turned away from them and wept. But when he returned to them and spoke to them, he took Simeon from them and bound him before their eyes." (Genesis 42:24)

b.      "“But when the Son of Man comes in His glory, and all the angels with Him, then He will sit on His glorious throne. All the nations will be gathered before Him; and He will separate them from one another, as the shepherd separates the sheep from the goats;" (Matthew 25:31–32)

c.       "For not even the Father judges anyone, but He has given all judgment to the Son, so that all will honor the Son even as they honor the Father. He who does not honor the Son does not honor the Father who sent Him." (John 5:22–23)

d.      "and He gave Him authority to execute judgment, because He is the Son of Man." (John 5:27)

57.  Amazing grace given to wicked: Joseph returned his brother’s food money, Jesus’ Grace to us:

a.       "As one of them opened his sack to give his donkey fodder at the lodging place, he saw his money; and behold, it was in the mouth of his sack. Then he said to his brothers, “My money has been returned, and behold, it is even in my sack.” And their hearts sank, and they turned trembling to one another, saying, “What is this that God has done to us?”" (Genesis 42:27–28)

b.      "For while we were still helpless, at the right time Christ died for the ungodly. For one will hardly die for a righteous man; though perhaps for the good man someone would dare even to die. But God demonstrates His own love toward us, in that while we were yet sinners, Christ died for us. Much more then, having now been justified by His blood, we shall be saved from the wrath of God through Him. For if while we were enemies we were reconciled to God through the death of His Son, much more, having been reconciled, we shall be saved by His life. And not only this, but we also exult in God through our Lord Jesus Christ, through whom we have now received the reconciliation." (Romans 5:6–11)

58.  Breaking bread and foot washing together:

a.       "Then the man brought the men into Joseph’s house and gave them water, and they washed their feet; and he gave their donkeys fodder. So they prepared the present for Joseph’s coming at noon; for they had heard that they were to eat a meal there." (Genesis 43:24–25)

b.      "He took portions to them from his own table, but Benjamin’s portion was five times as much as any of theirs. So they feasted and drank freely with him." (Genesis 43:34)

c.       "Then He poured water into the basin, and began to wash the disciples’ feet and to wipe them with the towel with which He was girded." (John 13:5)

59.  Astonishment at Joseph/Jesus:

a.       "Now they were seated before him, the firstborn according to his birthright and the youngest according to his youth, and the men looked at one another in astonishment." (Genesis 43:33)

b.      "The chief priests and the scribes heard this, and began seeking how to destroy Him; for they were afraid of Him, for the whole crowd was astonished at His teaching." (Mark 11:18)

60.  Innocent suffers outside city: Benjamin was arrested outside the city/Jesus crucified outside Jerusalem:

a.       "They had just gone out of the city, and were not far off, when Joseph said to his house steward, “Up, follow the men; and when you overtake them, say to them, ‘Why have you repaid evil for good?" (Genesis 44:4)

b.      "Therefore Jesus also, that He might sanctify the people through His own blood, suffered outside the gate." (Hebrews 13:12)

61.  Substitutionary atonement: innocent Benjamin for wicked brothers. Jesus for sinners:

a.       "So Judah said, “What can we say to my lord? What can we speak? And how can we justify ourselves? God has found out the iniquity of your servants; behold, we are my lord’s slaves, both we and the one in whose possession the cup has been found.” But he said, “Far be it from me to do this. The man in whose possession the cup has been found, he shall be my slave; but as for you, go up in peace to your father.”" (Genesis 44:16–17)

b.      "But He was pierced through for our transgressions, He was crushed for our iniquities; The chastening for our well-being fell upon Him, And by His scourging we are healed. All of us like sheep have gone astray, Each of us has turned to his own way; But the Lord has caused the iniquity of us all To fall on Him." (Isaiah 53:5–6)

c.       "He made Him who knew no sin to be sin on our behalf, so that we might become the righteousness of God in Him." (2 Corinthians 5:21)

62.  Innocent flesh torn in pieces: Joseph-animal/Christ-scourging:

a.       "and the one went out from me, and I said, “Surely he is torn in pieces,” and I have not seen him since." (Genesis 44:28)

b.      "Wishing to satisfy the crowd, Pilate released Barabbas for them, and after having Jesus scourged, he handed Him over to be crucified." (Mark 15:15)

63.  Both forgave those who wronged them:

a.       "Then Joseph said to his brothers, “Please come closer to me.” And they came closer. And he said, “I am your brother Joseph, whom you sold into Egypt." (Genesis 45:4)

b.      "Then he fell on his brother Benjamin’s neck and wept, and Benjamin wept on his neck. He kissed all his brothers and wept on them, and afterward his brothers talked with him." (Genesis 45:14–15)

c.       "But Jesus was saying, “Father, forgive them; for they do not know what they are doing.” And they cast lots, dividing up His garments among themselves." (Luke 23:34)

