2 Peter 3:15-16
And account that the longsuffering of our Lord is salvation; even as our
beloved brother Paul also, according to the wisdom given to him, wrote unto
you; as also in all his epistles, speaking in them of these things; wherein
are some things hard to be understood, which the ignorant and unstedfast
wrest, as they do also the other scriptures, unto their own destruction (2
As Peter is concluding his letter, describing what will happen at the end of
time and exhorting Christians to understand that God is not “slow” or
“delayed” but patient and longsuffering toward us so that we might repent and
be saved (2 Peter 3:1-15a), he goes out of his way to show that Paul had also
written to them regarding “these things” (2 Peter 3:15b-16). Peter says they
are written according to the wisdom given to him, and that some things are
hard to understand. These difficult matters are “distorted” (Greek streblousin,
“to torture, wrest,” thus, to pervert) by those who are “ignorant” (Greek
amatheis, unschooled or unlearned) and “unstable” (Greek asteriktoi, unfixed,
vacillating, unsteadfast; used also in 2 Peter 2:14; these three Greek terms
used only in these instances in 2 Peter in the New Testament). Peter then
encourages those Christians to whom he writes to beware lest they also get
carried away with the error of the lawless and fall from their own
steadfastness, but should instead grow in the grace and knowledge of the Lord
Jesus (2 Peter 3:17-18).
Peter’s affirmation of Paul and his writings is quite important: it represents
a strong challenge those who seek to find discontinuity and inconsistency
between Peter and Paul, making much of Galatians 2:11-14. Peter affirms that
he and Paul have taught the same things; not only that, but Peter proves
willing to cite Paul’s writing as further confirmation of the things which he
is teaching, giving great credibility and honor to Paul’s writings. Paul is
not an outlier in Christian theology and thought: Peter makes that clear.
What are “these things” to which Peter refers (cf. 2 Peter 3:16)? Perhaps
Peter refers to “salvation,” the nearest concept (cf. 2 Peter 3:15): Paul has
much to say about the nature of salvation in terms of election, grace, faith,
obedience, etc., throughout his writings. Yet “these things” are plural, and
the final section of the letter, 2 Peter 3:1-15a, has focused on Jesus’
return, the end of time, and the Lord’s patience, another theme regarding
which Paul has many things to say (cf. Romans 2:4-11, 8:17-25, 1 Corinthians
15:1-58, 1 Thessalonians 4:13-5:10, 2 Thessalonians 1:5-2:12, among others).
Peter’s letter has also featured encouragement through testimony and warnings
about false teachers, other themes which feature in Paul’s writings (cf.
Galatians 1:6-2:10, 1 Timothy 4:1-4, 6:3-10, 2 Timothy 2:14-19, 4:3-4,
although the parallels are stronger between 2 Peter 2:1-22 and Jude 1:3-23).
Peter, therefore, likely has Paul’s warnings about false teachers and
particularly discussions of the end of time in mind.
While the tone of the passage is negative in many ways, we can derive positive
encouragement from it. Some things in Paul’s teachings are hard to understand:
yet many things are more easily understood, and even though some parts may be
difficult, it is not impossible to understand them. Yes, the unlearned and
unstable distort the Scriptures: but we can be learned and stable, and handle
the Scriptures properly (cf. 2 Timothy 2:15, 2 Peter 3:14-15). The Scriptures
can be understood; we can gain encouragement from them. We can learn of God’s
will and purpose for us.
Yet the focus is undoubtedly on the negative in 2 Peter 3:16: the unlearned
and unstable distort and pervert not just what Paul writes but also other
parts of Scripture. We do well to consider these matters so that we may not be
guilty of them!
Peter warns about the “unlearned” distorting Scripture. “Unlearned” is not
synonymous with “a lack of formal or higher education”; Peter himself is
reckoned as one without formal education and a common man in Acts 4:13. One
can have many degrees in higher education and still be “unlearned” or at least
“unstable”; one may not have a lot of formal education but be wise in the
Scriptures. Yet Peter’s warning is apt: many people, even good-intentioned
people, end up distorting Scripture because they are not familiar with much of
the story. Many false doctrines have begun and spread because men with less
than stellar understanding of Scripture began teaching what made sense to them
and refused to accept correction from those with better understanding of what
God has made known through Scripture. We must remember that the sum of God’s
word is truth (Psalm 119:160); many times people will focus on some passages
or statements in Scripture to the detriment and neglect of others and come out
with unbalanced, unhealthy teachings. These days many teachings of Scripture
are discussed and attempted to be applied without any consideration of or
respect given to their original contexts: this is a particularly relevant
concern in light of 2 Peter 3:15-16 and discussions of the “end of time” (apocalypticism
or eschatology), when many seek to understand apocalyptic images purely in
terms of the present day, as if Ezekiel, Daniel, and John were talking
specifically and directly about the early twenty-first century.
Peter also shows concern regarding the “unstable” distorting Scripture. Some
perhaps are “unstable” because they are “unlearned”; nevertheless, one could
be “learned” yet “unstable.” Few persons prove more dangerous in a
congregation than one who has great Scriptural knowledge but is seriously
lacking in practicing the message of Scripture and developing in maturity.
They are “puffed up” by knowledge, and do not “build up” in love (1
Corinthians 8:1). There is a vast difference between an academic understanding
of Christianity and a practical, “full-of-faith” understanding of
Christianity. The practice of Christianity leads to proper understanding of
love, humility, grace, mercy, and compassion; an academic understanding of
Christianity often leads to presumption, pride, division, and often perversion
of and departure from the message of Scripture when people begin to think they
“know better” than that which has been revealed. So it was with the Gnostics
in the first centuries after Christ; so it is to this day.
Peter affirms that Scripture can be understood, but warns that it can be
misunderstood and distorted. Let us take Peter’s warning to heart: none of us
are “above” or “below” distorting Scripture, however intentional or
unintentional. Let us instead continue to grow in the grace and knowledge of
our Lord Jesus Christ, derive encouragement from Scripture, and do all things
for God’s glory and honor!
By Ethan R. Longhenry
From Expository Files 20.4; April 2013