Eusebius of Caesarea, Onomasticon: Encyclopedia

Concerning The Place Names In Sacred Scripture.

Dictionary of Bible places and Encyclopedia of Geography

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[Translated by C. Umhau Wolf]























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by Eusebius of Pamphilia, Bishop of Caesaria Palestine

As a kind of preface to the work proposed by you, O Paulinus, holy man of God, I have previously presented the subjects suggested. First I translated into the Greek language the names of the nations throughout the world which have Hebrew names in the sacred Scriptures. Then on the basis of the whole Bible I composed a map of ancient Judea and defined the allotments of the twelve tribes within it. Furthermore, using the "blueprint" as it were, provided by Scripture, I sketched a representation of their ancient and renowned capital, i.e., Jerusalem, and of its temple with appended notes of its areas.

Now, in this work and in accordance with those things previously prepared for the usefulness of the completed project, I continue your proposal and set forth the names of the cities and villages mentioned in the Sacred Scriptures in their native language, of what sort of territory they were, and whether our contemporaries call them by the same name as the ancients or otherwise. I shall gather the materials sought from all of the inspired Scripture, but for easy reference I shall organize in alphabetic order each of the citations scattered among the readings.

Latin Preface by Jerome

Eusebius who received his cognomen from the sainted martyr Pampilius had already written the following:

1) The Ten books of the Church History

2) The Canons of the Times (which we rendered into Latin)

3) Names of the various Nations (in which he explained how these were formally spoken among the Hebrews and are now spoken)

4) Description of the land of Judea and the lots of the separate tribes

5) Also a Plan of Jerusalem and its temple with a most succinct description

Finally he worked on this little book and gathered together for us from the Holy Scriptures almost all the names of cities, mountains, rivers, villages and other places indicating if they still exist, are unchanged or are in part corrupted. And so we have translated the study of this remarkable man according to the order of the alphabet in Greek. We have left unchanged those proper records we have not seen, but have changed a few.

As formerly in the preface to The Canons of the Times, I debated whether I should be only a translator or an author of a new work. Especially because someone hardly instructed in the language dared to translate this same book into the Latin language which is not really Latin. The wise reader will quickly discover the ignorance of him by comparison with what we have translated. Even though I do not claim for myself eminence, nevertheless I believe I can surpass those who are farmers.



Ararat, Armenia.1 Scripture says that the ark came to rest (after the deluge) in the mountains of Ararat. It is asserted that the remains of the ark are still shown on the mountains of Armenia. Jeremiah also mentions Ararat in his vision against Babylon. In the first book of the Antiquities of the Jews Josephus likewise sets forth the story of the place. Upon the testimony of non-scriptural witnesses he derives this information:

"Noah, thus learning that the earth was delivered from the flood, waited yet seven days, and then let the animals out of the ark, went forth himself with his family, sacrificed to God and feasted with his household. The Armenians call that spot the Landing-Place, for it was there that the ark came safe to land, and they show the relics of it to this day. This flood and the ark are mentioned by all who have written histories of the barbarians. Among these is Berosus the Chaldean who in his description of the events of the flood writes somewhere as follows: 'It is said, moreover, that a portion of the vessel still survives in Armenia on the mountains of the Cordyaeans, and that persons carry off pieces of the bitumen, which they use as talismans.' These matters are also mentioned by Hieronymus the Egyptian, author of the ancient history of Phoenicia, by Mnaseas and by many others. Nicolas of Damascus in his 96th book relates the story as follows: 'There is above the country of Minyas in Armenia a great mountain called Baris, where, as the story goes, many refugees found safety at the time of the flood, and one man, transported upon an ark, grounded upon the summit, and of the timber were for long preserved; this might well be the same man of whom Moses, the Jewish legislator wrote.'"

Achad.2 City of King Nebrod in Babylon. [According to the Hebrews this is said to be the Mesopotamia city which today is called Nisibis. It was once besieged and captured by Lucullus the Roman consul and within a few years was given over by Emperor Iovianus to the Persians.]

Aggai (Ai).3 To the west of Bethel. They are not far distant from one another. Bethel is now located on the left side of the road going from Neapolis to Jerusalem at about the 12th milestone from Jerusalem. Bethel even now exists. [A church has also been built there where Jacob slept on the way to Mesopotamia whence this place was given the name Bethel which means "house of God". But for Aggai, a deserted place, there are shown only ruins. This is also called in Scripture Gai. [It should be remarked that there is no letter G in Hebrew but it was called Ai, written with the letter called by them Ain.]

AstarōthKarnaein.4 Territory of the giants situated above (on the ridge). Sodom which Chodollagomor captured (destroyed). Today there are two towns (forts) of this name in Batabia or Beloloun the cities of Adara and Abila, about nine miles apart.

Arbō. [Arboc.5 In our codex written corruptly as Arboc, Arbo is the reading in the Hebrew. That means "four" since this is where the three patriarchs Abraham, Isaac and Jacob along with the "great Adam" are buried. So in the book of Josue. Perhaps some suppose this tradition that he was buried in the location of Calgary.] "That is, Hebron" now a large town which was formerly a metropolis of the foreigners where giants dwelled. Afterwards the capital of David. It was allotted to the tribe of Juda and was a Levitical city and one of the cities of refuge. It is twenty-two miles south of Jerusalem. The oak of Abraham [which is also Mamrē, was pointed out up to the time of Constantine, emperor of Rome] and his tomb are seen there [a church has been constructed there by us]. The terebinth where angels were entertained by Abraham is openly revered by the people (in the vicinity as a religious place). Formerly it was called Arbo but later Hebron after Hebron one of the sons of Caleb according to Paralipomenon.

Ailam (Ailath).6 Is situated at the extremity of Palestine between the southern desert and the Red Sea where cargo was transported by ship from both Egypt and India. A detachment of the Tenth Roman Legion is stationed there. Properly called Aila today (it was formerly pronounced Ailath) from whence the ancient people the Ailamites whose king was Chodollagomor [who is mentioned in the Acts of the Apostles]. Another Ailam of the foreigners (of Palestine) is noted in Kings.

Adama.7 One of the five cities of Sodom which was destroyed with the others.

Asasan Thamar (Asasonthamar).8 Where the Amorrites dwelled whom Chodollagomor destroyed is located near the wilderness of Cades. It is said there is a village Tharmara (a fort Thamara) one day journey from Mapsis on the road from Hebron to Ailam. Today there is a garrison (Roman fort) of soldiers there."

Aloua (Allus).9 Region of the princes of Edom (the Edomite) which is now in the Gebalene near the city of Petra.

Ainan (Aenam).10 "On the road to Thamna." Now Ainan is a deserted place near Thamna which today is a large populous town situated between Jerusalem and Diospolis. There is a spring near the place said to be Ainan beside which an idol used to be worshiped by the inhabitants. [There is a spring at the above mentioned place Aena whence Aenan, that is "spring" gets its name, where a strange, large idol is revered by the inhabitants. But the Hebrews declare that Aenan does not designate a place but a crossroad where a clear prospect is required to choose one road from another.]

[AilōnAtad (Areaatad).11 "Which is beyond the Jordan" where they mourned Jacob. The place is three miles from Jericho and two from the Jordan. It is now called Bethagla which is interpreted "place of circling" because there (according to custom) they were circling in lamentation over Jacob.]


Ailim (Aelim).12 "Where there were twelve springs of water and seventy palm trees." A station of the children of Israel on the desert (to which Moses came after crossing the Red Sea).

[Ailous (Aelim).13 Station of the children of Israel in the desert (in the desert where the children of Israel made camp).]


Aserōth.14 Part of the desert where "Mariam and Aaron spoke against Moses." Once the Avvim dwelt in Aseroth as far as (the city) Gaza. [But rather this is not called Aseroth but Aserim in Hebrew.]

Asemōna.15 Station of the children of Israel in the desert.

Aētharim.16 For Aquila and Symmachus (interpreted) "road of the spies." There "the Canaanite who lived in the Negreb" (south) came and fought the Israelite in the desert.

Aiēor Achelgai.17 Symmachus (interpreted) "on the hills." It is said to be "fronting Moab" (now) Areopolis, "on the east."

Arnōn.18 [A high cliff] "which extends from the territory of the Amorrites" situated between "Moab and the Amorrites" it is also the "border of Moab." Which is Areopolis in Arabic. Today a place called Arnon is pointed out by the nearby inhabitants extending north to Areopolis. Units of soldiers are spread out there to guard it because of the dangers in that place (soldiers from many forts are spread out because of the many bloody and formidable invasions). Once Sehon, king of the Amorrites, took it from the Moabites. (Once this belonged to the Moabites but Sehon, king of the Amorrites, waged war against it and took it.) Afterwards it was given to the children of Israel who took possession of the territory beyond the Jordan reaching from the Arnon to Mt.Hermon and Lebanon. (The territory of the children of Israel beyond the Jordan beginning at the Arnon extends up to Mt.Hermon and Lebanon.)

Ar.19 Place (or city) on the Arnon which according to the Septuagint LXX (hereafter LXX) [the Septuagint interprets with a long vowel] Er.

Aēsimōn.20 Place in the desert [in short this word itself signifies arid land or desert].

Abelsattein (Abelsattim).21 Place in the desert "to the west of Moab" (south).

Azōr(Iazer).22 "Boundary of the children of Ammon" (border city of Ammon) which is called Philadelphia now. It along with Philadelphia delimits the region of the Amorrites. There is eight miles (about) from Philadelphia a village Azer (Iazer) remaining today.

Aroēr.23 "It is on the edge of the Wadi Arnon." A city of Moab which the Emin, an ancient people, once possessed, which the children of Lot, that is those from Moab, seized [and overthrew the former inhabitants]. It is today pointed out perched on the brow of the mountain where the torrent flows through the gorge (abruptly) to the Dead Sea. Aroer was given by lot to the tribe of Gad and is said to be "toward" (opposite) "Rabba."

Astarōth.24 The ancient city of Og [king of Basan] where giants dwelled. It was given to the tribe of Manasse. It is located in the Batanea six miles from Adraa a city of Arabia. Adraa is twenty-five miles from Bostra. Note also the previous Astaroth Karaein.

Agrou Skopia.25 (Lookout). Mountain of Moab to which Balac [son of Sepphor] brought Balaam "on the peak of cursing" overlooking the Dead Sea. It is still pointed out not far from the Arnon. (Diviner to curse against Israel above the precipice which because it falls quite strongly is called "cleft" and impinges over the Dead Sea not far from the Arnon.)

Arabōth Mōab.26 Where the people were numbered a second time. Aquila "on the plain of Moab." Symmachus "on the field of Moab." "It is on the Jordan opposite Jericho." A place is pointed out now near Mt.Phogor which is located on the road from Livias to Hesebon of Arabia opposite Jericho.

Araba. Aquila 27 "In the plain." Symmachus "in the field." Theodotion "in the west." Symmachus also once "uncultivatable."

Astarōth(Ataroth).28 Ancient city of the Amorrites in Peraia [across the Jordan] which was given by lot to the tribe of Gad. Adtaroth is also the name of the son of Salma or Salomon according to Paralipomenon.

AstarōthSōphar(AtarothSofan).29 This is also a city of the tribe of Gad.

Arad.30 City of the Amorrites near the desert of Cades. There is now (shown) a village four miles from Malaatha, and twenty from Hebron. Tribe of Juda.

Asemōna.31 A city in the desert south of Judaea. It determines the border between Egypt and the sea [and the lot of] the tribe of Juda. Note another [Asemōna above], a camp [of the children of Israel].

Akrabbein (Acrabbi).32 Eastern boundary of Judaea. Tribe of Juda. There is a large village nine miles east of Neapolis on the road descending via the so-called Akrabattine toward the Jordan at Jericho. The Akrabbein is said to be also the region of the Amorrites from which according to Judges "the tribe of Nephthali did not drive out" the heathen.

Asadadda (Asadada).33 Northern boundary of Judaea.

[Arad.34 This is also a boundary of Judaea], twenty miles south of Hebron. Note another above.

Asarēnan(Asarenam).35 Northern boundary of Judaea.

Aserna (Asernai).36 This is also a boundary of Judaea.

Arbēla.37 Eastern boundary of Judaea. There is a village of Arbela across the Jordan in the region of Pella, a city of Palestine. Another Arbela lies in the Great Plain nine mile north from Legeon.

Aulōn.38 [Not Greek as one might think since this is a Hebrew word] The Great long plain is still called the Aulon. It is bordered on both sides by mountains [and is very long] extending from Lebanon to the desert of Pharan. In the Aulon [that is the valley plain] is the famous city [Tiberias] and nearby the lake, Scythopolis, Jericho and the Dead Sea and their surrounding regions. The Jordan flows through the midst of the whole region (which river) arising from the springs near Paneas and disappearing into the Dead Sea.

Amalēkitis(Amalecitis).39 Territory in the desert to the south of Judaea beyond the city called Petra going toward Aila. The Scripture emphasizes this, "Amalek lived in the region of the Negeb (south)." From this region other Canaanites came and fought the children of Israel in the desert. The same Scripture testifies "The Amalecites and Canaanites are living in the valley."

Araba.40 [Aquila "plain." Symmachus] "field." Note above also. There is a village called Araba in the district of Diocaesarea [which was formerly called Safforinia] and another about three miles west of Scythopolis.

Amman.41 This is now Philadelphia, a famous city of Arabia. "The Raphaim formerly lived" there. The sons of Lot drove out the inhabitants who lived there in Amman before them.

Argob.42 Territory of the kingdom of Og [king of Basan] above the Jordan which was taken [by lot] by the half tribe of Manasse. There is even now a village called Erga near Gerash, a city of Arabia, fifteen miles to the west. It is interpreted by Symmachus "outskirts."

Asēdōth.43 City of the Amorrites which was given [by lot] to the tribe of Ruben. It is called Asedoth Phasga which is "hewn in rock" (in our tongue "cut away").

Abareim (Abarim).44 The mountain on which Moses died. It is said to be "Mt.Nebo which is in the land of Moab facing Jericho "beyond the Jordan on the summit of Phasga." The very same names are pointed out when one goes from Livias to Hesebon near Mt.Phogor itself which still bears that name, from which the territory is also even now called Phasga.

Auōth Iaeir (Avothiair).45 [Which is interpreted "home of Iair."] It is in Basan (where there are sixty villages in Mt.Galaad). There is a village Iaeir in the mountains of Galaad which was taken (by lot) by the half tribe of Manasse. It is now in the place called Gonia (Golan) in the (region of) Batanaea.


Antilibanos (Antilibanus).46 What is beyond the Lebanon to the East toward (near) region of Damascus (is called Antilibanus). Tribe of Manasse (which the tribe of Manasse received by lot).

Azēka(Azeca).47 City of the Chanaanites to which Josue pursued the five kings. It was given to the tribe of Juda. There is even now a village called Azeka between Eleutheropolis and Jerusalem.

Ailōm(Aialon).48 Ravine. Where "the moon" stood when Josue prayed, near the village which is even today called Aialon, three miles from Bethel to the east. It is near Gabaa and Rama, cities of Saul. [The Hebrews assert the town of Aialon to be near Nicopolis in the second mile on the road to Jerusalem.]

Achōr.49 The valley called Achor [in Hebrew emecachor which means valley of confusion or violence because of the confusion or violence in Israel] where they stoned Achor (Achan), who stole what was under ban from whom Achor is named. It lies north of Jericho and is even now the name by those nearby [by the inhabitants. Mentioned by Osee the prophet.]

Asēdōth.50 This is another city [not that which has the same name above] which Josue fought, killing its king.

Asōr.51 City of King Jabin which Josue burned because it was alone "chief of all the kingdoms of the foreigners (Philistines)." There is even now another village called Asor in the eastern region of Ascalon. Give [by lot] to the tribe of Juda. Scripture also knows the new Asor [calling it so to distinguish it from the old].

Aermōn.52 Territory of the Hevites captured by Josue. [The Hebrews properly as the reading indicates, affirm that Mt. Hermon is near Paneas which was once held by the Hevites and the Amorrites, from where in summer delicacies of snow are brought down now to Tyre.]

Alak (Aalac).53 Aquila "division of the mountain." Symmachus "smooth mountain" [that is clear or slippery]. A mountain above Paneas.

Aermōn.54 Mountain of the Amorrites [which is reported] the Phoenicians called Sanior and the Amorrites called it "This Sanir." They say it is the mountain even now called Mt. Hermon which is revered as a shrine by the gentiles (on its summit is a wonderful temple where the people worship) opposite (near) Paneas and Lebanon. To the east is the boundary of the inheritance of the children of Israel beyond the Jordan (extends) from Mt.Hermon to the Wadi Arnon.

Anōb.55 A city which Josue fought. There is even now a village near Diospolis, four miles to the east called Betoannaba. [Others however affirm it located eight miles from there and is called Bethannaba.]

Asdōd.56 Which is also (now called) Azotus. The Enacim remained in it (giants as they were called). Today it is a famous city of Palestine. It was in the lot of the tribe of Juda.

Ader.57 A city which Josue fought, killing its king.

Aphek (Afec).58 A city which Josue also fought, killing its king.

Aksaph (Acsaf).59 This king Josue also fought. It is reported there is a village (called) Chasalous in the plain below Mt.Thabor eight miles from Diocaesarea.