64.  Became saviour of the people:

a.       "Now do not be grieved or angry with yourselves, because you sold me here, for God sent me before you to preserve life." (Genesis 45:5)

b.      "So they said, “You have saved our lives! Let us find favor in the sight of my lord, and we will be Pharaoh’s slaves.”" (Genesis 47:25)

c.       "She will bear a Son; and you shall call His name Jesus, for He will save His people from their sins.”" (Matthew 1:21)

d.      "We have seen and testify that the Father has sent the Son to be the Savior of the world." (1 John 4:14)

65.  Joseph/Christ suffered according to predetermined plan of God:

a.       "Now do not be grieved or angry with yourselves, because you sold me here, for God sent me before you to preserve life. For the famine has been in the land these two years, and there are still five years in which there will be neither plowing nor harvesting. God sent me before you to preserve for you a remnant in the earth, and to keep you alive by a great deliverance." (Genesis 45:5–7)

b.      "this Man, delivered over by the predetermined plan and foreknowledge of God, you nailed to a cross by the hands of godless men and put Him to death." (Acts 2:23)

c.       "But the things which God announced beforehand by the mouth of all the prophets, that His Christ would suffer, He has thus fulfilled." (Acts 3:18)

d.      "This was in accordance with the eternal purpose which He carried out in Christ Jesus our Lord," (Ephesians 3:11)

66.  Self-anger and sorrow at hurting Joseph/Jesus:

a.       "Now do not be grieved or angry with yourselves, because you sold me here, for God sent me before you to preserve life." (Genesis 45:5)

b.      "“Therefore let all the house of Israel know for certain that God has made Him both Lord and Christ—this Jesus whom you crucified.” Now when they heard this, they were pierced to the heart, and said to Peter and the rest of the apostles, “Brethren, what shall we do?” Peter said to them, “Repent, and each of you be baptized in the name of Jesus Christ for the forgiveness of your sins; and you will receive the gift of the Holy Spirit." (Acts 2:36–38)

67.  First news that Joseph/Jesus were alive was not believed. Jacob  would not believe Joseph was alive. The male disciples would not believe Mary when she reported Jesus alive:

a.       "They told him, saying, “Joseph is still alive, and indeed he is ruler over all the land of Egypt.” But he was stunned, for he did not believe them." (Genesis 45:26)

b.      "Now they were Mary Magdalene and Joanna and Mary the mother of James; also the other women with them were telling these things to the apostles. But these words appeared to them as nonsense, and they would not believe them." (Luke 24:10–11)

c.       "Now after He had risen early on the first day of the week, He first appeared to Mary Magdalene, from whom He had cast out seven demons. She went and reported to those who had been with Him, while they were mourning and weeping. When they heard that He was alive and had been seen by her, they refused to believe it. After that, He appeared in a different form to two of them while they were walking along on their way to the country." (Mark 16:9–12)

68.  Fearful hearts brought to peace: Joseph/Jesus:

a.       "Joseph commanded his servants the physicians to embalm his father. So the physicians embalmed Israel." (Genesis 50:2)

b.      "He said, “Be at ease, do not be afraid. Your God and the God of your father has given you treasure in your sacks; I had your money.” Then he brought Simeon out to them." (Genesis 43:23)

c.       "So when it was evening on that day, the first day of the week, and when the doors were shut where the disciples were, for fear of the Jews, Jesus came and stood in their midst and said to them, “Peace be with you.”" (John 20:19)

69.  Substitutionary atonement: Innocent Joseph/Christ suffered for guilty brethren:

a.       "‘Thus you shall say to Joseph, “Please forgive, I beg you, the transgression of your brothers and their sin, for they did you wrong.” ’ And now, please forgive the transgression of the servants of the God of your father.” And Joseph wept when they spoke to him. Then his brothers also came and fell down before him and said, “Behold, we are your servants.”" (Genesis 50:17–18)

b.      "Surely our griefs He Himself bore, And our sorrows He carried; Yet we ourselves esteemed Him stricken, Smitten of God, and afflicted." (Isaiah 53:4)

70.  Evil turned into blessing:

a.       "As for you, you meant evil against me, but God meant it for good in order to bring about this present result, to preserve many people alive." (Genesis 50:20)

b.      "and He Himself bore our sins in His body on the cross, so that we might die to sin and live to righteousness; for by His wounds you were healed." (1 Peter 2:24)

