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114 This treatment of the scape-goat was partly ceremonial, partly disorderly. The Mischna (Yoma vi. 4-6) mentions the scarlet ribbon which was bound round the animal's head between the horns, and the "pulling" (rather plucking out of its hair); but this latter was an indignity practised by scoffers and guarded against by Jews. Tertullian repeats the whole of this passage, Adv. Jud. xiv. Similar use is made of the type of the scape-goat by other fathers, as Justin Martyr (Dial. cum Tryph.) and Cyril of Alex. (Epist. ad Acacium). In this book ix. Against Julian, he expressly says: "Christ was described by the two goats,-as dying for us in the flesh, and then (as shown by the scape-goat) overcoming death in His divine nature." See Tertullian's passages illustrated fully in Rabbi Chiga, Addit. ad Cod. de die Expiat. (in Ugolini, Thes. i. 88).

115 Quasi visceratione. [See Kaye's important comment, p. 426.]

116 Jejunantibus.

117 So Epiphanius, adv. Hoeres. i. 23. 7, quotes the same proverb, w9j a0spi/j par' e0xdnhj i0o\n danizome/nh. [Tom. II. p. 144. Ed. Oehler.]

118 As in his Docetic views of the body of Christ.

119 2 Cor. vi. 14.

120 Mendacio.

121 Congressus.

122 Convictus.

123 Demandat.

124 Tam impresse, "so strongly."

125 1Cor. xv. 3, 4, 14, 17, 18.

126 Valebit.

127 Aufertur.

128 1 Cor. xv. 13-18.

129 Sane.

130 Phantasmate forsitan.

131 Ista. [See Kaye, p. 205.]

132 [Pamelius attributes this doctorine to Appelles a disciple of Marcion, of whom See Kaye, pp. 479, 480.]

133 Luke xx. 36.

134 Mentiri.

135 i.e., among the angels.

136 Reformaret.

137 Commeatum.

138 Stercoribus infersam.

139 A Marcionite arguement.

140 Stropham, a player's trick; so in Spectac. 29.

141 Ailenis.

142 Globum.

143 Mendacio.

144 Corpulentiae.

145 This woman is called in De Praescr. Hoeret. 6, "an angel of deceit," and (in 30) "a virgin, but afterwards a monstrous prostitute." Our author adds: "Induced by her tricks and miracles, Apelles introduced a new heresy." See also Eusebius, Hist. Eccl. v. 13; Augstin, De Hoeres. 42; Hieronymus, Epist. adv. Ctesiph. p. 477, tom. iv. ed. Benedictin.

146 Luke xi. 27.

147 Luke viii. 20.

148 Below, iv. 26; also in De carne Christi, cap. vii.

149 Expungendam, "consummated," a frequent use of the word in our author.

150 Viderit opinio humana.

151 Inflatae.

152 Sanguinis tributo.

153 Plane, ironically said.

154 Turpissimum.

155 Perora.

156 Mendacio.

157 Habitus.

158 Carneus.

159 Ex nativitate.

160 Isa. vii. 14.

161 Isa.viii. 4. Compare adv. Judaeos, 9.

162 Cohaerentia.

163 Agitetur in Christo.

164 Gal. iii. 27.

165 Compare with this chapter, T.'s adv. Judaeos, 9.

166 Isa. viii. 4.

167 Jam hominem, jam virum in Adv. Judaeos, "at man's estate."

168 Lanceare ante quam lancinare. This play on words points to the very early training of the barbarian boys to war. Lancinare perhaps means, "to nibble the nipple with the gum."

169 He alludes to the suppling of their young joints with oil, and then drying them in the sun.

170 Pannis.

171 Butyro.

172 Isa. vii. 14.

173 The tam dignum of this place is jam signum in adv. Judaeos.

174 Contineat.

175 This opinion of Jews and Judaizing heretics is mentioned by Irenaeus, Adv. Hoeret. iii. 21 (Stieren's ed. i. 532); Eusebius, Hist. Eccles. v. 8; Jerome, Adv. Helvid. (ed. Benedict), p. 132. Nor has the cavil ceased to be held, as is well known, to the present day. The hm/l;(ah/

of Isa. vii. 4 is supposed to be Isaiah's wife, and he quotes Kimchi's authority; while the neologian Gesenius interprets the word, a bride, and rejects the Cathloic notion of an unspotted virgin. To make way, however, for their view, both Fuerst andGesenius have to reject the LXX. rendering, parqe/noj.

176 Disposita.

177 Et hic.

178 Alius ordo jam infantis.

179 Infantia est. Better in adv. Judaeos, "est infantiae."

180 The italicised words we have added from adv. Judaeos, "hoc est mirabile signum."

181 Posterior. Posteritas is an attribute of heresy in T.'s view.

182 Centerarum, other than the Jews, i.e., Gentiles.

183 Zech. xiv. 14.

184 Ps. lxxii. 15.

185 Ps. lxxii. 10.

186 See Otto's Justin Martyr, ii. 273, n. 23. [See Vol. 1. p. 238, supra.]

187 Videlicet.

188 The Creatori here answers to the Scripturis divinis of the parallel passage in adv. Judaeos. Of course there is a special force in this use Creator's name here against Marcion.

189 Isa. i. 10.

190 Ezek. xvi. 3.

191 To the sins of these nations.

192 Isa. i. 2.

193 Apud illum, i.e., Creatorem.

194 Maledictionis.

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