Akkarōn(Accaron).60 (In) tribe of Dan [or as I determine in the tribe of Juda]. "It is counted among the Chanaanites." One city of the five satrapies of the heathen (Palestine) which was also allotted to the tribe of Judah. But they did not possess it since they did not destroy the heathen (never were able to expel the original inhabitants from it). There is also a large village of Jews called Accaron between Azotus and Iamnia to the east. [Some believe Accaron to be the Tower of Strato afterwards called Caesarea.]

Azōtos(Azotus).61 Which is called (above) Asdod. The (not ignoble) city of Palestine still remains. Formerly one of the five satraps of the heathen which was also allotted to Juda, but they did not possess it because they did not destroy the heathen (were not able to expel the original inhabitants).

Askalōn(Ascalon).62 A renowned city of Palestine. Formerly one of the five satrapies (of the heathen) which was allotted to Judah but they did not possess it because they did not destroy the heathen (were not able to overcome its inhabitants).

Apheka (Afeca).63 Boundary "of the Amorrites" beyond the Jordan which was given to the tribe of Ruben. There is now a large village (castle) called Aphec near Hippos a city of Palestine.

Algad (Agad).64 (Located) "at (the foot of) Mt.Hermon."

Aimath (Aemoth).65 City of the valley was given to Ruben. They say there is now a village Amathous in the lower Peraea (beyond the Jordan), south of Pella. Another village near Gadaranis (named) Emmath where there is hot water (where hot water flows forth) for hot baths. In Kings it is said, "from the entrance of Emath unto the sea of the Arabia" (that is wilderness) which is the Dead Sea. [I have however discovered upon investigation a city of Coele Syria called Aemath which is now called Epifania in the Greek tongue.]

Ammon.66 Beyond the Jordan. City of the tribe of Gad. It is Amman or Philadelphia, a famous city of Arabia.

Adira.67 (In) the tribe of Juda near the desert. There is another village in the region of Diospolis near Thamnitike which region itself is called after the village Thamna.

Akarka.68 Symmachus "the ground." A village near the desert. Tribe of Juda.

Achōr.69 (In) the [tribe of Juda. Note also above.

Adommim].70 (Lot of) the tribe of Juda. (Once) a little village, now deserted. The place is called Maledamim on the road going down from Jerusalem to Jericho. A garrison is there. [In Greek "the ascent of blood." The Latin also calls it the ascent of red or redness for the blood of those so often poured out by the soldiers. It is also on the boundary of the tribes of Juda and Benjamin. A fort of soldiers is located there to help travelers. This is the place of the wounded and bloodied of which the Lord speaks in the Parable of the one going down from Jerusalem to Jericho.]

Amam.71 (In) the tribe of Juda.

Aser.72 (In) the tribe of Juda. There is now a large village called Aser on the road from Azotus to Ascalon.

Asarsoual (Asarsual).73 (In) the tribe of Juda.

Ain.74 (In) the tribe of Juda. (City) set aside for priests. There is now a village called Bethanin two miles from the terebinth (that is the tent of Abraham) and four from Hebron.

Asthaōl.75 (In) the tribe of Juda. There is (remains today) now a (little) village called Astha between Azotus and Ascalon.

Asna.76 (In) the tribe of Juda.

Adolam (Adollam).77 (In) the tribe of Juda. A large (not small) village (called by that name) is now ten miles east of Eleutheropolis.

Adiathaim (Adithaim).78 (In the lot of) the tribe of Juda. It is reported that there is a village Adia near Gaza and another Adatha near Diospolis to the east.

Adasa.79 (In) the tribe of Juda. There is now even a village near Gophna. [But I wonder how Gufna region can possibly be in the tribe of Juda. Evidently it should be as again in the Book of Josue I is given to the lot of Ephraim.]

Ather.80 (In) the tribe of Juda.

Asan.81 (In) the tribe of Juda. There is now also a village called Bethasan in the region of Jerusalem sixteen miles (in the fifteenth) to the west.

Asema.82 (In) the tribe of Juda.

Achzeib (Agzif).83 (In) the tribe of Juda.

Anab.84 (In) the tribe of Juda. It is even now in the in the boundary of Eleutheropolis. Also another large village of the Jews called Ania in the Daroma nine miles south Hebron.

Asthemō(Asthemof).85 (In) the tribe of Juda. This village (of the Jews) is also in the Daroma north of Aneon.

Aneim (Anim).86 (In) the tribe of Juda. Another Anaia near the former (of which we spoke above) now happens to be wholly Christian (all its inhabitants are Christians) to the east of the first.

Aphaka (Afeca).87 (In) the tribe of Juda.

Amata (Ammata).88 (In) the tribe of Juda.

Arebba.89 (In) the tribe of Juda.

Archiatarōth(Ataroth).90 City of the tribe of Joseph [near Rama in the tribe of Joseph].

Atarōth.91 (City of) the tribe of Ephraim. There is now also a village Ataros four miles north of Sebaste (it is said).

Adar.92 City of the tribe of Ephraim.

Asēr.93 City of the tribe of Manasse. There is also now (pointed out) a village called thus on the road (descending) from Neapolis to Scythopolis in the fifteenth mile near the main highway.

Atarōth.94 City of the lot (tribe) of Benjamin. There are now two Ataroths near Jerusalem.

Anathōth.95 City or the lot of Benjamin. Set aside for priests near Jerusalem at the third milestone. The home of Jeremia the prophet.

Adar (Addar).96 City of the lot of Benjamin.

Ailmōn(Aelomon).97 City or lot (tribe) of Benjamin. Set aside for priests.

Amekkasis (Amez-casis).98 City or lot of Benjamin [that is valley of Casis in tribe of Benjamin].

[Aueim (Avim).99 (In tribe of) lot of Benjamin.]

Aphra.100 (In tribe of) lot of Benjamin. There is also even now a village Aphra (in of Bethel) five miles to the east.

Ammōenia(Ammoeniam).101 (In the tribe of) lot of Benjamin.

Aphnei (Afni).102 (In tribe of) lot of Benjamin.

Alph.103 Lot of Benjamin. (This entry is missing in Latin.)

Arēm(Arim).104 (In tribe of) lot of Benjamin. It in now a village near Diospolis called Bethariph.

Amsa.105 (In tribe of) lot of Benjamin.

Asar.106 (In tribe of) lot of Simeon.

Anan.107 (In tribe of) lot of Simeon.

Amarchabob.108 (In tribe of) lot of Simeon.

Ain.109 (In tribe of) lot of Juda or Simeon. Priestly city.

Asenna.110 (In tribe of) lot of Simeon.

Ammathar.111 (In tribe of) lot of Zabulon.

Anoua (Anua).112 (In tribe of) lot of Zabulon. There is another village Anoua on the road from Neapolis to Jerusalem at the fifteenth (tenth) milestone.

Anathōn.113 (In the tribe of) lot of Zabulon.

Acheselōth(Achaseloth).114 City of (tribe of) lot of Issachar. They say there is a village (called) Chaalous in the plain by Mt.Tabor eight miles east of Diocaesarea (as we said above).

Aiphraim (Aefraim).115 City of (tribe of) lot of Issachar. There is a village Aphraia called Aphraia six miles north of Legeōn.

Anerth (Anereth).116 (In) lot of (tribe of) Issachar.

Aims (Aemes).117 (In) lot of (tribe of) Issachar.

Achsaph (Achsaf).118 (In tribe of) lot of Aser.

Alimelech.119 Lot of Aser.

Amod (Amath).120 (In tribe of) lot of Aser.

Abdōn.121 (In tribe of) lot of Aser. [City separated to Levites.]

Aneiēl(Aniel).122 (In tribe of) lot of Aser. There is a village (named) Baitonnaia, fifteen miles east of Caesarea, lying in the mountains were there are said to be healing baths.

Achran.123 (In tribe of) city of Aser.

Armmōn.124 (In tribe of) lot of Aser.

Akchō(Accho).125 It is now called Ptolemais. Lot of Aser where Aser "did not destroy" the heathen (drive out the former inhabitants).

[Achzeiph (Achzif).126 (In tribe of) lot of Aser, from which they did not destroy the heathen] (in which the foreigners remained). It is Ekdippa, nine miles from Ptolemais, on the road to Tyre.

Amma.127 Lot of Aser.

Aphek (Afec).128 Lot of Aser from which they did not destroy the heathen (in which the early inhabitants remained).

Ademmei (Ademme).129 (In tribe of) lot of Nephthali.

Asedeim (Aseddim).130 (In tribe of) lot of Nephthali.

Amath.131 (In tribe of) lot of Nephthali.

Adami.132 (In tribe of) lot of Nephthali.

Asōr.133 Lot of Nephthali. (It is written) the King of Assyria also destroyed this.

Azanōth.134 Boundary of Nephthali. (Now there is also) a village in the plain in the region of Diocaesarea.

Ailōn.135 City of the lot of Dan. Separated to the Levites. A village of Alon is near Nicopolis. Before "Ailon" Origen (Septuagint) interprets "where there were bears."


Arad.136 City where "the children of Iothor (omitted pr. n.), of Iobab father-in-law of Moses" dwelled in the midst of Israel.

Ared.137 Spring beside which Gadeon camped.

Arisōth.138 City of Sisara, general of Jabin. Tabis is now a great city (village) beyond the Jordan six miles from the city of Pella on the road to Geresh.

[Ares.139 Ascet of Hares. Aquila "thicket." Symmachus "mountain."]

Aroueir (Aruir).140 Where Jephte fought. It is a village in the mountains six miles north of Jerusalem.

Arima.141 Where Abimelech was crowned.

Aialon (Aialin).142 City "in the land of Zabulon." Home of Elon the judge of Israel.

Abel.143 Of the vineyards. Where Jephte fought. Land of the children of Amman. There is even now a village Abela, a fertile vineyard, (to be seen in the seventh) six miles from Philadelphia. Also another famous wine producing city called Abela is twelve miles east of Gadara. And there is (still) a third Abela of the Phoenicians (in Phoenicia) between Damascus and Paneas.


Armthem Seipha (Sofim).144 City of Elcana and Samuel. It is situated (in the region of Thamna) near Diospolis. The home of Joseph who was from Arimathea in the Gospels.

Abenezer.145 A stone of help (hearing or of help). Place where "the heathen carried away the ark of the covenant" between Jerusalem and Ascalon near the village of Bethaamas.

Aphesdomeim (Afesdomim).146 Where Saul fought. Aquila (interprets) "on the boundary of Dommein."

Anegb (Annegeb).147 Aquila "south." Symmachus "south."

Arith.148 Where David dwelled. There is a village (named) Arath west of Jerusalem.

Aialim.149 Aquila (translates) "of the deer." Theodotion "the stones of the deer."

Aendōr.150 (Which is "in Jezrahel" where the children of Israel prepared for battle. There is now a large town Endor four miles south of Mt.Thabor.

Aphek (Afec).151 Near Endor of Jezrahel where the war broke out against Saul.

Arma.152 Where David sent some of "the spoils."

Athach.153 Where David sent some of the "spoils."

Amma.154 "By the wilderness road of Gabaon."

Aeththam Adassai (Aethon Adasai).155 (Which for Symmachus is (interpreted) "the lower road."

Alōn Area Orna.156 This is Jerusalem.

Assour.157 City in Judaea which Solomon built.

Abelmaelai (Abelmaula).158 One of the capital cities of Solomon. Home of Eliseus (the prophet). There is now a village called Bethmaela (Bethmaula) in the Aulon [of which we have spoken above], ten miles from Scythopolis (to the south). There is also a (little village Abelmea seen on the road from (between) Neapolis to (and) Scythopolis.

Auothiaeir (Avothiair).159 One of the capital cities of Solomon.

Ailath.160 "On the shore of the red sea in the land of Edom." Note above Ailas also.

Ailōth(Aeloth).161 Azarias built this.

Ainda (Aenda).162 Asa (the king) fought against this (and overthrew it).

Asiōn Babai(Asiongaber).163 (Which is also Asion Gaber. There the ships of Josaphat were broken (the fleet was destroyed). It is said to be Aisla (Essia) quite near Aila beside the Red Sea.

Alae (Alle), Abor, Gozan.164 (Names) of rivers in the territory of the Medes on whose mountains Israel was resettled (was led away captive).

Abena (Abana).165 River of Damascus.

Aophsith (Aofsithe).166 Or Aphousoth which Aquila (understands) "in freedom."

Aian.167 The "king of Assyria" captured this.

Aia.168 [Place in the territory of Assyria.

Ainath] (Ameth).169 Territory of Assyria.

Asimath (Asima).170 [City in the land of Judaea which] those from Aimath (Emath) built there.

Arkem (Arcem).171 According to Josephus this is Petra the famous city of Palestine.

Adramelech.172 Assyrian idol. The same as Anemelech (Latin omits this phrase) [which the Samaritans worshiped] which were the gods of the Samaritans.

Arōnieim(Aroniim).173 A road (according to) Isaia. Aquila Oronaim, Symmachus Aranneim. In the vision "against the Moabs."

[Agalleim (Agallim).174 Isaia (also mentions this) in his vision "against the Moabites."] There is now the village Aigalleim (Aegalim) eight miles south of Areopolis.

Aileim (Aelim).175 Well of Deimmon (Dimon). [This place is also recorded in] Isaia in the vision "against the Moabites."

Arina (omitted in Latin) or also Ariel.176 Aquila and Symmachus "lion of God." It is asserted that this is (the same as) Areopolis since the inhabitants of Areopolis still call their idol Ariel worshiping Ares (that is Mars) from whom the city (supposedly) is named. [It seems to be, however, that as a consequence of the prophetic text Ariel signifies allegorically Jerusalem or the temple itself, and that is the lion of God who bears the rule strongly and powerfully. Concerning this I speak more fully in the book Hebrew Questions.]

Adama.177 (In Isaia). Aquila and Symmachus "ground," Theodotion (interprets) "land."

Agros (Ager).178 Of the fullers. According to Isaia. The place is pointed out now in the suburbs of Jerusalem.

[Asedek (Asedec).179 Isaia the prophet predicts the future of this place in Egypt. Remember, however, that in Hebrew this name should be written Aares which is dryness and some interpret "'in the sun," but others translate "in the clay" probably designating either Heliopolis or Ostracinas. But these disputed matters are discussed more fully in the book Hebrew Questions.]

Arphad (Arfad).180 City of Damascus against which the King of Assyria fought. (as it is written) in Isaia, Jeremia and Kings.

Anaeougaua (Aneugaua).181 In Isaia. Aquila [Ane and Gaua]. Symmachus "rouse up" and "humiliate." [Perhaps the U syllable in the middle of the word should be interpreted as the conjunction "and."] Also in Kings (we read about this also in Kings).

Armenia.182 (In) Isaia (Which is) Ararat. Sarasa (Latin omits).

Asel (Asael).183 Zachariah mentions this.

Anamaēl(Anameel).184 Tower of Jerusalem [as written in the book of] Zachariah.

Asademōth(Assaremoth).185 In Jeremia. In Hebrew "of Sademoth" (is written). Aquila "the suburbs."

Aeniōth.186 In Jeremia. Aquila "workshop" (or shop).

Alōth(Alaoth).187 In Jeremia. (For which) in Hebrew Louith (Luith is written).

Aitham (Aethan).188 In Jeremia. (Which) Aquila (interprets) "firm" ("powerful"). Symmachus "ancient."


Akeldama (Aceldama).189 "Field of blood." in the Gospels. It is even now pointed out on the north (south side) of Mt. Zion in Jerusalem.

Ainōn(Aenon).190 "Near Saleim" (Salim), where John baptized according to the Gospel of John. The place is pointed out even now eight miles south of Scythopolis near Salalm (Salim) and the Jordan.



Babel (Which is also) Babylon.191 Interpreted "confusion." It was the city of Nemrod, king of the giants. Where the tongues of those who designed the tower were confused, whose chief, Josephus affirms, had been Nimrod. He also is a witness to the story about the tower which the Greek Sibylline taught, saying. "The place in which they built the tower" is now called Babylon because of the obvious confusion of their first language. The Hebrews called that confusion Babel. [Because of the confusion of the speech of those who were building the most high tower with all zeal since the Hebrews call confusion Babel.] Concerning this tower and the dialects of man the Sibylline also recalls writing thus. All mankind had one language but some built a high tower so they might climb up to heaven by it. The gods sending winds overturned the tower and gave to each his own (peculiar and unique) language. And so because of this the city is called Babylon."

Baithēl(Bethel).192 It is now a village twelve miles from Jerusalem to the right of the road going to Neapolis. It was formerly called Oulamma and also Luza. It was given to (the lot of) the tribe of Benjamin, near Bethaven and Gai. Josue also fought there killing the king. [Further, since some hold Ulammaus to be the old form following the error of the Greek volume, they err greatly. Surely the word is Hebrew and they appear to have confused the name of the city with Ulam meaning "first," i.e., former, while Luza really means "almond." So properly Bethel was first called Luza. Neither this nor Bathaun should be looked for in another city since the Hebrews reckoned them to be Bethel. But from the time of Jeroboam, son of Nabat, made there the Golden calves and the ten tribes worshiped there, it has been called Betraun, i.e., "House of God." But we have spoken of this fully in the book Hebrew Questions.]

Bala.193 "That is Sigor (Segor) It is now called Zoora (Zoara), the only one [of the five cities] of the territory of Sodom [cursed by Lot] which escaped. It is now inhabited (remains still) in the vicinity of the Dead Sea. A garrison of (Roman) soldiers is (stationed) there (a peculiar people crowd in there.) The Balsam and the date palm in the land surrounding it proves the ancient fertility of the place. [Nothing is wrong because Segor is said to be Zoara, for they are the same word for "very little" or "little." It is Segor in Hebrew and Zoara in Syriac. Bala however is interpreted "swallowed." On this we have spoken fully in the book: Hebrew Questions.]

