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345 Unless Oehler's "fruerentur" is an error for "fruentur" = "will enjoy."

346 Or, "ignore."

347 See cc. xi. xii. above.

348 Orbem.

349 Or, "unto eternity." Comp. 2 Sam. (2 Kings in LXX.) vii. 13; 1 Chron. xvii. 12; Ps. lxxxix. 3,4,29,35,36,37 (in LXX. Ps. lxxxviii. 4, 5, 30, 36, 37, 38).

350 See Isa. lv. 5 (especially in the LXX).

351 Oehler's pointing is discarded. The whole passage, from "which you dare not assert" down to "ignorant," appears to be parenthetical; and I have therefore marked it as such.

1 [The tract De Testimonio Animoe is cast into an apologetic form and very properly comes into place here. It was written in Orthodoxy and forms a valuable preface to the De Anima, of which we cannot say that it is quite free from errors. As it refers to the Apology, we cannot place it before that work, and perhaps we shall not greatly err if we consider it a sequel to the Apology. If it proves to others the source of as much enjoyment as it affords to me, it will be treasured by them as one of the most precious testimonies to the Gospel, introducing Man to himself.]

2 [The student of Plato will recall such evidence, readily. See The Laws, in Jowett's Translation, vol. iv. p. 416. Also Elucidation I.]

3 [The existence of demoniacal possessions in heathen countries is said to be probable, even in our days. The Fathers unanimously assert the effectual exorcisms of their days.]

4 [E.g. Horace, Epodes, Ode V.]

5 [Satanan, in omni vexatione...pronuntias. Does he mean that they used this word? Rather, he means the demon is none other than Satan.]

6 [I have been obliged, somewhat, to simplify the translation here.]

7 [This whole passage is useful as a commentary on classic authors who use these poetical expressions Coelo Musa beat (Hor. Ode viii. B. 4.) but the real feeling comes out in such expressions as one finds in Horace's odes to Sextius, (B. i. Ode 4.), or to Postumus, B. ii. Od. 14.]

8 [The tombs, by the roadside, of which the traveller still sees specimens, used to be scenes of debauchery when the dead were honoured in this way. Now, the funeral honours (See De Corona, cap. iii.) which Christians substituted for these were Eucharistic alms and oblations: thanking God for their holy lives and perpetuating relations with them in the Communion of Saints.]

9 [Butler, Analogy, Part I. Chap. I.]

10 [Horace, Book III Ode 30.]

11 [This appeal to the universal conscience and consciousness of mankind is unanswerable, and assures us that counter-theories will never prevail. See Bossuet, De la Connoisance de Dieu et de Soi-même. Oeuvres, Tom. v. pp. 86 et. Seqq. Ed. Paris., 1846.]

12 [Compare the heathen ideas in Plato: e.g. the story Socrates tells in the Gorgians, (near the close) about death and Judgment.]

1 [It is not safe to date this treatise before a.d. 203, and perhaps it would be unsafe to assign a later date. The note of the translator, which follows, relieves me from any necessity to add more, just here.]

2 In this treatise we have Tertullian's speculations on the origin, the nature, and the destiny of the human soul. There are, no doubt, paradoxes startling to a modern reader to be found in it, such as that of the soul's corpereity; and there are weak and inconclusive arguments. But after all such drawbacks (And they are not more than what constantly occur in the most renowned speculative writers of antiquity), the reader will discover many interesting proofs of our author's character for originality of thought, width of information, firm grasp of his subject, and vivacious treatment of it, such as we have discovered in other parts of his writings. If his subject permits Tertullian less than usual of an appeal to his favourite Holy Scripture, he still makes room for occasional illustration from it, and with his characteristic ability; If, however, there is less of his sacred learning in it, the treatise teems with curious information drawn from the secular literature of that early age. Our author often measures swords with Plato in his discussions on the soul, and it is not too much to say that he shows himself a formidable opponent to the great philosopher. See Bp. Kaye, On Tertullian, pp. 199, 200.

3 Suggestu. [Kaye, pp. 60 and 541.]

4 Flatu "the breath."

5 Utique.

6 Consternata.

7 Consternata.

8 Externata. "Externatus = e0kto\j frenw=n. Gloss. Philox.

9 Pietatis.

10 Fidei sacramento.

11 The allusion is to the inconsistency of the philosopher, who condemned the gods of the vulgar, and died offering a gift to one of them.

12 Vivicomburio.

13 Mentioned below, c. xxxiii.; also Adv. Valent. c. xv.

14 See his Phoedrus, c. lix. (p. 274); also Augustin, De. Civ. Dei, viii. 11; Euseb. Praep. Evang. ix. 3.

15 Or spurious; not to be confounded with our so-called Apocrypha, which were in Tertullian's days called Libri Ecclesiastici.

16 Here is a touch of Tertullian's Montanism.

17 Subornant.

18 1 Tim. i. 4.

19 1 Cor. x. 19.

20 Compare Tertullian's Adv. Hermog. c. viii.

21 Col. ii. 8.

22 Linguatam civitatem. Comp. Acts xvii. 21.

23 Isa. i. 22.

24 Honor.

25 Vigor. Another reading has "rigor" (aklhro/thj), harshness.

26 Tenor.

27 Stupor.

28 Moeror.

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