71.  Turned intentional harm into good:

a.       "As for you, you meant evil against me, but God meant it for good in order to bring about this present result, to preserve many people alive. So therefore, do not be afraid; I will provide for you and your little ones.” So he comforted them and spoke kindly to them." (Genesis 50:20–21)

b.      "even though I was formerly a blasphemer and a persecutor and a violent aggressor. Yet I was shown mercy because I acted ignorantly in unbelief; and the grace of our Lord was more than abundant, with the faith and love which are found in Christ Jesus. It is a trustworthy statement, deserving full acceptance, that Christ Jesus came into the world to save sinners, among whom I am foremost of all. Yet for this reason I found mercy, so that in me as the foremost, Jesus Christ might demonstrate His perfect patience as an example for those who would believe in Him for eternal life. Now to the King eternal, immortal, invisible, the only God, be honor and glory forever and ever. Amen." (1 Timothy 1:13–17)

72.  Comforted those who betrayed him. Disciples were comforted after abandoning Jesus at the cross (except John):

a.       "So therefore, do not be afraid; I will provide for you and your little ones.” So he comforted them and spoke kindly to them." (Genesis 50:21)

b.      "So when it was evening on that day, the first day of the week, and when the doors were shut where the disciples were, for fear of the Jews, Jesus came and stood in their midst and said to them, “Peace be with you.”" (John 20:19)

73.  After Joseph/Christ became king both began summing all things up, making pharaoh/God all in all:

a.       "Now there was no food in all the land, because the famine was very severe, so that the land of Egypt and the land of Canaan languished because of the famine. Joseph gathered all the money that was found in the land of Egypt and in the land of Canaan for the grain which they bought, and Joseph brought the money into Pharaoh’s house. When the money was all spent in the land of Egypt and in the land of Canaan, all the Egyptians came to Joseph and said, “Give us food, for why should we die in your presence? For our money is gone.” Then Joseph said, “Give up your livestock, and I will give you food for your livestock, since your money is gone.” So they brought their livestock to Joseph, and Joseph gave them food in exchange for the horses and the flocks and the herds and the donkeys; and he fed them with food in exchange for all their livestock that year. When that year was ended, they came to him the next year and said to him, “We will not hide from my lord that our money is all spent, and the cattle are my lord’s. There is nothing left for my lord except our bodies and our lands. Why should we die before your eyes, both we and our land? Buy us and our land for food, and we and our land will be slaves to Pharaoh. So give us seed, that we may live and not die, and that the land may not be desolate.” So Joseph bought all the land of Egypt for Pharaoh, for every Egyptian sold his field, because the famine was severe upon them. Thus the land became Pharaoh’s." (Genesis 47:13–20)

b.      "with a view to an administration suitable to the fullness of the times, that is, the summing up of all things in Christ, things in the heavens and things on the earth. In Him" (Ephesians 1:10)

c.       "He is before all things, and in Him all things hold together. He is also head of the body, the church; and He is the beginning, the firstborn from the dead, so that He Himself will come to have first place in everything. For it was the Father’s good pleasure for all the fullness to dwell in Him, and through Him to reconcile all things to Himself, having made peace through the blood of His cross; through Him, I say, whether things on earth or things in heaven." (Colossians 1:17–20)

74.  Hebrews under Joseph and Christians under Christ were exempt from losing their blessings but enjoyed “all physical/spiritual blessings” while the rest suffered:

a.       "Now Israel lived in the land of Egypt, in Goshen, and they acquired property in it and were fruitful and became very numerous." (Genesis 47:27)

b.      "Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who has blessed us with every spiritual blessing in the heavenly places in Christ," (Ephesians 1:3)

c.       "And she gave birth to a son, a male child, who is to rule all the nations with a rod of iron; and her child was caught up to God and to His throne. Then the woman fled into the wilderness where she had a place prepared by God, so that there she would be nourished for one thousand two hundred and sixty days." (Revelation 12:5–6)

 

Conclusion:

1.       Joseph was a type of Christ.

a.         The parallels are so striking and so dramatic that they just pop out at you!

b.        This is a powerful witness of Christ in the Old Testament.

c.         While we have identified over 70, there are most certainly more we have missed.

2.       Trust the entire Bible, Old Testament (Tanakh) and New.

a.         All scripture is inspired by God.

b.        Scripture cannot be broken

3.       What you read in the book, you find in the ground!

 

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 See also:

Types, shadows and Anti-types

Click to ViewReplacement Theology: The Christian’s body replaced the Jewish Temple

Click to ViewList of 13 ways the Jewish temple was a type of the Church

Click to ViewList of 15 Abraham and Christian antitypes of Genesis 15

Click to ViewList of 11 Exodus Route types of our salvation in Christ

Click to ViewList of 25 similarities of Moses as a type of Apostle Paul

Click to ViewPhysical Jews were types of spiritual Christians by faith not blood!

 

By Steve Rudd: Aug 2017: Contact the author for comments, input or corrections.

 

 

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