Belanos (Belanus).194 "Mourning" (i.e., oak) under which Rebecca's nurse died and was buried.

Barad.195 "Between Cades and Barad the well of Agar is even now pointed out.

Bēthlehem.196 [City of David. In the lot of the] tribe of Juda (in which our Lord and Savior was born.] It is six miles south of Jerusalem near the road descending to Hebron. There the tombs of Jesse and David are pointed out. [One mile farther. near the tower of Ader, which means "tower of the flock," is where the shepherds heard prophetically of the Lord's birth before it happened. Also near this same Bethlehem is pointed out the tomb of one of the kings of Judaea, Archalaeus, which is reached first on a narrow path diverting from the main highway to our cell.] Also called Bēthleemis the son of Efratha, (i.e. of Mary) according to Paralipomenon (book it is fully spoken. Read the story well!).


Beelsephōn(Beelrefon).197 Station of the children of Israel near the desert going out of Egypt through the waters, near the Red Sea.


Banēiakan(Baneiacan).198 Station on the desert in the journey of the people (children of Israel).

Bamōth.199 City of the Amorrites near the Jordan in the region of the Arnon which the sons of Ruben took.

Basan.200 [Of which is written above] "Og, king of Basan." This is also the Maachathites who are called Aouth Iaeir (that is resident Iair). And the (half-) tribe of Manasse received it (by lot). Located in the Galaad, it is the region of the Basanites which is now called Batanaia.

Beelphegōr(Baelfegor).201 (Which is interpreted "idol of shame." It is the idol of Moab which is Baal on Mt.Phogor [which the Latins call Priapus. This is fully discussed in the book Hebrew Questions].

Baian (Baean).202 City of the Amorrites which the sons of Ruben took.

Bēthnamran (Bethamnaram).203 Across the Jordan. Which the tribe of Gad built. There is even now a village Bethnampris five miles north of Livias.

[Betharran.204 Across the Jordan. Which the tribe of Gad built.]

Beelmeōn.205 Across the Jordan. Which the sons of Ruben built. There is a large village near the hot waters of Baara [where the water springs freely from the earth] called Beelmaous of Arabia, located nine miles from Hesebon. Eliseus the prophet came from here.

Baal.206 Across the Jordan. City of the sons of Ruben.

Bouthan (Buthan).207 Station of the children of Israel in the desert which is also (called) Aitham (Aetham).

Bēla.208 Eastern boundary of Judaea. Note also the above (named) Arbela.

Bosor.209 "In the desert," "across the Jordan," (given in the lot to) "the tribe of Ruben," "east of Jericho," a priestly city of refuge. This is Bostra a metropolis of Arabia. There is also another Bosor, city of Esau, now in the hills of Idumea which Isaia mentions saying, "Who is this coming from Edom? The one in red garments from Bosor?"

Bēroth.210 "Of the sons of Jakeim (Iacim)." Place in the desert where Aaron died. It is pointed out (still today) ten miles from Petra on the summit of the mountain.


Bounos.211 (That is hill) of foreskins. Place at Galgal where Josue circumcised the people (of Israel). At the second mile from Jericho is pointed out even now (today) the stones which were brought up out of the Jordan (as scripture records).

Bēthōrōn.212 To where the (enemy) kings were pursued by Josue. Given (in lot) to the sons of Joseph, that is Ephraim. There are two villages twelve miles from Jerusalem on the road to Nicopolis, [of which the near] one called [Bethoron the Lower] set apart for the Levites.

Barnē.213 This is Cades Barne, on the desert which extends up to the city of Petra.

Baalgad.214 In the plain "of the Lebanon at the foot of Mt.Hermon. Josua also captured this.

Bethphogor (Bethfogor).215 Across the Jordan. City of the sons of Ruben near Mt.Phogor, opposite Jericho, six miles above Livias.

Bēthasimouth(Bethsimuth).216 Place of (home of) Isimouth. [There is even now (up to today a village Ismouth] opposite Jericho, ten miles to the south near the Dead Sea.

Bērōth(Beeroth).217 At the foot (the hill) Gabaon. There is now (pointed out today) a village near Jerusalem on the road to Nicopolis (Neapolis) at the seventh milestone.

Botnia (Bothnim).218 Also Poteein (Latin omits). Across the Jordan, a city of the tribe of Gad. There is even now (today) a place called by this same name.

[Bētharam.219 City of the tribe of Gad near the Jordan,] which (is called) according to the Assyrians (Syrians) Bethramphtha. It is now called Livias [so named by Herod in honor of Augustus].

Bethnema.220 Across the Jordan. City (of the tribe) of Gad near Livias.

[Bethagla.221 Tribe of Juda.] There is now a village called Agla ten miles from Eleutheropolis on the road to Gaza. Also another (maritime) Bethagla by the sea eight miles (from Gaza).

Bētharaba.222 (In) the tribe of Juda.]

Baal.223 "This is Carlatihjarim, city of Iarim," (i.e., town of the forest or as some think city of Iarim) tribe of Juda. There is a village Cariathiareim (today) on the road descending from Jerusalem to Diospolis at the tenth milestone.

Baala.224 Also Bala (not in Latin). (In) tribe of Juda.

Balōth.225 (In) tribe of Juda.

Bethphalei (Bethfali).226 Also Bethelei (not in Latin). (In) tribe of Juda.

Bērsabee.227 (In) tribe of Juda or Simeon. There is now a large village twenty miles south of Hebron in which a garrison of (Roman) soldiers is stationed. Here the territory of Judaea begins extending up to Dan near Paneas. Bersabee is interpreted "well of the oath" because there Abraham and Isaac swore (a pact of alliance) with Abimelech. It is not necessary to move the cities reported in Juda which are also found in Simeon and/or Benjamin. For since the tribe of Juda excelled in war it is likely that through a successful action, in the final description of the territory it was given a share of the inheritance allotted to the other tribes. Scripture indicates quite clearly that Simeon lived in the midst of Juda. [Once the men of the tribe of Juda were most warlike, strong and numerous, dominating all as the chief tribe and so therefore the lots of other tribes are occasionally reported as bound to it. Scripture also teaches quite clearly that Simeon dwelled in the mist of the tribe of Juda.]

Balaam (Balam).228 (In) tribe of Juda.

Baskōth(Bascath).229 (In) tribe of Juda.

Bethdagōn.230 (In) tribe of Juda. There is now (still today) a large village Keparadagōn(Caferdago) [pointed out] between Diosopolis and Iamnia.

Bēthalōth.231 (In) tribe of Juda.

Bēthphou (Bathaffu).232 (In) tribe of Juda. A village fourteen miles beyond Raphia on the road to Egypt. It is the border of Palestine.

Betharaba.233 Symmachus "near the uninhabitable" [translates "in the place which is near the uninhabitable," meaning desert.]

Beesthara.234 (In) tribe of Manasse. Separated to the Levites "in the Basanite" (region).

Bethaun.235 (In) tribe of Benjamin. Near Gai and Bethel, opposite Machmas, [which some regard to be the same as Bethel as said above].

[Baliloth.236 (In) tribe of Benjamin.]

Bethsour (Bethaur).237 (In) tribe of Juda or Benjamin. There is now a village Bēthsōrōat the twentieth milestone on the road going from Jerusalem to Hebron. (Near) there is also pointed out a spring coming out of the hill where it is said the eunuch Candaces was baptized by Philipp. (There is a spring arises at the foot of the hill and bubbles forth, and is swallowed by the ground.) There is also another Bethsour (in) the tribe of Juda one mile (a thousand paces) from Eleutheropolis.

Boon.238 (In) tribe of Benjamin.

[Bēthalōn.239 (In) tribe of Benjamin.] Symmachus (interprets) "in the field."

Bēthagla(Bethalla).240 (In) tribe of Benjamin.

[Bērōth.241 (In) tribe of Benjamin.]

Bola.242 (In) lot of (tribe of) Simeon.

Bathoul.243 (In) lot of (tribe of) Simeon.

[Bēth.244 (In) lot of (tribe of) Simeon.]

Baaleth.245 (In) lot of (tribe or) Simeon.

Bērammōth.246 (In) lot of (tribe of) Simeon.

[Bēthlabaōth.247 (In) lot of (tribe of) Simeon.]

Bethleem.248 (In) lot of (tribe of Zabulon. There is another one of Juda. (Distinct from the other named Bethleem of Juda.)

Bēthphasis(Bethfases).249 (In) tribe of Issachar.

Batnai (Batnae).250 (In) tribe of Aser. Now a village called Bethbeten (about) eight miles east of Ptolemais.

Bēthdagōn.251 Linking up "with Zabulon." Lot of Issachar. (Place where the two tribes Zebulon and Issachar have common borders.)

Bēthaemek (Bethemec).252 Symmachus (interprets) "of the valley" (place of the valley). Lot of Aser.

Bēthanatha(Bethana).253 (In) tribe of Nephthali. There is a village (named) Batanaia fifteen miles from Caesarea in which there are said to be healing baths. Note also (under the name) Anaia above.

Banē.254 (In) tribe of Dan.

Barakai (Barac).255 (In) tribe of Dan. There is even now [a little] village (called) Barka (Bareca) near Azotos.


Bezek (Bezec).256 City of (king) Adonibezek. There are now two villages (named) Bezek near each other seventeen miles from Neapolis on the road to Scythopolis (descending to).

Bēthsan.257 The tribe of Manasse "did not destroy" the heathen of this city (were not able to expel the original inhabitants). It is (now called) Scythopolis, a famous Palestinian city. The Scriptures call it also the house of San, which (in our language is interpreted "enemy") is "house of enmity."

Bethsames.258 Priestly city of (in) tribe of Benjamin. It is even now (today pointed out about) ten miles east of Eleutheropolis toward Nicopolis.

Bathma (Bethnath).259 (In) lot of (the tribe of) Nephthali. They did not destroy the heathen here. (But the tribe of Nephthali could not expel the former inhabitants from here.)

[Bethsames.260 Another one.] (The former inhabitants remained here.)

Baalermōn.261 Mountain near Lebanon in the territory of the heathen (Allofylus).

Baleth (Baaleth).262 (In) lot of (tribe of) Dan.

Bethbēra.263 (Interpreted house of) water (or well) which Gideon seized (by warlike expedition).

Bēthasetta.264 Where Madian fled (turned in flight).

Balanos (i.e., oak of) Sikimōn.265 Where Abimelech reigned. It is pointed out (up to today) in the suburbs of Neapolis toward the tomb of Joseph.

Borkonneim (Borconni).266 Aquila "blackthorn" Symmachus (interpreted) "prickly plant."

Bēra.267 Where Joatham stood when he fled from Abimelech. The village (Bera) is eight miles north of Eleutheropolis.

Baalthamar.268 Near Gaba. Where the children of Israel prepared for war against the tribe of' Benjamin. This place (little town) is also (even today) called Beththamar (as noted above).


Bēthchōr (Bethchur).269 Where (up to this place) the people pursued closely (the fleeing) "heathen." It is also called "the s tone of help."

Bama.270 Where Saul ate with Samuel when he was about to be anointed king. Aquila translates for Bama "hill."

Bōsēs.271 Name of a rock. [About which we speak in the book Hebrew Questions.]

Basōr(Besor).272 Wadi to which David came.

Bōrasan.273 Where (place to which) David sent some of "the spoils."

Baoureim (Baurim).274 Where (place to which) her weeping husband followed Michol, Saul's daughter.

Baalasōr.275 "Near Ehraim" where "(the sheep) of Absalom" were shorn.

[Bēthmacha.276 (Here Joab followed the fleeing Seba and afterwards, we read, it was taken by the Assyrian king. There is now a village called) Machamim] (in the eighth mile going up from Eleutheropolis to Jerusalem).

Balth (Balaath).277 City which Solomon built.

Baithsarisa (Bethsarisa).278 Where the man came to (the prophet) Eliseus (with his gifts). It is in the boundary of (a village of) Diospolis fifteen miles to the north in the Thamnitica.

Baithaggan (Bethagan).279 Road through which (we read) Ochozias fled.

[Basekath (Bazeoath).280 Ancient city of Judaea.]

Baithakath (Bethacath).281 (Village of Samaria) to which Jehu went. There is a village of Samaria (located not more than) fifteen Miles from (the city of) Legeōnin the great plain. Aquila (interprets) "house of bending" Symmachus "separated house." [This is because of the narrow and low entrance of such a separated house and because one is not able to stand up on entering.]

Baithannē (Baenith).282 Also Bainith. The Samaritans (who were brought from) Babylon built this.

Bublos (Byblus).283 City of the Phoenicians. In Ezechiel. For this the Hebrews have Gobel.

Boubastos (Bubastus).284 City of Egypt in Ezechiel.

Bōz.285 In the land of Kedar. In Jeremia (as Jeremia writes).

Bēl.286 Idol of Babylon.


Bēthsaida.287 City of "Andrew and Peter" and Philipp (the apostles). Located in Galilee on (near) the Lake of Gennesareth.

Bēthphagē(Bethfage).288 (Little) village on the Mt. of Olives where the Lord Jesus came.

Bēthania.289 Village two miles from Jerusalem on the slope of the Mt. of Olives where the Christ (Savior) raised Lazarus. The place (tomb) of Lazarus is pointed out even now [where a church has been constructed.]

Bēthaabara(Bethabara).290 "Where John was baptizing" (the penitent) "across the Jordan." The place is pointed out where many of the brothers even now consider it an honor to wash. (Where today many of the brothers, the believers, desiring a renewal of life are baptized in the Depths.)

Bēzatha(Bethsaida).291 Pool in Jerusalem which is (called probatike and interpreted by us) "sheep." Once it had five porticos. There are now pointed out twin pools, of which one is filled by the rain water (winter rains) and the other it appears that the water becomes miraculously red, as they say, bearing the traces of the sacrificial victims formerly washed in it. So it is called the sheep after the sacrifice. (Red like blood which in itself is seen as a sign of old. The sacrificial victims were brought unbound by the priests into the bath, whence it received its name.)



Gaiōn(Geon).292 The Nile according to the Egyptians, arising out of Paradise and encircling "all of Ethiopia."

Gomorra.293 One of the five cities of Sodom (which divine punishment) destroyed at the same time as the rest.

Gerara.294 The Geraritike is now called after this, (the region) beyond the Daroma. Twenty-five miles south of Eleutheropolis. It is the old southern boundary of the Chanaanites and a royal city of the Philistines (metropolis of Palestine). It is located, as Scripture affirms, "between Cades and Sur" (i.e., between) two deserts. The one adjoins Egypt whence the people came having come through the (straits of the) Red Sea. The other (true) Cades extends up to the desert of the Saracens.

Galaad.295 Mountain to which Jacob went fleeing from Laban, a full "seven days" journey from Haran. It is situated back of Phoenicia and Arabia, connected with (the hills of) Lebanon, extending through the desert as far as Petra beyond the Jordan. There Sehon the Amorrite dwelled. It (the above mentioned mountain) was given by lot to the sons of Ruben and [Gad and the half-tribe of Menasse. In Jeremia it is said], "Galaad, [you are to me] like the peak of Lebanon." There is also a city Galaad set on the mountain with the same name. "The descendants of Machir son of Manasse" took Galaad from the Amorrites.

Gader.296 Tower where Jacob dwelled and Ruben violated the bed (of his father). [Since the letter G is absent in Hebrew it is written Ader.]

Gethem (Gethaim).297 According to the Hebrew, Aueith (Auith). City of Adad, the fourth to rule the land of Edom in Idumaea now called Gebalene.

Gesem.298 District in Egypt in which Jacob dwelled with his sons.


Gasiōn(Gaber).299 Station of the children of Israel in the desert as it is in Numbers and in Deuteronomy. It is the city of Esau. It is thought to be Asian (Essiam) near the Red Sea and Aila.

Gai.300 Station of the children of Israel in the desert. There is even now (said to be) a city Gaia (of Palestine) near (the city of) Petra.

GelmōnDeblathaeim(Gelmōn Deblathaim).301 Station (i.e., halting place of the children of Israel) in the desert.

Gadgad.302 Mountain in the desert. Station of the children of Israel. (Where the children of Israel made camp.)

Gaza.303 City of the Avvim in which the Caphthorim dwelled who destroyed the Avvim (the former inhabitants). The ancient boundary of the Chanaanites with Egypt. It was allotted to the tribe of Juda but they did not possess it and did not expel the heathen from it. [The Enacim, i.e., giants, of the Allofylus remained most strong.] It remains even now a famous city of Palestine. [It is still to be inquired after since the prophet said Gaza would be an everlasting mound in the future. The solution is: the place of the ancient city hardly shows traces of foundations, yet that which is now seen was in a place different from the one which was destroyed.]

Gergasei (Gergasi).304 Located on the Jordan near the city of the Galaad (City of Transjordan near tribe Mt.Galaad) which the tribe of Manasse received. It is said to be Gerash the famous city of Arabia. Some affirm it to be Gadara. But the Gospel mentions the Gerassenes (Gergessenes).

Gadgada.305 Where "there is a torrent of water" a place in the desert.

Gaulōnor Gōlan(Gōlam).306 (In) the tribe of Manasse. A priestly city of refuge "in the Basanitide." Now a great city (large village) called Golan in the Batanaia. The city and the district have the same name. (From this name the whole region is also named.)

Gaibal (Gebal).307 Mountain in the Promised Land where Moses commanded an altar to be built (at the command of Moses an alter was built). They say (there are) two neighboring mountains facing each other located at (near) Jericho, one of which (is said) to be Garizin, the other Gaibal. But the Samaritans erroneously point out two others near Neapolis (argue for two mountains near Neapolis but they err greatly) since the great distance of one from the other there shows that they are not able to hear one another when calling out from one (hear the voices calling out in turn blessing or cursing as Scripture records).

Garizein (Garizin).308 Mountain where those calling out the blessing (curse) stood. Read the above mentioned Gaibal (Gebal).

Golgol or Galgal.309 The Scriptures teach this is near Mt.Garisein and Mt.Gaibal. The place of Galgal is in the Jericho region (near Jericho). [Therefore the Samaritans err who would point out Mt.Gairsin and Mt.Gebal near Neapolis which Scripture testifies are near Galgal.]

Gai.310 "In the land of Moab." Ravine of Moab. "Near the house of Phogor" where Moses is buried.


Galgala.311 This is the above mentioned Golgol, "to the east" of old Jericho going toward the Jordan. There Josue circled with the people and made "the Passover" using wheat for the first time after the cessation of the manna. (In this place) He set up stones from (carried from the bed of) "the Jordan." The tent of witness remained there. Given by lot to the tribe of Juda. The deserted place is pointed out [two miles from Jericho which the people] today worship as holy (some men of that region hold in holy awe). Another Galgala is found (is looked for) around (near) Bethel.

Gai.312 It is near Bethaun and Bethel. Josue attacked it killing its king. It is now deserted. (Now only a ruined place is shown.) The Amorrites from the Jordan formerly inhabited it.

Gabaon.313 From whence came the Gabaonites in order to make supplication to Josue. It was (once) a great metropolis and capital (royal city) of the Hevites which was given by lot to (tribe of) Benjamin. There is even now a village called the same (pointed out) near Bethel, four miles to the west on the road to Rama. (It lies near Rama and Remmon.) Set aside for Levites near Remmaa. Here Solomon while he was sacrificing (animals) was found worthy of an oracle from God.

Gaibe (Gaba).314 Lot of Benjamin. [City set aside for Levites.

Gazer.315 (In) lot of (tribe of) Ephraim.] (City) set aside for Levites. Josue attacked it killing its king. (Later) Solomon built it up. Now called Gazara, a village four miles north of Nicopolis. (Quite obvious) the tribe of Ephraim did not capture it from the heathen (were not able to expel from it the foreigners).

Goson.316 Josue also attacked this.

Geth.317 (In which the giants) The heathen (called) Enacim and the Philistines not being driven out remained here. There is (pointed out) even now a village (in the fifth mile) on the road from Eleutheropolis to Diospolis five miles from Eleutheropolis.

Gesoureim (Gesom).318 City of the heathen. This is the same as Gargasei in the Basanitide from which the children of Israel did not drive out the Gesoureim (were not strong enough to drive out).

Gader.319 Josue conquered (killed) its king. (We read that) Jacob "pitched his tent beyond the tower of Gadar."

Gōeinof Gelgel(Goimin Gelgel).320 Aquila and Symmachus (interpret) "of nations of Gelgel."

Gelgel.321 Josue also took this. Even now (is shown) a village (hamlet) called Galgoulis (Galgulis) six miles north of Antipatris.

Golathmaeim (Golathmaim).322 A place which is interpreted "possessing water."

Gadda.323 (In) tribe of Juda. There is now a village on "the border of the Daroma to the east above (overlooking) the Dead Sea.

Gadeira (Gadera).324 (In) tribe of Juda. There is now a village (hamlet called) Gidora (Gadora) in the district of (city of) Jerusalem around the terebinth.

Gedour (Gedur).325 (In) tribe of Juda. There is now a large village (called) Gedrous (Geddrus) ten miles from Diospolis on the road to Eleutheropolis.

Gabli.326 Land of the heathen (Allofylus).

Gisōn.327 (In) tribe of Juda.

Gelōn.328 (In) tribe of Juda.

Gadērōth.329 (In) tribe of Juda.

Gethemmōn.330 (In) tribe of Manasse. City separated to the Levites.

Gai.331 Ravine (valley or gorge).

Galennoum (Geennom).332 Which is interpreted ravine of Ennoum. This is said to be (thought) Geenna. (Given by) lot of tribe of Benjamin. It is close to the wall of Jerusalem to the East. [More fully discussed in the book Hebrew Questions.]

Geththepher.333 Lot of (in tribe of) Zabulon.

Gēephthael.334 Ravine (i.e., valley) Ephthael. Lot of (in tribe of) Zabulon.

Gabathōn.335 Lot or (in tribe of) Dan. City separated to the Levites. There is a city called Gabe sixteen miles from Caesarea and another village Gabatha on the boundary of Diocaesarea near the great plain of Legeon. And there are villages Gabaa and Gabatha in the eastern region of the Daroma. Another Gabatha, lot (tribe of) of Benjamin where Saul's home was. Still another Gabathon of the heathen as noted in Kings [near Bethlehem in the tribe of Juda].

Gethremmōn.336 Another. (Another city in tribe of) lot of Dan. Separated to the Levites. There is now a large village twelve miles from Diospolis on the road to Eleutheropolis.

Galeilōth (Galiloth).337 Place by (near) the Jordan where the sons of Ruben set up an altar (to God). (In) tribe of Benjamin.

Gaas.338 Mountain (in the tribe of Ephaim) where Josue was buried north of it. His (the) monument (of Josue son of Nun) is now pointed out near the village of Thamna.

Gabass (Gabath).339 Mountain of Ephraim (Latin omits). City of Phineas son of Eleazar, where Eleazar was buried. There is a village Gabatha twelve miles from Eleutheropolis where the monument of Habacuc is pointed out. (In) tribe of Benjamin.

Gabaan (Gabaam).340 As far as this place (here) Benjamin (the tribe of Benjamin) fought (was fought against) as it is in Judges.


Geththa.341 The ark (of the covenant) was brought here from Azotos. Now it is a large village which is called Giththam on the road between Antipatris and Iamnia. There is also another Geththeim (Geththim).

Gallei (Gallim).342 Home of Phalti, who after David fled got Michol "David's (his) wife." Mentioned both here and in Isaia. They say there is a village called Gallaia (Gallaa) near Accaron.

Gelamsour (Gelamsur).343 Territory of the heathen (Allofylus).

Gelboue (Gelbua).344 Mountain of the heathen six miles from Scythopolis on which there is a (large) village called Gelbous (Gelbus).

Geddour (Gedud).345 Whence David went down. Aquila "Marauder" (i.e., lightly equipped or armed). Symmachus "armed band."

Gazēra.346 Where David struck down "the heathen." Also note Gazer previously (above).

Gessour (Gessur).347 Territory of the heathen in Syria.

Gilōn.348 Home of Achitophel.

Gob.349 Where a battle was fought.

Gailaia (Gailaea).350 There are two Galilees. One of these is Galilee of the nations located in the region of Tyre where Solomon gave "twenty cities to Hiram." (In) lot of (the tribe of) Nephthali. The other is near Tiberias and its lake (the Lake of Gennesareth) lot of (in tribe of) Zabulon.

Geiōn (Gion).351 Where Solomon was anointed (king).

Gēr.352 Where Jehu (king of Israel) struck down Ochozias (king of Juda) "Near Jeblaam."

Geththachopher.353 Home of Jona the prophet.

Gaddei (Gaddi).354 Hazael (king of Damascus) defeated it. Note also Gadda above.

Gēmela.355 Territory of Edam (Idumaeans). Aquila and Symmachus (interpret) "ravine of salt."

Gebein (Gebin).356 Isaia mentions this. There is now a village Geba five miles from Gouphnis (Gufnis) on the road to Neapolis.

Gōzan.357 In the territory of Hamath (Emath). Isaia mentions this. It is in the region (borders of) the Damascanes.

Garēb.358 Hill near Jerusalem. In Jeremia (As Jeremia writes).

Gēbarōth(Gebarth).359 Aquila "in defenses." Symmachus "in the community" in Jeremia. (Symmachus correctly read Jeremia "in the farm-estate.")

Gaimōd(Gemenor Gamon).360 Territory of Moab (Moabites) according to Isaia.

Gaipha (Gefa).361 (Name of a) territory. In Isaia (as is written in Isaia).


Gadara.362 City beyond the Jordan opposite Scythopolis and Tiberias (situated) to the east in the mountains at the foot of which baths of hot water are located (at whose foot hot water flows out and baths are built over it).

Gergesa.363 Where the Lord (Savior) heated the demoniacs (restored those vexed with demons to sanity). Now (today) a village is pointed out on the mountains near Lake Tiberias where the swine were condemned (cast down) to death. Noted also above.

Gethsimanē(Gethsimani).364 Place where the Christ (the Savior) prayed before the passion. It is located at (the foot of) the Mt. of Olives where even now the faithful fervently utter prayers (where now a church has been built over it).

Golgotha.365 "Place of the skull" (Calvary) where the Christ (the Savior) was crucified [for the salvation of all]. It is pointed out (today) in Jerusalem north of Mt.Zion.



Dasem.366 Great Assyrian city which Assur built "between Nineve and Chalach."

Drus (Drys i.e., oak).367 Mambre near Hebron, where there is a [very old and of many years] terebinth even now [up to the time of my childhood and the reign of Emperor Constantine] pointed out. There (under which) Abraham pitched his tent. It is also venerated by the people (just as perhaps it also is dedicated to an extraordinary power).

Damaskos (Damascus).368 Famous Phoenician city. So also the son of Abraham's steward is called "Masek." [It is the same name by which Masec the son of Abraham's steward is called. Further "Masec" is fully discussed in the book Hebrew Questions I must merely fulfill the role of translator and determine why the servant of Abraham was named Masec.]

Dan.369 The village called that (up to today) is four miles from Petra on the road toward Tyre. This is also the border of (promised to) Judaea (on the north) from whence the Jordan arises [bursts forth and receives its name. Ior is Hebrew for reithron, i.e., stream. or river].

Danaba (Dannaba).370 City of Balac son of Beor, king of Edom. After him Iob became king [it seems to me a long time after]. There is now a village Dannea (Dannaia) eight miles from Areopolis on the road to the Arnon and another Danaba (Dannaba) on Mt.Phogor seven miles from Hesebon.

Dōthaeim(Dothaim).371 Where Joseph found his brothers grazing (cattle). It remains (is shown up to today) in the region of Sabaste about twelve miles to the north.


Daibōn(Debon) or Dibon.372 Station of the children of Israel in the desert. There is another very large village even now near the Arnon which once was the possession of the eons of Moab and then the children of Israel took it from Sehon the Amorrite. (Afterwards Sehon the Amorrite held it by right of conquest. but the children of Israel captured it and held it so in the partition it came to the tribe of Gag.) Also given to the tribe of Gad. Isaia mentions it in the vision "against the Moabites (Moab)." Isaia mentions it.

Daibōngad(Dabira).373 Station of the children of Israel.

Dusmai Moab (Dysmae Moab i.e., to the west of Moab).374 "Along the Jordan opposite Jericho" where Balac "king of Moab" and "the elders of Madian" deceived (cheated with the plot) Israel. There Moses also wrote Deuteronomy.


Dabeira (Dabira).375 (City given to (in tribe of) Dan whose king Josue killed. There is another Jewish village on Mt.Thabor in the region of Diocaesarea.

Dor of Naphath (Nafeth).376 Symmachus (translates) "by the sea" (maritime). Dora near Caesarea Palestine [at the ninth milestone on the road to Tyre. Now deserted.] (Given in lot to) the tribe of Manasee did not possess it since they did not destroy the heathen. (They were not able to possess it since the former inhabitants remained in it.)

Dabeir (Dabir).377 (In) the tribe of Juda. Called "city of letters" which Gothoniel Caleb's brother seized [or as some say the son of Caleb's brother] killing the Enacim in it. Given (separated to) to the priests.

Dabeir (Dabir).378 Above the Jordan. City of the Amorrites.

Deimōna(Dimona).379 (In) tribe of Juda.

Dalaan (Dadan).380 (In) tribe of Juda.

Denna.381 (In) tribe of Juda. It is also (as Dabir) the city or letters.

Dauid (Dauia).382 (In) tribe of Juda.

Douma (Duma).383 (In) the tribe of Juda. Now a large village in the Deroma (to the south) in the region of Eleutheropolis at the seventeenth milestone.

Damna.384 (In) tribe of Zabulon. City separated to the Levites.

Dabasthe (Dasbath).385 (In) tribe of Zabulon.

Dabrath.386 (In) tribe of Issacher. City separated to the Levites.


Drus.387 (i.e., oak) which is "in Ephratha." In lot (tribe) of Manasse. Home of Gedeon. [We have spoken on this in the book Hebrew Questions, how Ephratha is now thought to be found in the tribe of Manasse.]


Deibon (Dibon).388 (Of which we spoke above.) Isaia mentions this in the vision "Against the Moabites" (Moab).

Deseth.389 Aquila (translates) "house wall" Symmachus "city wall."

Dōdaneim(Dodanim).390 Isaia (writes of this) in the vision on Arabia. It is also near Areopolis.

Darōm.391 Symmachus (changes to) "in the south." In Ezechiel. (Ezechiel mentions it.)

Diospolis.392 City of Egypt. In Ezechiel. (As Ezechiel writes.)

Dadan.393 In the land of Cedar according to Jeremia.

Deblathaeim (Deblathaim).394 In the land of Moab according to Jeremia.

Daidan (Daedan).395 In the (territory) or Idumaea according to Jeremia (as Jeremia writes). Located four miles north of Phainon (of the mines of Phainon).


Dekapolis (Decapolis).396 (As we read) in the Gospels. It is located in Persea, Hippos, Pella and Gadara. (It is in the territory of the ten Transjordanian cities around Hippos, Pella and Gadara.)



Edem (Eden).397 The place to the east of the paradise of God. Interpreted "delight" (Translated pleasure or delight).

Eueilat (Euila).398 "Where there is gold" [Where there is found purest gold which in Hebrew is called Zaab] and "ruby" and "emerald" (and most precious jewels, stones and emeralds). The Phison flowing from Paradise encircles it. According to the Greeks it is the Ganges "flowing from India" (which we call Ganges), changing its name). One of the descendants of Noe is called Eueilat (Euila) who, Josephus tells, "dwelled with his brothers, who were from the river Kophenos (Cofene), in parts of India and region of Syria (in the region of India and even to the place called Ieria)." Ismael it is said (written) lived on the desert of Euila which (Holy) Scriptures affirm to be the desert of Sour (sur) "opposite Egypt" and extending to the midst (Latin omits) of the land of Assyria.

Euphrates.399 River of Mesopotamia coming forth (rising) from Paradise. [Further Salustius a reliable author asserts, however, the source of the Tigris and Euphrates to be proven in Armenia, from which we perceive something also about Paradise and its rivers must be known.]

Ellasar.400 City of King Arioch.

Ephratha.401 Region of Bethlehem the City of David in which the Christ was born. Tribe of Benjamin. [It is also however in the tribe of Juda, apparently wrongly ascribed to the tribe of Benjamin.] There "on the way" Rachel is buried, (Near the road where Rachel is buried) at the fourth (fifth) milestone from Jerusalem in the place called (by the Septuagint) the Hippodrome. The monument is pointed out even now. (Latin omits this sentence.) Also the father of Bethlehem was called Ephratha according to Paralipomenon. (We read also of Efratha in the book of Paralipomenon as noted above.)


Eirōth(Iroth).402 Place in the desert at which they (the children of Israel) arrived from Egypt after coming through the Red Sea.


Empurismos (Conflagration. i.e., empurismos).403 Place on the desert where those speaking against God were burned up. (Where some of those people were consumed by fire.)

Enthaath (Inthaath).404 Station of the children of Israel in the desert.

Ebrōna.405 Station of the people (children of Israel) in the desert.

Emath.406 Where the spies with Josue came through. (Spies Josue sent.)

Ermana (Errma).407 Where some of the people were defeated by the Chanaanites and Amalecites. The Chanaanites (who) are called Amorrites in Deuteronomy.

Essebōn.408 "City of Sehon" the Amorrite "in the land of Galaad" who took up arms against the king of Moab (and took possession of it from the Moabites by right or war). Isaia mentions this in the vision of the Moabites (against Moab) and also Jeremia. Further it is now called Esbous (Esbus) a famous city of Arabia situated in the mountains opposite Jericho, twenty miles from the Jordan. Given to the tribe of Ruben. Separated to the Levites.

Edraei (Edrai).409 Whence the gigantic (and powerful) Og, king of Basan, (was killed and all his people (struck down). Now there is Adra a famous city of Arabia, twenty-four miles from Bostra.

Elealē.410 City of the Amorrites in Galaad which was given to the tribe of Ruben. Isaia also mentions it in his vision of the Moabites (against Moab). Also noted in Jeremia. There is now a large village preserved (is shown) not more than one (in the first) mile from Esbous (Esbus).

Enna.411 Which is located near the desert of Cades.

Erman.412 Mt. Hermon which "the Phoenicians" called Sanior. Note also above.

JOSUE (of Naue)

Emekachōr.413 Which means valley of Achor (i.e., tumult or confusion) where Achar (Achan) the condemned thief was stoned, from whom it derives its name. The place is even now pointed out near Jericho beside (not far from) Galgala. [It is quite wrong to think the Valley of Achor is named for the name of the one atoned, for he is called Achan, not Achor or Achar.]

Eglōm.414 Also Odollam. Whose king (named) Dabeir Josue struck down. (In) tribe of Juda. Even now there is a (very) large village ten (twelve) miles east of Eleutheropolis. Note above also (of which we have spoken above).

Enemek (Inemec).415 Aquila and Symmachus (translate) "in the valley."

Esōr(Esrom) also Asor.416 (In) tribe of Juda near the desert. Note above also (of which we have spoken above).

Enakeim (Enacim).417 Josue destroyed "the Enacim (giants) from the mountains (of the region) of Hebron." [But it seems to be that Enacim is not the name at a place but of the inhabitants.]

Ephrōn.418 (In) tribe of Juda. There is now a (very) large village (named) Ephraim (Efraea) twenty miles north of Jerusalem.

Edrai (Edre).419 (In) tribe of Juda.

Ethnan.420 (In) tribe of Juda.

Ebeziouthia.421 (In) tribe of Juda.

Euein (Euim).422 (In) tribe of Juda.

Elthōlad(Elthōlath).423 (In) the tribe of Juda.

Ereb.424 (In) tribe of Juda. Eremintha now a village in the Daroma. (Today a village in the Daroma, i.e., to the south, is called Eremiththa.)

Essan (Esan).425 (In) tribe of Juda.

Eloul (Elul).426 (In) tribe of Juda. [Is a village today in the region belonging to Jerusalem named Alula near Hebron.]

Eltheke.427 (In) tribe of Juda. Now is Thekoua (Thecua) a village twelve (nine) miles east (south) of Jerusalem. Home of Amos the prophet whose tomb is pointed out there even now.

Engaddi.428 (In) tribe of Juda. Where David fled (hid) in the wilderness of Jericho in the Aulon (which is a district of the plain of which we spoke above). A large Jewish village Engaddi is now located near the Dead Sea where there are balsams. Note also above Gaddi (Latin omits). [Of whose vineyards Solomon speaks.]

Esthemō.429 Priestly city. It is now a large Jewish village of the region of Eleutheropolis in the Daroma.

Emekraphaeim (Emecrafaim).430 Aquila and Symmachus "in the valley of Raphaeim." Lot or (in tribe of) [Benjamin.

Edōmim(Edomia).] 431 Lot of (in tribe of) Benjamin. There is now (shown) a village Edouma in the Akkrabattine twelve miles east [of Neapolis].

Erma.432 Josue also took this and killed its king. Given by lot to Simeon and (or) Juda.

Ether.433 Lot or Simeon. It is now (named) Ietheira a large village in the interior of the Daroma close to Malatha.

Eththa.434 Lot of (in tribe of) Simeon.

Elkath.435 Lot of (in tribe of) Aser. City separated to Levites.

Elkōk(Icoc).436 Lot of Nephthali. (On the border of three tribes. i.e.,) joining "Zabulon on the south and Aser" by the sea (west) and "Juda to the east."

Edraei (Edrai).437 Lot of (in tribe of) Naphthali.

Elthekō.438 Lot of (in tribe of) Dan. Separated to the Levites.

Esthaol.439 Lot of (in tribe of) Dan. Where Samson died. It is even now (shown) ten miles north of Eleutheropolis on the road to Nicopolis.

Elba.440 Lot of (in tribe of) Aser. Aser did not drive out the heathen. (They did not stop to drive out the former inhabitants.)

Eremmōn.441 A (very) large Jewish village sixteen miles south of Eleutheropolis in the Daroma.

Emmathdōr.442 Lot of (in tribe of) Nephthali. Separated to the Levites.

Emath.443 Boundary of the heathen (Allofylis) in the region of Daroma.

Enlechi (Inlechi).444 Aquila (interprets) "jaw."

Eniakebzēb(Inaczeb).445 Symmachus (translates) "in the valley of Zeb."


Ergab.446 Where Jonathan (son of Saul) "shot the arrows" (the place he accurately aimed the arrows he was using). Aquila (interprets) "to the stones" Symmachus "stone." Also elsewhere Symmachus (says) "for this perimeter."

Echela.447 Where David hid. Now (properly) called Enkela (Eccela), a village) seven miles from Eleutheropolis. The tomb of the prophet Habacuc is pointed out nearby.

Elmōni.448 A place. Which is interpreted by Aquila and Theodotion "here or there." [As we are able to say this or that. However let the diligent reader recognize what in principle any part of this book can only touch briefly, I do not agree with all that I pass on, but defer to the Greek authority since I have disputed more fully on this in the book Hebrew Questions.]

Esthama.449 When (place to which) David sent.

Elōth.450 Azarias the king built this.

Emath.451 In Isaia. A city of Damascus which the king of Assyria besieged. Also Zacharia and Ezechiel also mention it. But in Amos (it is written) Emath Rebba (Rabba) which is (signifies to us) Emath the great. Note also above (We spoke of this also above). Perhaps (it seems to us) it is Epiphaneia near Emesēs(where even today Syrians say it thus).

Eser.452 City which Solomon built.

Enacheim (Inachim) or Enbachein (Inbachim).453 In Michea (Micheas the prophet also mentions it). Aquila and Symmachus (translate) "in weeping."

Enaraba (Inaraba).454 Aquila (translates) "in level ground" (or plain). Symmachus "in the field."

Elkese.455 Home of Nahum (the prophet, also called) the Elkesite.

Emakeim (Emacim).456 Aquila and Symmachus (translate) "valleys."


Emmaous (Emmaus).457 Home of Cleopas who is mentioned in the Gospel of Luke. It is now Nicopolis a famous city of Palestine.

Ephraim.458 "Near the desert" where the Christ (the Lord Jesus) came "with his disciples." Note also the above Ephron (We have spoken of this also above under Efron).



(These above words are mostly to be read with the shortened letter E accordingly we read with a long vowel what in Greek is called Eta.)

Zaphōeim(Zafoim).459 Territory of the princes of Edom now in the region (called) Gebalene.


Zoob.460 "As It is said in the book, The Ward of the Lord burned Zoob and the torrents of Arnon." City of the Amorrites located on the Arnon.

Zephrona.461 Northern boundary of Judaea.

Zared.462 Ravine Zared in the midst of the desert.


Zeiph (Zif).463 (In) tribe of Juda.

Zanaoua (Zannoua).464 (In) tribe of Juda. Now (today) there is a village [called Zanoua] in the boundary of Eleutheropolis on the road to Jerusalem.

Ziph.465 Tribe of Juda (Latin omits). A village now (up to the present day) is in the Daroma on the boundary of Eleutheropolis near Chebron at the eighth mile to the East. There David hid.


Zeib (Zif).466 "Dry mountain" of Zeib (rough mountain or foggy or cloudy near Zif), in which David lived near Chumalba, which is called (in scriptures) Karmelos. This is name given today to a village of Jews. Home of Nabal the Camelite. One of the descendants of Caleb is said to be Zeib (Zif) according to Paralipomenon.

Zogera (Zogora).467 In Jeremia. City of Moab. It is now called Zoora or Sigor (Segor), one of the five cities of Sodom.

Zēb.468 In Jeremia City of Amman. There is now (shown) a village Zia fifteen miles west of Philadelphia.

Zōeleth.469 (Name of) a stone called this on which Adonias sacrificed "near the spring Rogel."



Ēlath.470 Territory of the princes of Edom and a city of Esau ten miles east of Petra.

'Erōōn(Eroum).471 City in Egypt where Joseph met his father (Jacob).

Elioupolis (Eliopolis, city of the sun).472 City in Egypt which the Hebrews called On, of which it is said Potiphar was priest. Also noted in Ezechiel.

Etham.473 Station of the children of Israel in the desert. Also (called) Bouthan (Buthan).


Ēngannim.474 (In) tribe of Juda. It is now (a village) near Bethel.

Ēnaim.475 (In) tribe of Juda. There is now a village Bethenim near the terebinth.

Ēndōr.476 (In) tribe of Manasse. Home of the witch [the priestess of oracle who was consulted by Saul king of Israel]. Also note the above Aendōor, which is near (the city of) Nain where (in whose gates) the Christ (the Savior) raised up the son of the widow. It is also near Scythopolis.

Ēnganni.477 (In tribe of) lot of Issachar. City separated to the Levites. Another village Ēngannais said to be around Cerasain Perea(across the Jordan).

Ēnada.478 (In tribe of) lot of Issachar. There is now another village Ēnadababout ten miles from Eleutheropolis on the road to Jerusalem.

Ēnasōr.479 (In tribe of) lot of Nephthali. Note also Asor above.

'Ērakōn(Ereccon).480 Boundary or the tribe of Dan near Joppa.


'Ētam.481 Where Samson dwelled "in the cave Etam" beside the wadi.


'Ēla.482 (We read) valley Ēla (which) Aquilaand Theodotion(interpret) "valley of the oak."

Ēngaddi.483 Desert where David hid. Note above Engaddi (in) tribe of Juda located west of the Dead Sea.

Ēmath.484 Territory of the heathen. According to Jeremia, a city of Damascus.

Ēnan.485 "Border of Damascus" according to Ezechiel, (to the East "from Thaiman and the city of the palm trees," which according to the others (other Interpreters taught it is) Thamar.



Thaiman (Theman).486 Territory of the princes of Edom in the (land of) the Gebalitikes named from Thaiman the son of Eliphaz the son of Esau. It is even now a village Thaiman about fifteen (five) miles from Petra. (A garrison of Roman) soldiers are (is) stationed there. Home of Eliphaz the king of the Thaimanites. One of the children born to Israel is (called) Thaiman. (It is understood that) all the southern region is called thus (Theman in Hebrew) for Thaiman is to be interpreted "south."

Thamna.487 Where Juda sheared his sheep. A (very) large village remains (is shown) in the boundary of Diospolis midway to Jerusalem. (In) tribe of Dan or Juda.

Thamna.488 Another city of the princes of Edom. Also "the concubine of Eliphaz son of Esau who bore Amalec to him" from whom the Amalecites.


[Thophol (Thafol).489 Place in the desert "beyond the Jordan" where Moses wrote Deuteronomy. Opposite Jericho.

Thaath.490 Station of the children of Israel.

Thara.491 Station of the children of Israel.]


Thaphphou (Thaffu).492 City which Josue besieged and captured (killed) its king. It was given to the tribe of Juda. Noted also above Bethaphou (Bothafu) on border of Palestine and Egypt.

Thanak (Thaanac).493 City which Josue besieged and captured (killed) its king. It was given to the tribe of Manasse. Separated to the Levites. Now it (there is a village of this name in the fourth mile) is four miles from Legeon.

Thēnath.494 (In) tribe of Joseph. There is today a village Thena ten miles east of Neapolis on the way down to the Jordan.

Thaphphoue (Thaffue).495 (In) tribe of Joseph.

Thaphphouth (Thaffuth).496 (In) tribe of Manasse.

Thekō.497 Now (a village) Thekōeis (shown) near the desert of Ailias, home of Amosthe prophet. Formerly a city of refuse (Latin omits last phrase).

Thersa.498 Josue took this along with its king.

Therama.499 (In) tribe of Benjamin.

Thōlad.500 (In) tribe of Juda or Simeon.

Thabōr.501 Border of Zebulon. There is a (high and wonderfully rounded) mountain near (in the middle) of the plain (of Galilee) ten miles East of Diocaesarea. It is also the border of the tribes of Issachar and Nephthali.

Thalcha.502 (In) tribe of Simeon. Now a large village of Jews called Thala (Thella about) sixteen miles from Eleutheropolis in the Daroma (to the south).

Thamnathsara.503 City of Josue son of Nun located "in the mountain." It is Thamna noted also above in which even now there sepulchre of Josue is pointed out. (In) tribe of Dan.

Thalassa.504 The salt (sea) also called Dead and Asphalt (i.e., bitumin) between Jericho and Zoora.


Thaanach.505 The tribe of Manasse did not possess it since they did not expel the heathen from it. Here Debora fought Sisara. Also separated to the Levites. It is now a large village three miles from Legeon.

Thēbēs.506 City which Abimelech was fighting. From the tower "a woman threw a piece of the millstone on his head" (and he was killed). There is now in the district of Neopolis a village called Thebes at the thirteenth milestone on the road to Scythopolis.

Thamnatha.507 Note also Thamna above. (In) tribe of Dan.


Thēlamouland of(Thelamuge).508 (Place) to which "Abner sent to David." Aquilla (interprets this word) "immediately" Symmachus "for himself."

Thaad.509 Near Galaad.

Thamsa.510 Border of Solomon's kingdom.

Thermōth.511 City which Solomon built "in the desert" (of which we make further mention in the book Hebrew Questions).

Tharseis (Tharsis).512 Where gold from (brought to) Solomon. According to Josephus (Josephus thinks) Tarsos is Cilicia. According to Ezechiel Charchedon but according to the Hexapla the Hebrews hold Tarseis to be located at Karchedon. Others claim it is India. [Ezechiel the prophet perceives it to be Carthage since according to the interpretation of the Hexapla where we read Carthage the Hebrew has written Tharsis. Some others suggest even India. We wrote of this indeed in the Epistle to Marcellus as is fully discussed in the in the book Hebrew Questions.]

Tharsa.513 Home of Aseph (Asa) king of Israel.

Thersila.514 Home of Manaeim. There is now a village of Samaritans called Tharaila in the Batanaia.

Thesba.515 Home of Elias, (the prophet) the Tishbite.

Thaiman (Theman).516 According to Ezechiel a city of Idumea. Isaiah also (mentions it) in the (his) vision against Arabia. Noted also in Jeremiah. The city of Esau is also reported in the book of Abdia. One of the sons of Esau is also called Thaiman. Noted also above.

Tharthak.517 The Hevites founded this in the land of Judea.

Thalasar.518 Territory of Syria.

Thogarma.519 (We read) in Ezechiel.

Thapheth (Thafeth).520 (We read) in Jeremia of the altar of Tapheth. In the suburbs of Jerusalem there is even now pointed out a place called this near the fuller's pool end of the field of Acheldamach.



Iabōk(Iabōc).521 River of the ravine where after Jacob crossed it, he struggled with the apparition and so his name was changed to Israel. It flows between Amman, that is Philadelphia, and Gerasa at the fourth mile and then goes down and joins the Jordan (mixes finally with the waters of the Jordan).

Idoumaia (Idumaea.).522 Territory of Esau after whose similar name it is named. Others call it Edom. It is around Petra (now) called the Gebalene.

Iather.523 Territory of the princes of Edom in this same Gebalene (of which we spoke above).


Iatabatha.524 Station of the children of Israel in the desert.

Ianna.525 "Which is in the plain of Moab looking from the summit of the cleft (under the cliff of Phasga, i.e., cut out) (toward) the desert." Beside the Arnon.

Iessa (Iassa).526 Where Sedon king of the Ammorites was fought. Isaiah also mentions this in the vision "Against the Moabites." Also noted in Jeremia. It is now pointed out between Madaba and Dibon.

Iazēr.527 City of the Ammorites ten miles west at Philadelphia in the Perea of Palestine beyond the Jordan. It was made the boundary of the tribe of Gad (Latin omits this sentence), "reaching to Aroer which is opposite Rabba." Also Jeremia. It was separated to the Levites. Fifteen miles from Essebon and from it a great river flows forth to fall into the Jordan (bursts forth and is received by the Jordan).

Iordanēs.528 River dividing Judaea and Arabia and the Aulim (of which we spoke above) next to the Dead Sea. It runs through Jericho and is lost in the Dead Sea. (After many twists it joins the Dead Sea near Jericho and disappears.)

Ietabatha.529 "Wadies of water" place in the desert.

'Ierichō.530 City which Josue razed (after crossing the Jordan) and captured (killed) its king. Afterwards Ozan from Bethel, from the tribe of Ephraim restored it. Here our Lord Jesus the Christ (our Lord and Savior) came and revealed himself as worthy of honor. It was also destroyed at the siege of Jerusalem (by the Romans) because of the faithlessness (perfidy) of the inhabitants. It was rebuilt a third time and the city is now pointed out (which city remains today). Of the two former cities there is even now some evidence remaining. (Remains of both older cities are pointed out up to the present day.)


'Ierousalēm.531 Adonibezek ruled this and afterward the Jebusites from whom it was called Iebus. (Much later) David destroyed it and made it the metropolis of (all the providence) of Judaea. Because of this it was the place for the temple [the expenses of the structure were neglected by the sons of Solomon]. In Genesis it is Salem which Melchizedec ruled (according to Josephus). Given by lot to the tribe of Benjamin.

Iebous.532 "This is Jerusalem."

Iareim (Iarim).533 City [of the Gabaonites.

Ierimouth (Iarimuth).534 "City] which Josue took. Tribe of Juda. Four miles from Eleutheropolis near the village of Esthaol.

Isimōth.535 Where David hid. Noted above as Bēthsimouthby mistake. But in the first Book of Kings Aquila (interprets) for iessemos "disappear." Symmachus correctly has "desert."

Iedna.536 At the sixth milestone from Eleutheropolis on the road to Hebron.

Iekkomam (Ieconam).537 City of Carmel which Josue besieged and captured (killed) its king.

Iaeir.538 City of the tribe of Manasse.

Iamneia (Iamnel).539 (In tribe of) city of Juda. It is now a city of Palestine Jamneia between Diospolis and Azotos.

Iabeir (Iabir).540 City of letters. Tribe of Juda.

[Iagour (Iagur).541 (In) tribe of Juda.]

Iermous (Iermus).542 (In) tribe of Juda. There is now a village Iermochos ten miles from Eleutheropolis on the way to Jerusalem.

Iechthaēl.543 (In) tribe of Juda.

Iephthan (Iecthan).544 (In) tribe of Juda.

Iether.545 (In) tribe of Juda. Priestly city. There is also now a (very) large village (named) Ietheria twenty miles from Eleutheropolis in the (interior of) Daroma near Malathōn. All its inhabitants are Christian. Noted also above.

Ianoun (Ianum).546 (In) tribe of Juda. A village Ianoua is now three miles south of Legeōn. But this does not appear to be the explanation (as written).

Iettan.547 (In) tribe of Juda. Priestly city. It is a (very) large village of the Jews now eighteen miles south of Eleutheropolis in the Daroma.

[Iezrael.548 (In) tribe of Juda. But not the same as above.]

Iezrael.549 (In) tribe of Manasse. Another. There is even now a most famous (very great) village Esdraela in the great plain located between Scythopolis and Legeon. Also the border or Issachar. One of the posterity of Ephratha was called Iezrael according to Paralipomenon.

Iekdaan.550 (In) tribe of Juda.

Iephlithi (Ierflethi).551 (In) tribe of Joseph.

Iano.552 (In) tribe of Ephraim. The king of Assyria took this. There is even now a village Ianōin the (region of) Akrabattine, twelve miles East of Neapolis.

Iamein (Iamin).553 (Which) Aquila and Symmachus (interpret) "right hand."

Iasēb.554 Aquila and Symmachus "the inhabitants." (For which the Hebrews read "the inhabitants.")

Ieblaam.555 (In) tribe of Mannase from which they did not drive out the heathen.

Ierphēl.556 (In) tribe of Benjamin.

Ieknal.557 Lot of Zabulon (in tribe of). City separated to Levites.

Iapheth (Iafthie).558 (In) tribe of Zabulon on the east. Also called Joppe. (Now Joppe is called the ascent of Iafo). The maritime village (city above the sea called) Symmachus on the way from Caesarea to Ptolemais near the Mt.Carmel is said to be Epha.

Iephthaēl.559 (In tribe of) Lot of Zabulon.

Iadela.560 (In tribe of) lot of Zabulon.

Iermoth.561 (In tribe of) lot of Issachar. City separated for priests. (Probably also) another Iermouth (above). Hosea (the prophet) mentioned it.

Iamnēl(Iabnel).562 (In tribe of) lot of Nephthali.

Ierōn.563 (In tribe of) lot of Nephthali.

Iethlan (Iethlam).564 (In tribe of) lot of Dan.

Iēlōn.565 (In tribe of) lot of Dan.

[Ioud (Iud).566 (In tribe of) Dan.]

'Ierakō(Ieracon).567 Water of (tribe of) lot of Dan.

Iabeis Galaad.568 The children of Israel fought here. There is now a village beyond the Jordan located on the mountains six miles from the city of Pella on the road to Gerasa.


Iaar.569 Salt. Where there was an apiary.

['Ieramēlei.570 Territory of the heathen.]

Iether.571 To which David sent. There is now a village (named) Ietheira in the Daroma. Noted also above.

Iekmaan.572 City of the chief of Solomon.

Itaburion.573 Aquila and Symmachus (translated) "Thabor." In Oseo. (It is also Mt. Thabor.) Located in the Great plain east of Legeon.

Iekthoēl.574 (Name of) Petra in the book of Kings.

Ietaba.575 Ancient city of Judaea.

Ioppē.576 City of Palestine which is now on the coast. (in tribe of) (maritime) lot of Dan.


Itouraia, Also Trachonitis.577 Territory which Philip ruled as tetrarch according to the Gospels. There territory extended into the desert (of Arabia) (Latin omits) near Bostra of Arabia (Latin omits) is said to be the Trachonitis.



Karnaeim. Astaroth Karnaeim.578 There is now a large village of Arabia (in a corner of the Batanea) which is called Karnaia beyond the (river) Jordan. There according to tradition the house of Job is pointed out. There is also another village called Karnaia in the region (nine miles from) of Jerusalem.

Kadēs.579 Where the spring "of judgment" was.

Kadēa Barnē.580 The desert which extends to (the city of) Petra a city or Arabia. There Mariam went up and died, and there the doubting Moses struck the rock to give water to the thirsty people. The tomb of Mariam herself is pointed out there even now. There also Chodollagomor beat the chiefs of the Amalakites.

Kenaz.581 Territory or the princes of Edom.

Kariathaeim.582 City which "the sons or Ruben" built. There is now a (flourishing) wholly Christian village called Kariatha (Coraiatha), near Mēdaba, city of Arabia, ten miles west toward (the place called) Barē.

Kariatharbo.583 "That is Hebron" noted also above. (i.e., the village of the four which is Hebron of which we spoke above.)

Kanath.584 Village of Arabia [called Manatha] even now, [which Nobe took] and named Naboth. Given to tribe of Manasse. It is located even now in the Trachoitis near Bostra.

Kata ta Krusea (Catatachrysea, i.e., to gold).585 Mountain which is full of gold dust on the desert eleven days distant from Mt.Choreb beside which Moses wrote Deuteronomy. It is said that (formerly) the mountain (full) of gold veins was near the copper mines in Phainon (which in our tine were still working.

Kadēmōth.586 Desert from which Moses sent the elders (ambassadors) "to Sohon" [king of the Amorrites].

Kariath.587 City (village) which was under the metropolis of Gabaon.

Kades.588 City which Josue besieged, killing its king. Given (in lot) to tribe of Juda.

Kademoth.589 (Another) city of the sons of Ruben.

[Kedsōn.590 (In) tribe of Ruben.] (City) separated to Levites.


Kapseēl.591 (In) tribe of Juda.

Kina.592 (In) tribe of Juda.

Keeila.593 (In) tribe of Juda. Where David once lived. Even now a village Kela (nearly) eight miles east of Eleutheropolis on the road to Hebron. The Tomb of Habacuc the prophet is pointed out there.

Kariathbaal.594 This is the city Iareim. Tribe of Juda.

Kana.595 (In) tribe of Ephraim.

[Kabsaeim (Capsaim).596 (In) tribe of Ephraim.]

Kane.597 (In) tribe of Manasse.

Kariathiareim (Kariathbaal).598 Or city Iareim (of salt). One of the (cities of the Gabaonites. (Belonging to) tribe of Juda between Jerusalem and Diospolis. Located on the road nine miles from Jerusalem. The home of Uria the prophet whom Ioakim killed in Jerusalem according to Jeremia. The son of Sobal is called Cariathiareim according to Paralipomenon.

Kisōn(Kision).599 (In tribe of) lot of Issachar. City separated to the Levites.

Kartha.600 (In tribe of) city of Zabulon separated to Levites.

Katta.601 (In tribe of) lot of Zabulon. City separated to Levites.

Kana.602 Near Sidōnthe Great (to distinguish it from the other, the less). Lot of (tribe of) Aser. There (it was in Cana) our Lord and God (Savior) Jesus Christ changed the water into wine. Home of Nathanael (judged a true Israelite as the Savior testified). It is (today a city) in Galilee of the Nations.

Kades (Cades).603 Lot of Naphthali. Priestly city formerly city of refuge "in Galilee in the mountains of Nephthali." The king of Assyria took it. It is now (called) Kudissos, twenty miles from Tyro near Paneas.

Kartham.604 City (in) of tribe of Nephthali, separated to Levites.


Ketrōn.605 (In tribe of) Zabulon "did not drive out the heathen" (in which the former inhabitants remained).

Karka (Carcar).606 Home of "Zebee and Salmana" whom Gedeon killed. There is now a Fort Karkaria one day journey from the city of Petra.

Kamōn.607 City of Iaeir where the judge of Israel was buried. There is now a village Kammōnain the great plain six miles north of Legeonon the road to Ptolemais.

Kisōn.608 Wadi near Mt.Thabōrwhere Sisarawas fought.

Kadēmim(Cademi).609 Wadi where Debora fought.

Koilas of the Titans (i.e., valley of giants).610 Against whom David fought.

Klauthmōn.611 Territory of lamentation (i.e., place of weeping) a place so called (receiving its name from lamentation).


Kēni.612 Territory of the heathen (Philistines).

Karmēlos.613 Home of Nabal. A village called Chermala which is interpreted Karmelos is now ten miles east of Hebron. A (Roman) garrison is located there.

[Karmēlos. Mountain.]614 On the Phoenician sea and dividing Palestine from Phoenicia. Where Elias lived. (Entry not in Latin.)

Kabseēl.615 Home of Banaias son of Ioda. (Entry not in Latin.)

Kedrōn.616 Wadi or ravine of Kedron near Jerusalem. (To the east, the Gospel of John mentions it.)

Kurinē(Cyrene).617 (On the border of Egypt) where the Assyrian king sent away the Damascenes.

Kōa.618 Near Egypt.

Karchēdon(i.e., Carthage).619 Isaia in vision of Tyre and also Ezechiel. In the Hebrew it is Tharsis [of this we have spoken fully in the book Hebrew Questions].

Kollas Iōsaphat.620 (Coelas, i.e., valley) located between Jerusalem and the Mt. of Olives. [We read in the prophet Joel.]

Kedam.621 In Ezechiel. Aquila and Symmachus (interpret) "east."

Kēdar.622 In Ezechiel. "Princes of Kedar." Also in Jeremia and Isaia in the "vision of Arabia." It is in the territory of the Saracans (desert). The son of Ismael, son of Abraham (Latin omits phrase) is (named) Kedar.

Kariōth.623 In territory of Moab according to Jeremia.

Kapharnaoum.624 By the Lake of Gennesaret. It is now a village (city) in the Galilee of the nations, (located) "on the border of Zebulon and Naphthali."

[Here ends our reading for the letter C i.e., the Greek Kappa the rest are under the letter Chi, which has aspiration in itself and of which there is very little use in Latin.]



Lasan.625 Border of the Chanaanites with the Sodomites.

Louza (Luza).626 Jacob renamed this Bethel. This village, inhabited even now, is on the left of the road going to Jerusalem from Neapolis. Given to tribe of Benjamin.

Louza (Luza).627 Another. Given to the sons of Joseph. Near Suchem (Sychem) nine (three) miles from Neapolis.

Lōtan.628 City of the princes of Edom.


[Lebōna.629 Station of the children of Israel in the desert.

Lobon.630 Place on the desert "'Beyond the Jordan" where Moses read Deuteronomy.


Lacheis.631 This also Josue besieged and captured (killed) its king. Isaiah (and Jeremia) also mention(s) this. There is even now a village seven miles south of Eleutheropolis toward the Daroma. Noted also in Jeremia. (In) tribe of Juda.

Lebna.632 Josue also besieged this and captured (killed) its king. Given to the tribe of Juda. Priestly city. There now is a village called Lobana in the area of Eleutheropolis. Isaia noted it also.

Laserōn(Lasaran).633 Josue also besieged this and captured (killed) its king.

Lithos Boen.634 "In sons of Ruben." Border of the tribe of Juda.

Labōth.635 (In) tribe of Juda.

Lamas.636 (In) tribe of Juda.

Labōth.637 (In tribe of) lot of Simeon.

Labanath.638 (In tribe of) lot of Aser.

Lakoum.639 Border of Nephthali.


Labōemath.640 (For which) Aquila (interprets) "entrance of Emath."

Lesem.641 This "the sons of Dan" besieged and called it Dan.

Louza.642 Another near Baithel located in the land of the Hethites. The one left from Bethel founded it as it is told in Judges.

Lechei.643 (For which) Aquila and Symmachus (interpret) "in the jaw."

Laisa.644 The sons of Dan took this which was some distance from (near) Sidon and called it Dan. It was the northern border [of Judaea which reached from Dan to Beersheba]. Isaia also mentions it. Noted above near Paneados from whence the Jordan (river) originates.


Lemattara.645 Where Jonathan shot "the arrow" (dart). Aquila "to the mark." Symmachus "to the set place."

Ladabar.646 Where Memphibosthe was.

Lōdabar.647 Home of Machir.

Libanos.648 Conspicuous (very high) mountain of Phoenicia.

Loueith (Luith).649 Isaia mentions this. There is a village (today) between Areopolis and Zoora called Loueitha.



Manassē.650 Territory of India where the sons of Jectan the son of Eber dwelled.

Mambre.651 That is Hebron. The tomb of both of the sons of Abraham is located there. (Tomb of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob is located there.) Noted also above. One of the companions of Abraham is also called Mambre.

Madiam.652 City of one of the sons of Abraham and Cetura. Located beyond Arabia to the south in the desert of the Saracens, to the east of the Red Sea whence it was called Madiani and now is called (the territory of) Madian. Scripture calls the daughter of Iobab [Moses' father-in-law] daughter of Madian. There is a second city named thus near Arnon and Areopolis, the ruins of which are pointed out.

Mōab.653 (Called) from Moab the son of Lot. City of Arabia which is now (called) Areopolis. Noted also above. The territory is also called Moab, but its city is (rightly called) Habbath Moab (i.e., The Great of Moab).

Masrēka.654 City of the king of Edom near the Gebalene.

Mabsar.655 This large village (called) Mabsara remains even now in the Gebalene dependent upon Petra.

Magediēl.656 It also belonged to one of the princes of Edom in the Gebalene.


Magdolos.657 Station on the journey of Israel (coming out of) from Egypt, where they stopped before (crossing) the Red Sea. Also noted in Ezechiel: From Magdolos to Syene. According to Jeremia here those Jews [fleeing the impending destruction by Babylonians] dwelled with Jeremia in Egypt.

Merra.658 (Which means) "bitter." Place on the desert where the available water was bitter. Moses sweetened it by throwing in a wood.


Mnemata epithumias.659 (Memoriae, i.e., graves) of lust. Station of the children of Israel in the desert where they were destroyed because of the meat (where while eating the meat the wrath of God rose upon them).

Makēlōth.660 Station of the children of Israel in the desert.

[Mathekka.661 Station of the children of Israel in the desert.]

Masourouth.662 Station of the children of Israel in the desert.

Maththanem.663 Now called Maschana. Located on the Arnon (about) twelve miles east of Madaba.

Misōr.664 City of Og king of Basan. [However Misor means flat place or plain.]

Machanarath.665 Border of Amman which is also Philadelphia.

Madbaris.666 According to the Hebrews the desert is so called. [What we call the desert the Hebrews call Madbarim.]

Misadai.667 "Of the sons of Iakeim." Place on the desert where Aaron died.


Makēda.668 Where Josue shut up five kings in the cave, which kings he also killed along with the king of Makeda. Given to tribe of Juda. Now it is eight miles east of Eleutheropolis.

Madōn.669 City where Iobab ruled (was king) and against whom Josue fought.

Massepha.670 (In) tribe of Juda. There Jephthae dwelled. Near Kariathiareim in which the ark was once kept and where Samuel judged the people. Jeremia also notes it.

Merran.671 It is the water where they prepared for war. Now there is a village (named) Merrous twelve miles from Sebaste near Dothaeim.

MastraiphōthMaim.672 (Which for) Aquila "Mastaiphoth water." Symmachus "Mastraiphōth sea" (is interpreted).

Machathi.673 City of the Ammorites beyond the Jordan and near Mt.Hermon from which the children of Israel did not expel the Machathites (were not able to expel).

Marōm.674 [Josue also besieged this and captured (killed) its king. Note above Marous.

Maggedo.675] Josue also besieged this and captured (killed) its king. Given to tribe of Manasse who (never) did not possess it since they did not drive out the heathen (former inhabitants).

Misōr.676 (For which) Aquila and Symmachus (interpret) "level plain." City of tribe of Ruben. Separated to Levites in the Gebalene.

Meddaba.677 City now in the mist of Arabia which in even now called Medaba near Essebon. (A city of Arabia today which retains its ancient name near Esebon.)

Mēphaath.678 (In) tribe of Benjamin. Another is beyond the Jordan where a garrison of (Roman) soldiers is stationed, near the desert.

Maspha.679 (In) tribe of Gad. Separated to Levites. There is another Masseba (Masfa) on the northern border of Eleutheropolis. (There is still another of the tribe of Juda on the way to Jerusalem.

Manaeim.680 (In) tribe of Gad. Separated to Levites in the Galaaditide.

Mōlada(Moladab).681 (In) tribe of Juda or Simeon.

Medebēna(Medemena).682 (In) tribe of Juda. It is now Menoeis (a city) near the city of Gaza. Noted in Isaia.

Magdala.683 (In) tribe of Juda.

Marēsa.684 (In) tribe of Juda. It is now deserted at the second milestone from Eleutheropolis. (Its ruins are now only two miles from Eleutheropolis.)

Maōn.685 (In) tribe of Juda. East of the Daroma.

Marōth.686 (In) tribe of Juda.

Maddei (Maddi).687 (In) tribe of Juda.

Maspha.688 (In) tribe of Benjamin.

Machtrōth.689 (In) tribe of Manassa.

Marala.690 Ascent of Zebulon. Tribe of Manasse (Latin omits phrase).

Masan.691 (In) tribe of Aser. Near Carmel at the sea. City separated to Levites.

Meeleph (Maeleb).692 Border of Nephthai.

Magdiel.693 (In tribe of) lot of Nephthai. It is now a large (small) village five mile from Dor on the road to Ptolemais.


Mosphetham (Mosfethaim).694 (For which) Aquila (interprets) "of the lot." Symmachus "midpoint" (of the vicinity).

Mōre.695 Name of a hill. (More fully discussed in the book Hebrew Questions.)

Mannēth.696 Where Japhte fought. There is now (shown) a village Maanith four miles from Esbon on the road to Philadelphia.

Machmas.697 There is now a large village in the region of Jerusalem called Machamas (retaining the old name) at the ninth mile near hamlet of Rama.


Messab.698 "Of the heathen" (enemy city) near Gaba (Gabaa).

Magdōn(Magrōn).699 Where Saul stayed.

Massēpha"of Moab."700 Where David came fleeing from Saul (fleeing to avoid Saul's hatred).

Masereth.701 Desert now deserted where David stayed. (Which) Aquila (interprets) "in fortress" Symmachus "in place of refuge," Theodotion "in the caves."

Masbak.702 City of the heathen (enemy), king Adrazar.

Mela (i.e.) Gemela.703 (Which) Aquila and Symmachus (translate) "valley of salt." (We spoke of this above.)

Maacha.704 Territory of king of Gesour.

Mōdeeim.705 Village near Diospolis. Home of the Maccabees where their tomb is pointed out even now. (Indeed it is amazing that their remains are shown in Antioch, but our author is to be believed.)

Mapsar Turou.706 Aquila "wall of Tyre." Symmachus "fortification of Tyre."

Masa.707 City which Solomon built.

Meebra.708 (For which) Aquila (translates) "from across." Symmachus "from opposite" (i.e., across or opposite).

Makes.709 City of one of the chiefs of Solomon.

Melō(Mello).710 City which Solomon built. (Further) Symmachus and Theodotion (translate) "completion." (This also is more fully discussed in the book Hebrew Questions.)

Maidan.711 City which Solomon built.

Memphis.712 In Osee. City of Egypt. (Osee, Ezechiel, Jeremia the prophets mention this.) Also in Ezechiel. In Jeremia those Jews (who fled Jerusalem) with Jeremia went to Memphis.

Macha.713 In Osee. (For which) Aquila and Symmachus (translate) "the desire."

Milētos.714 City of Asia. Noted in Ezechiel.

Maribōth.715 (Which Ezechiel mentions saying) "to the waters of Maribeth," Ezechiel. Aquila "litigation." Symmachus "controversy."

Mōrathei(Morasthi).716 Home of Michea the prophet. (It is a village) east of Eleutheropolis.

Masogam.717 Territory of Moab according to Jeremia.

[Misōr.718 Territory of Moab according to Jeremia (near Jeremia).

Mōphath.719 Territory of Moab according to Jeremia.] Noted above Mēphaath.

Maōn.720 Territory of Moab according to Jeremia (near Jeremia).

Molchom.721 Idol of Ammon according to Jeremia (as Jeremia writes).

Magedan.722 The Christ went to the region of Magedan according to Matthew and Mark also mentions Magedan. Now (the region called) Magedanēis around Gerasa.



(Five Books of Moses)

Naid.723 Land where Cain dwelled. (Properly) interpreted "restlessness," (i.e., in motion or fluctuation).

Nineve.724 City of Assyria which Assur built going from the land of Sammaar. There is now (another) city of Jews called Nineve near the Gonias (corner) of Arabia.

Naaliēl.725 Near the Arnon. A station of the children of Israel.

Nabau.726 (Which the Hebrews called Nebō.) Mountain above the Jordanopposite Jerichoon the land Moab. There Mosesdied. It is pointed out even now about six miles west of Esbon (opposite the east region of Esbon).

Nabōth(Nabo).727 City of the sons of Ruben in the territory of Galaad. Noted also by Isaia in the vision "against the Moabites" and in Jeremia. There is also (a certain) man named Nabau who was of Kanath and this city was named from that Naboth. Nabau is now shown deserted eight miles south of (the city of) Hesbon.

Nageb.728 The South (is called Nageb) according to the Hebrews. Symmachus (interprets) "south." [It should be known that this area among the Hebrew tribes is called Nageb, Theman, and Darom, which we are able to translate as south. (Latin uses four synonyms for south quadrant; austrum (south), adricum (southwest), meridiem (south), eurum (southeast).]


Naphethdor (Nafeddor).729 Symmachus (interprets) "Dora on the coast" (maritime). It is nine miles from Kaisareia. (Dor is today a deserted city in the ninth mile on the road from Caesarea to Ptolemaise.)

Naphthō.730 A spring of water is so called. Tribe of Benjamin.

Naam.731 City of the tribe of Juda.

Nesib.732 (In) tribe of Juda. There is a Nasib (which is now called Nasibi) nine (seven) miles from Eleutheropolis on the road to Hebron.

Nebpsan.733 (In) tribe of Juda.

Naaratha.734 (In) tribe of Ephraim. There is now a village of Jews Noorath five miles from Jericho.

Napheth.735 (In) tribe of Manasse.

Naalōl.736 (In tribe of) lot of Zabulon. City separated to Levites.

Nakeb.737 (In tribe of) lot of Nephthali.


Neala.738 From here the heathen "were not driven out" by Zabulon (Zabulon could not expel). Located in the Batanaca is (a village named) Neeila (Neila).

Nobba (Nabe or Nobba).739 To which Gedeon went up. City separated to the priests which (afterwards we read) Saul [in a rage] destroyed.

Nemra.740 City of (tribe of) Ruben in land of Galaad. There is now a large village Namara in the (region or the) Batanaea.


Naniōth.741 (Place) "in Rama." City where David dwelled. (We spoke of this in the book Hebrew Questions.)

Nachōn.742 "Threshing floor of Nachōn" which Aquila(interprets) "threshing floor prepared."

Naphath.743 The city of one of the chiefs of Solomon.

Nērigel.744 The Samaritans from Babylon (who had been brought from Babylon) built this in (the region of) Judaea.

Nazeb.745 The Hevites built this in (the land of) Judaea.

Nasarach.746 Idol of Assyria.

Nebēreim(Nemerim).747 Isaia (mentions this) in the vision "against the Moabites." Also Jeremia. It is now (a village called) Bennamareim north of Zoora.

Nabeōth.748 Territory in Isaia.


Nazareth.749 Whence the Christ was called a Nazorite (Our Lord and Savior was called). Formerly (as a taunt were called) the Nazarenes are now the Christians. It is even now in Galilee (a village) opposite Legeōnfifteen miles to the east near Mt.Thabor(named Nazara).

Naein (Naim).750 Village (city) in which the son of the widow was raised from the dead (The Lord raised). It is today twelve (two) miles south of (Mount) Thabor near Aendor.



Xil.751 (In) tribe of Juda.



Orech.752 City of King Nebrod (Nemrod) in Babylon.

Our of the Chaldees.753 Where "Arran died" the brother of Abraham. Where also Josephus reports his tomb is even "now pointed out." [Of this also we have looked into and have spoken in the book Hebrew Questions.]

Oulammaous.754 The Hebrew has Louza. This is called also both Louza and Bethel. Noted above. There is (shown) another Oullama twelve miles east of Diocaesarea.

[Olibama.755 City of the princes of Edom.]

Odollam.756 Noted above also. Isaia mentions it.


Othom (Othon).757 The second station where those (the children of Israel) coming from Egypt came from Sokchōth"near the desert."


Opher.758 Josue besieged this and captures (killed) its king.

Oolei.759 City (in tribe of) of lot of Aser.

Ophra.760 Orad Ophra up to (the land of) Saul.

[Here we read through O the short letter, later we record the long vowel.]

Ous.761 Home of Job. In the territory of Ausitide. One of the sons of Esau is also called thus. [Of which we spoke in the book Hebrew Questions.]



Petra.762 City in the land of Edom in Arabia which is called Iechthoel. This is also called Rekem by the Assyrians (Syrians).



Roōbōth.763 City of Assyria which Assur built going from the land of Sennaar. [Of this also we have spoken fully in the book Hebrew Questions.]

Roōbōth.764 Another City which is "by the river" which was the home of the king of Idumea. Now there is a fortress in the Gebalene (and a large village called by this name).

Ramesse.765 City which the children of Israel built in Egypt. The whole territory was formerly called this. In it Jacob dwelled with his children.

Roōb.766 Through which came (crossed) the spies with Josue (son of Nun). There is a village (today called) Roōb four miles from Scythopolis. Separated to the Levites.

Raphaka.767 Station of the children of Israel in the desert.

Raphidim.768 Place in the desert beside Mt.Horeb where the water flowed "from the rock" in Mt.Horeb. The place is called "Temptation." There Josue also fought Amalek near Pharan.

Ratima.769 Station of the children of Israel in the desert.

Remmen Phares.770 Station of the children of Israel.

Ressa.771 Station of the children of Israel.

Ramōth.772 City (in) the tribe of Gad. Priestly and refuge, in the (land of) Galaaditide. It is now (a village) fifteen miles west (against the east) of Philadelphia.

Rekem.773 It is also Petra, city of Arabia, "whose ruler Rocom the children of Israel killed. It is said he was also king of Madiam.


Remmōn.774 (In) tribe of Simeon or Juda. Now Remmōn is a village near Jerusalem, fifteen miles to the north.

Rōgēl.775 Spring is called this. In lot (tribe) of Benjamin.

Rama.776 (In) tribe of Benjamin. City of Saul. Seven (six) miles north of Jerusalem opposite Bethel. Jeremia mentioned it.

Rekēm.777 (In) tribe of Benjamin.

Remmōn.778 Rock Remmon. (In tribe of) lot of Simeon or Zabulon.

[Rabbōth.779 (In tribe of) lot of Issachar. There is now another village Robbo in the region of Eleutheropolis to the east.

Rethōm.780] (In tribe of) lot of Issachar.

Roōb.781 (In tribe of) lot of Aser. [City separated to the Levites.

Rama.782 (In tribe of) lot of Aser.] "Up to the fortress city of Tyre."

Rama.783 (In tribe of) lot of Nephthali.

[Some of the names of the villages are assigned to different tribes because with us we see only one name to pronounce, when among the Hebrews they are written with various letters.]

[Rekkath.784 (In tribe of); lot of Nephthali.]

Rouma (Arima also).785 Where "Abimelech sat" as in Judges. Now it is called Remphis (Remthis) in the region of Diospolis which is called by many Arimathaia.


Remmōth.786 Where David sent "the spoils."

Rachel.787 Where David sent "the spoils."

RemmōthGalaad.788 Now there is a village in Perea (beside the Jordan) beside the river Jobok. Noted also above.

Rabbath.789 City of the king of Ammon which is (now) Philadelphia. Jeremia also mentions it.

Raōs (Roos).790 David came here (crossed through). Aquila and Symmachus (interpret) "the top" (the vault).

Rogellein.791 Home of Bersellein the Galladi.

Raphaein (Raphaeim).792 Valley of the heathen (Allofylus). North of Jerusalem.

Remman.793 City of the king of Syria near Damascus.

Reth.794 Asa conquered this.

Rathem.795 (Which for) Aquilla (is interpreted) "juniper tree" and Symmachus "shelter" (shady place).

Remmōn.796 Isaia (mentioned this) in the vision "Against the Moabites."

Raseph.797 City of Syria.

Rapheth.798 City "in the territory of Thaimon" (Theman) of Assyria. In Isaia (it is written).

Rebla.799 In the land of Aimath where (victorious) Pharaoh led away Ioachaz (to Egypt).

Remma.800 Mountain in Isaia. (For which Aquila (interprets) "Mt.Ermona" (Emmona), Symmachus "in Armenia." There is a village Remmous (Remmus) in Daroma. (Further) in the (book) of Kings Remman is the home of the idol of the Damascenes.

Reblatha.801 Territory (or city) of Babylon (which they now call Antioch).

Ramade (Ramale).802 (For which) Aquila (interprets) "be lifted up." (Written) in Zacharia. There is also (another place) Rama of Benjamin (in the tribe of) around Bethlehem where "a voice is heard in Rama." (Of this we have fully spoken in the book Hebrew Questions.)

Rinokoroura.803 Isaia. City of Egypt. [You should know that this word is not found in the Hebrew books but has been added by the translators of the Septuagint at the noted place.]


[What we have said in the book on Interpretation of Hebrew Names, even now in the heading of the letter S we see that among the Hebrews there are three S's: Samech, Sade and Sin. Yet these are pronounced as one sound among the Greek and Latin which in the Hebrew language are differentiated. So it is that each name appears to us to sound differently, and further each has another letter. Not only from one but from three letters places and cities and villages are described.] 804


Sidōn.805 Famous Phoenician city. Formerly the northern boundary of the Chanaanites. Later of Judaea. Given by lot (to tribe of Aser) of Israel. Tribe of Aser fought to possess it but the tribe of Aser' "did not drive out the heathen" (were not able to drive out the enemy) Scripture affirms.

Sennaar.806 Plain of Babylon where the Tower was built. From which "Assur went out and built Nineve." Josephus mentions it saying in the first book of Antiquities, "And as concerning the plain called Senaar in the region of Babylon, Hestiaeus speaks as follows, 'Now the priests who escaped took the sacred vessels of Zeus Enyalius (war like) and came to Sanaar in Babylonia.'"

Suchem (Sikima) (Salēm).807 City of Jacob now deserted. The place is pointed out in the suburb of Neapolis. There (near) the tomb of Joseph is pointed out near by. Abimelech came down on it (Latin omits phrase) "And sowed it with salt" as in (the book of) Judges. (Afterwards) Jeroboam rebuilt it according to Kings. Located on the border of the (tribe of) lot of Ephraim. One of the sons of Emmōris called Suchem from which the place is called. There is also another Suchem in the mountain of Ephraim, a city of refuge.

Sennaar.808 Home of Amarphal who fought against (the king of) Sodom.

Sodoma.809 City of wicked men which was completely destroyed (divine fire consumed) near the Dead Sea.

Sebōeim.810 City of the wicked near Sodom which was completely destroyed (disappeared in eternal ashes).

Sōpheira.811 "Mountain of the East" in India. The sons of Iektan son of Eber dwelled near it as Josephus affirms, "Those from the river Kōphēninhabited parts of India and of the adjacent country of Sēria." Here also the ships of Solomon carried cargo for three years' journey.

Soora.812 City near Sodom also called Sigor and Zoora. (Of which we spoke above.)

Sauē.813 Ancient city in which the Ammorites dwelled beyond Sodom, which Chodollagomar destroyed.

Sēeir.814 Mountain of the land of Edom where Easu dwelled in the (region of) Gebalene. It is named after him for he was fully covered with hair (he was hairy and bristly) and "being covered with hair" is the interpretation of Sēeir. (Seeir means hairy and so gets its name.) Scripture also says that before Esau, the Chorraites dwelled in the place called Seeir and were destroyed by Chodollagomor. Isaia also mentioned Seeir in the vision "of the Idumeans."

Salēm.815 City of Sikimōnas Scripture affirms. Another village [is shown up to the present day near Jerusalem, to the west, by this same name. In the eighth mile toward Scythopolis in the plain there is a village Salumias. Josephus affirms the true Salem to be that in which Melchisedec ruled which later is called Solyma and finally gets the name Jerusalem.]

Sour.816 [Where the angel came to Sarai's maid Agar between Kades and Barad. The desert of Sur extends up to the Red Sea which goes around the border of Egypt. Further Kades is the desert beyond the city Petra. But Scripture notes the desert of Kades extends beyond Egypt to which the Hebrews first came after crossing the Red Sea.]

Sēgōr.817 [Which is also Sala and Zoara, one of the five cities of Sodom. By the prayer of Lot was saved from fire.] Up to now it is still pointed out, Isaia mentions it in the vision "Against the Moabites." (As we have spoken above.)

Skēnai(Scenae).818 (i.e., tabernacle.) Where Jacob dwelled after coming from Mesopotamia. [Which in the Hebrew language is called Socchoth.]


Sokchōth.819 First station of the children of Israel in the desert before (crossing) the Red Sea (after) coming out of Egypt.

Sin.820 Desert extending between the Red Sea and the desert of Sina. From Sin they came into Raphidin, from there "into the desert of Sina" near Mt.Sina where Moses received (the tables of) the law. This desert the Hebrew Scriptures call Kades, but this is not in (the interpretation of) the Septuagint.


Selmona.821 Station [of the children of Israel in the desert.

Saphar.822 Mt.Saphar. Station] of the children of Israel in the desert.

Sattein (Sattim).823 Where "the degraded people fornicated with the daughters of Moab" near Mt.Phagōr. From here Josuesent those to spy out Jericho.

Sabama.824 City of Moab in (land of) Galaad which the tribe of Ruben received. Isaia also mentions this in the vision "Against the Moabites."

Selcha.825 City of King Og in the (region of) the Basanitide.

Senna.826 Border of Judaea which is now (a hamlet) Magdalsenna [which means tower of Sena] eight (seven) miles north of Jericho.

Sephama.827 Border of Judaea to the east.

[Sadada.828 Border of Judaea.]


Somerōn.829 Josue besieged this and captured (killed) its king. This is said to be (now called) Sebaste now a city of Palestine (where relics of Saint John the Baptist are kept). It is said in Kings that Zambri, king of Israel, bought "the Mountain of Semeron from one Semel" and he built on it (its top) a city and named it Sameron after Semel (from the name of its owner he called it Serneron).

Sēeira.830 Josue also besieged this.

Selcha.831 City in the Basanitide.

Siōr.832 Which was opposite Egypt. There is (today shown) a village Sior between Jerusalem and Eleutheropolis. (In) tribe of Juda. [Of which there is full discussion in the book Hebrew Questions.]

Saorth.833 (In) tribe of Ruben, above the Jordan.

[Sachoth.834 (In) tribe of Gad, above the Jordan.]

Saphōn.835 (In) tribe of Gad, above the Jordan.

Sachōron.836 (In) tribe of Juda.

[Sama (Samen).837 (In) tribe of Juda.]

Soual.838 (In) tribe of Juda or Simeon.

Sikelag (Secelec).839 Agchous (Anchus) (king of the heathen) gave this over to (the people) of David. Tribe of (lot of) Juda or Simeon in the Daroma.

Sansana.840 (In) tribe of Juda.

Saleei.841 (In) the tribe of Juda.

Saraa.842 Village in the boundary of Eleutheropolis, (about) ten miles north on the road to Nicopolis. (In) tribe of Dan or Juda.

Sokchō.843 (Today there are) two villages nine miles from Eleutheropolis on the road (highway) to Jerusalem. The upper (one in the Mountains) and the lower (the other in the plain) are named Sokchōth. (In) tribe of Juda.

Saraein.844 (In) tribe of Juda.

Sennaan (Senam).845 (In) tribe of Juda.

Sapheir.846 Village in the mountains which is (located) between Eleutheropolis and Askalon. (In) tribe of Juda.

Sokchō.847 Noted also above Sokcho (is spoken of also above). It is said (also) the Samaritans from Babylon (who were brought from Babylon) founded it (the village).

Skacha.848 (In) tribe of Juda.

Selo.849 (In) tribe of Ephraim. In this the ark (of the testament and the tabernacle of the Lord remained) was first kept up to the time of Samuel. It is twelve (ten) miles from Neapolis in the Akrabattine. One of the sons of the patriarch Juda was called Selon (we read).

Suchem (Sechem).850 (In) tribe of Manasse. City of priests and refuge in the Mountains of Ephraim where the bones of Joseph are buried. Noted also above Suchem (of which we spoke above).

Sama.851 (i.e.,) Spring of Sama. (Sames) (in) tribe of Benjamin. (For which) Aquila (interprets) "spring or the sun."

Semreim.852 (In) tribe of Benjamin.

Sela.853 (In) tribe of Benjamin.

Sabe (Sabēe).854 (In) tribe of Simeon.

Sarith (Sarid).855 Border of Zabulon.

Sams.856 (For which) Symmachus and Theodotion (interpret) "sun."

Semerōn.857 Lot or (in tribe of) Zabulon.

Sounēm(Sunem).858 Lot of (in tribe of) Issachar. There now is a village Soulēm(shown) five miles south of Mt.Thabor.

Sion (Seon or Soen).859 Lot of (in tribe of) Issachar. Now (there is shown a village) is beside Mt.Thabor.

Sasima.860 Border of Issachar.

Sior.861 Lot of (in tribe of) Aser.

Sennanein.862 Oak. (Belonging to) border of Naphthali.

Sorek (Sorec).863 Lot of (in tribe of) Dan. Samson was there (we read) near Esthaol [of which we have spoken above].

Sames.864 Lot of (in tribe of) Dan. Noted above. [Which was mentioned above under the name of] Bethsamus.

Salabein (Salabeim).865 Lot of (in tribe of) Dan. But there is now another (large) village (shown) in the border of Sebastēcalled Salaba.

Sepheth.866 (Place) of the Chanaanites.


Seirōtha.867 Where Aod fled (the judge fled). Noted above also Seeira (we spoke about above).

Sour Oreb.868 (Which) Aquila (interprets) "Rook of Oreb."

Selmon.869 Mountain on which Abimelech went fighting Sikima.

Sephina.870 (Which for) Aquila and Symmachus (is interpreted) "north."

Sōrēch.871 (Name of) wadi. Home of Balila wife of Samson. It is (today) the village called Sōrēch (Cafarsorch) north of Eleutheropolis near (the hamlet) Saraa the home of Samson.


Sōpheim.872 In Mt. Ephraim (in neighborhood) of Armathaim.

Salisa.873 Through which Saul went.

[Senna.874 Name or a rook.

Saaleim.875 (Village) through which Saul went.] A village of the region of Eleutheropolis seven miles to the west.

Seiph (Sthif).876 Where Saul met Samuel.

Sabeim.877 Where Saul fought.

Sōnam.878 Home of the [woman] Somanite. There is a village (today) called Sanim on the border of Sabastē in the Akrabattinē.

Saphamōth.879 Where David sent.

Seeira.880 (Name of) well (at which) Joab turned away (back) Abner (the chief of the army).

Souba.881 Whose king David defeated.

Sarthan.882 Below (at the foot of) Iezrael.

Sōpheira(Soupheir).883 Where Solomon's ships went. Noted above (of which we spoke above). Mountain in the east (region) of India.

Serōra.884 City on the way to Edom.

Saba.885 Royal city of the Aithiopians which Josephus affirms Cambuse (the queen) named Meroen from the name or her own sister.

Sela.886 Where Joas was beaten.

Sephpharouem (Saffaruaim).887 From here the Assyrians moved to another place (transmigrating) to live in Samaria, from whom (arose the beginnings of the) are the Samaritan nation. Isaia mentions it.

Sademoth.888 Where Josias (the king) burned (the images of) the idols.

Sarepta.889 Famous village (little city) of Sidon (Sidonians on the highway) where Elias (once) "dwelled.

Sarōn.890 (Which) Isaia (mentions saying), "Sarōn became a swamp" and the territory from Mt.Thaborto Lake Tiberiasis now called Sarōnas. There is another Saronas, the region from Caesarea to Joppa. (All the land from Caesarea Palestine to the city of Joppa is called Saronas.)

Sephela.891 (As written) in Isaia. (For which) Aquila (interprets) "plain," Symmachus "valley." Even now it is called Sephela. It is all the region (fields and plains) around Eleutheropolis to the north and the west.

Sennaar.892 In Micheae. (For which) Aquila (interprets) "Sannaan," Symmachus "flourishing" (fertile). (Michea the prophet mentions this.)

Sedrach.893 Land or Damascus. (We read) in Zacharia.

Siōn.894 Mountain (in the city) of Jerusalem.

Samareia (Samaria).895 Royal city of Israel. Now (it is called) Sebastē. Also the region around it. [Receives its name from that city.]

Sor (Tyre).896 Phoenician metropolis. Lot of (in tribe of) Naphthali.

Soēne.897 City of Thebes. In Ezechiel (as Ezechiel writes).

Sais.898 City of Egypt. [Ezechiel mentions it. District of Saites also.]

Sadala.899 Border of Judaea as in Ezechiel (as Ezechiel writes).

Sabareim.900 "On the border between Damascus and Aimath" as in Ezechiel (as Ezechiel writes).

Salisa.901 (For which) Aquila (interprets) "three years." As in Jeremia. (Jeremia mentions this.)

Suchar.902 Before Neapolis near the field which Jacob gave to Joseph his son. In it the Christ (our Savior) according to John conversed with the Samaritan (woman) at the well. It is even now pointed out (where a church is now built).



Tigris.903 The river going out east from Paradise, according to Scripture, "over against Assyria" (after many turns) flowing "into the Red Sea" as Josephus affirms. It is called by the nickname Tigris because of the violence resembling that of the like-named animal. (Properly called by this name because the excessively swift current is like the quickness of the animal.)

Terebinthos in Sikemon.904 Under which Jacob hid "strange gods" (idols) near Neapolis.


Tina.905 (In) tribe of Juda.

Telem.906 (In) tribe of Juda.

Tessem.907 (In) tribe of Juda.

Turos.908 (In) tribe of Nephthali.


Tabath.909 Where they fought against the Midianites.

Tōb.910 Land where Jephte dwelled.

Tapheth (Tofeth).911 "In the valley of the sons of Ennom" where the people committed idolatry (worshiped pagan idols), (is a place) in the suburbs of Jerusalem.

Tanis.912 City of Egypt. (As) in Isaia and Ezechiel.

Taphnas.913 City of Egypt. In Osee and Ezechiel and Jeremia. There the Jews who fled to Egypt with Jeremia [for fear of the Babylonians] dwelled.


Trachonitis territory or Itouraia.914 Of which Philip was tetrarch according to the Gospel of Luke. Noted above (we spoke of it above). It is extending from Bostra in the southern desert up to Damascus. (Beyond Bostra city of Arabia in the southern desert almost up to Damascus.)

[We read this with the simple letter but truly that which follows is not from Teth but from Tau, i.e., for which the Greek Theta is written we must read with aspiration.] Note: in the Latin Manuscripts TH now follows.915



Pheisōn(Fison).916 Interpreted "multitude." It is the river the Greeks (we) called (call) Ganges which flowing from Paradise to (going through the regions at) India flows out into the sea. (Scripture) also said it encircles "all the land of Hevila where gold and rubies and (precious) emeralds (are produced)."

Pharan.917 (Now) a city beyond Arabia adjoining the desert of the Saracens [who wander in the desert] through which the children or Israel went moving (camp) from Sinai. Located (we say) beyond Arabia on the south, three days journey to the east of Aila (in the desert Pharan) where Scripture affirms Ismael dwelled, whence the Ishmaelites [who are not the Saracens]. It is said (we read) also that (king) Chodollagomor cut to pieces those in "Pharan which is in the desert."

Pulistieim.918 Now called Askalon and the famous territory of Palestine around it.

Phrear.919 (Well) of the oath. Which Abraham dug where he swore an oath. It is now called Bērosabain the (region) of the Geraritike(of which we spoke above).

Phrear.920 (Well) of vision. On the desert where Isaak dwelled.

Phrear.921 (Well) of judgments. Up to the present time there is a village in the Geraritike called (by name) Berdan (which means in Latin "well of judgments").

Phrear.922 (Well) of Oath. Where Isaac and Abimelech swore. It is called the city of Isaac. There are also many other and different wells in (Holy) Scripture which are even now pointed out in the (region of) Geraritike and near Askalon.

Phanouēl.923 Where after an all-night of wrestling Jacob's (Jacob merited the name Israel) name was changed to Israel near the Wadi Iabok, which in Hebrew is called [Fanuel, i.e., "face of God" because he saw god there].

Phogōr(Fogo).924 City of (king) Adad in the (region of) Geralitike.

Phinōn.925 Station of the children of Israel in the desert, which was (one of) a city of the princes of Edom. It is Phainon where there are copper mines between the city of Petra and Zoara. [Now a village Phainon in the desert where copper is mined by condemned prisoners between the city of Petra and Zoara of which we spoke above.]


Phithōm.926 City in Egypt which the children of Israel built.


Pharagx.927 Botrous. Ravine of the cluster where the spies got fruit as proof of the land. It is said to be Gophna interpreted "vine" fifteen miles from Jerusalem on the road going up to Neapolis. The report they swear is true. (This entry is not in the Latin)

Phin.928 Station of the children of Israel in the desert.

Pharagx Zare.929 Ravine Zared. Section of the desert. (This entry is not in the Latin.)

Phear.930 Well in the desert. Where the people were. (This entry is not in the Latin.)

Phathoura.931 City beyond Mesopotamia where Balaam (the soothsayer) came from. Located near Eleutheropolis there is another village (named Phathoura) on the road to Gaza.

Phogōr(Bēthphogōr).932 Mountain in Moab to which (king) Balak led Balaam (the Soothsayer). Located above the place now called Libiados (Livias). There is another (village) Phogōr near Bethlehem(which is now called Faora).

Phasga.933 City of the Amorrites. It is also a mountain to the east of Phasga. Aquila (interprets) "tomb" (quarry) and the Septuagint "of the tomb" (in a quarried place).


[Phanouel.934 City which Jeroboam built.]

Phanouēl.935 Tower which Gedeon destroyed. One of the sons of ōris called Phanouēl.

[Phraathōn.936 Home of Abdon judge of Israel "in the mountain of Amalek."]


Pharagx Ennom.937 Ravine Ennon. Ge Ennom in Hebrew. Therefore some affirm this to be Gebenna near Jerusalem. It is said to be the name of the Ravine of Josephat. (This entry is not in the Latin.)

Phelmoni Almoni.938 Aquila "so and so" or "a certain." Symmachus "such a place." Theodotion "to a certain (place)" Elmoni (of which there is a full discussion in the book Hebrew Questions).

Phogō.939 City of the king of Edom.

Pharphar.940 River of Damascus.

Phathori.941 Territory of Egypt as in Ezechiel and Jeremia where the Jews (having fled) dwelled.



Chalannē.942 City of King Nebrod (Nemrod) in Babylon. Noted in Isaia (saying) "Chalanne where the tower was built."

Chalak.943 City of Assyria which Assur built coming from the land of Sennaar.

Charran.944 There is even now in Mesopotamia (beyond Edessa) a city called Karra. [Where the Roman soldiers were defeated and Grassus, their leader, was captured.]

Chebrōn.945 Formerly called Arbok. (Arbe for which the Greek wrongly has Arbok.) Founded seven years before Tanis of Egypt. Noted above and described. Was the royal city of the Enakim. [Who we must believe were strong and gigantic.]

Chōba.946 "It is left (north) of Damascus." There is a village Choba now in that region where Hebrews believing on the Christ [and keeping all the commandments of the Torah] are called Ebionites. [Against such doctrines Paul the apostle wrote to the Galatians.]

Chabratha.947 Aquila (interprets) "by the road" (i.e., near the road) going to Ephratha of Bethleem where Rachel died bearing Benjamin. [We have seen this word above and we spoke of it in the book Hebrew Questions.]

Chasbi.948 Where the wife of Juda bore a son. A deserted place (ruin) is now pointed out in the region of Eleutheropolis near Odollam. [This is fully discussed in the book Hebrew Questions.]


Chōrēb.949 Mountain of God in the territory of Moab. Near Mt.Sinai beyond Arabia in the desert [Where the mountain and the desert or the Saracens called Faran meet. It seems to me that the two names are for the same mountain which is now called Sinai and now Choreb.]

Charada.950 Station of the children of Israel.

Chenereth.951 Sea. Border of Judaea. Lot of (tribe of) Nephthali. [But the town which later in honor of Tiberius Caesar, Herod the King of Judaea restored and called Tiberias first bore this name.]


Chepheira.952 City (village) of Gabaōn (of the city of Gabaon). (In) tribe of Benjamin.

Chasalōn.953 Tribe of Benjamin on the border of Jerusalem. A (very) large village.

Chsil.954 (In) tribe of Juda.

Chaphtheis.955 (In) tribe of Juda.

Chermel.956 Tribe of Juda. Large city Chermel in the Daroma (Latin omits these two phrases). Home of Nabal (the Canaanite). Near Chebrōn(of which we spoke above) to the south. A guard of soldiers is stationed there. (Latin omits the last two sentences.)

Chabōn.957 (In) tribe of Juda.

Cheilōn.958 (In) tribe of Juda.

Chephrei.959 (In) tribe of Benjamin.

Cheselath Thabor.960 Lot of (in tribe of) Zabulon.


Chettieim.961 Land of the Chittites or (is said to be) Cyprus. Whence the city Louza was founded. (There is also now a city of Cyprus called Cititium.)

Charrei.962 (To this place) where Joab pursued Sabee (who was stirring up a revolution).

Chomarreim.963 Where Josias put to flames (burned) the idols (images).

Chalannē.964 "Where the tower was built" according to Isaia. Noted above (as we spoke above).

Charran.965 City of Assyria around Thaiman (region) according to Isaia.

Chaselath tou Thabōr.966 Border of Zabulon. Noted above Chessalous (we spoke of it above under the name Chsalus).

Chōbal.967 Border of Aser.

Chalab.968 "Aser did not drive out" the heathen (former inhabitants) from here.

Chorra.969 Wadi across the Jordan [in which Elias hid in the region of the same river].

Chōtha.970 Territory of Assyria.

Chōbar.971 River of Assyria as in Ezechiel.

Charchamus.972 City beside the river Euphrates.

Chamōam.973 Village near Bethlehem.

Chelōn(Elōn).974 City of Moab as in Jeremia.

Chamōs.975 Idol of Moab.

Chōrazein.976 Village (city) of Galilee over which the Christ suffered [wept and wailed at unbelief] according to the Gospel. Now deserted two miles from Capharnaoum.

Cheimarrous Kedrōn.977 (i.e., Wadi) before Jerusalem (of which we spoke above between the Mt. of Olives and Jerusalem) where the Christ (Lord and Savior) was handed over as the Gospel of John affirms.



ōn.978 "Which is Heliopolis" (i.e., city of the sun) city in Egypt. The children of Israel built this according to the interpretation of the Septuagint. But more correctly the Hebrew (books) did not hold this since it existed (was built) before the coming of the children of Israel (before Jacob came into Egypt). (Petefrem) the father of Asennek was priest here.

ōr.979 Mountain on which Aaron died near the city of Petra. There is now pointed out the rock which flowed for Moses (which Moses struck and gave water to the people).

ōbōth.980 Station of the children of Israel in the desert.


Osa.981 (In tribe of) lot of Aser.

Oram.982 (In tribe of) lot of Nephthali.

Opheir.983 Where gold was brought by Solomon as (we read) in (the book of) Kings. One of the descendants of Eber was named Oupheir whose sons (coming) "from the river Kōphenos in inhabited Indiaand the nearby Syrias" (from the river Kophene dwelled in the region of India called Ieria) according to Josephus. (I believe) this region is properly named from him.

Ôn.984 City of Samaria. The Hebrew had (written) Aun. Aquila and Symmachus (interpret) "useless." Theodotion "unjust."

ōlō.985 City of priests.

ōronaeim.986 City of Moab in Jeremia (as Jeremia has written).

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