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20 Or, "the Son;" or, "the Son of Mary" (Cruice).

21 [Vol. iii. p. 654, this series, where it should have been noted that the Appendixto Tertullian is supposed by Waterland to be "little else but an extract from Hippolytus." He pronounces:t "ancient and of good value." See Wordsworth's remarks on the biblidarion, p. 59.]

22 The Ms. has the obviously corrupt reading paradoseij, which Duncker alters into paradozouj(strange).

23 Cruice suggests the addition of the words "and death," in order to correspond with the remainder of the sentence. The punctuation followed above is conjectural, but gives substantially the meaning of the text as settled by Duncker.

24 stauroumenon/. The ms.. reads kratoumenon, which would mean seized or vanquished. The former yields no meaning, and the latter conveys an erroneous conception regarding the Blessed Lord, who, in yielding to suffering and death, showed Himself more than con-! queror of both (John x. 17, 18).

25 Cruice considers that Theodoret has taken his account (Haer. Fab., i. 19) from this tenth book of The Refutation.

26 There is here a hiatus, which Abbe Cruice thinks is caused by those portions of the ms. being lost, in which Hippolytus furnishes his Summary of the Jewish Sects. The object of introducing these genealogical and ethnic remaks might at first seem irrelevant; but they are intended to be subservient to Hippolytus' Demostration of the Truth, by proving the superior antiquity, as coming down from Abraham, of revelation above all pagan philosophy. [See,cap. xxvii. infra] Abbe Cruise refers us to his work (pp. 72-77), Etudes sur de Nouveaux Documents Historiques empruntes a L'Ouvrage desfilosofoumena, Paris, 1853.

27 [Vol. ii. p. 306, this series.]

28 That is, Kohath (see Gen. xlvi. 2).

29 That is, Tera (see Gen. xi. 26).

30 Gen. xi. 16.

31 [Possibly a physicalcatastrophe. Gen. x. 25, and 1 Chron. i. 19.]

32 The system of seventy-two nations here adopted by Hippolytus is that advanced by Jewish writers generally, and has been probably deduced from the tenth chapter of Genesis Another historian of the heresies of the Church adopts it-Epiphanius. A chronographer, however, contemporary with Hippolytus-Julius Africanus-discarded this number, as is proved by the fragments of his work preserved by Eusebius and Syncellus.

33 The allusion here made constitutes a strong reason for ascribing The Refutationto Hippolytus, the author of which here states that he had written a Chronicle. But the fragment in our text corresponds with a Latin translation of a Chronicongiven by Fabricius, and bearing the name of Hippolytus. The terms in which Hippolytus delivers himself above imply that he was the inventor of a chronological system, thus harmonizing with the fact that the Paschal Cycle, though ever so faulty, was selected out of all his writings for being inscribed on Hippolytus' statue, dug up on the road to Tivoli .a d. 1551, in the vicinity of Rome, near the Church of St. Lorenzo. [This modest note is of no slight importance to the case, as elucidated by Bunsen and Wordsworth.]

34 [Hippolytus does not call in the Greek fables to support the biblical story; he dismisses them with indifference. Yet the universality of such traditions is unaccountable save as derived from the history of Noah.

35 Cruice has 435 years.

36 [That such relics were exhibited need not be doubted if the account of Berosus is credited. We may doubt as to their genuineness, of course.]

37 [See note 4, p. 148, supra.]

38 [The only son of Ham who did not go to Africa, vol. iii. p. 3.]

39 [The fable of Iapetus cannot be explained away as a corroboration of the biblical narrative. Hor., Od., i. 3, 27.]

40 [Here the Edinburgh has "nature." The context seems to require the more comprehensive word "Truth."]

41 The margin, in of the ms. has the words "Origen and Origen's opinion." This seemed to confirm the criticism which ascribes The Refutationto Origin. But even supposing Origen not the author, the copyer of the ms. might have written Origen's name on the margin, as indicating the transcriber's opinion concerning the coincidence of creed between Origen and the a¯thor of The Refutation. The fact, however, i.-, that the doctrine of eternal punishment, asserted in the concluding chapter of The Refutation, was actually controverted by Origen. See translator's Introductory Notice. (See also War;Isworth (a lucid exposition), p. 20, etc., and infra, cap. xxix. note 5.]

42 oroghn (Scott). The ms.. has morfhn.

43 Here we have another reference intimately bearin on the authorship of The Refutation. What follows corresponds with a fragment having a similar title to that stated above, first published by Le Moyne, and inserted in Fabricius (i. pp. 22O - 222) as the work of Hippolytus. Photics mentions this work, and give an extract from it corresponding with what is furnished by Hippolytus. Photius, however, mentions that the book On the Substance of the Universewas said to be written by Josephus, but discovers in marginal notes the asription of it to Caius. But Caius cannot be the writer, since Photius states that the author of The Labyrinthaffirmed that he had written 0n the Substance of the Universe. Now Hippolytus informs us that he is author of The Labyrinth. Hippolytus thus refers to three of his works in The Refutation: (I) eterai bibloi, i.e., on Chronology; (2) Concerning the Substance of the Universe; (3) Little Labyrinth. Except Hippolytus and Photics refer to different works in speaking of The Labyrinth, the foregoing settles the question of the authorship of The Refutation. [See the case of Caius stated. Wordsworth, cap. iv. p. 27, etc.]

44 [Elucidation XVI.]

45 This passage is differently rendered, according as we read fwnhwith Bunsen, or fwnhnwith Dr. Wordsworth. The latter also alters the reading of the vs. (at the end of the next sentence!, apeteleitoarckwn ew, into apetelei to areskon, "he carried into effect what was pleasing to the Toity."

46 Dr.Wordsworth suggests for genesei, epigenesei, i.e., a continuous series of procreaition.

47 See Orion, in Foann., tom.. ii. sec. 8.

48 [Rather, His will.]

49 Compare Orig;en, in Foann., sec. 2, where we have a similar opinion stated. A certain parallel in this and other portions of Hippolytus' concluding remarks, induces the transcriber, no doubt, to write "Origen's opinion" in the margin.

50 Matt. xxv. 21, 23; Luke xvi. 10, 11, 12. [Also 2 Pet. i. 4, one of the king-texts of the inspired oracles.

51 [Nicene doctrine, ruling out all conditions of time from the idea of the generation of the Logos.]

52 autezousioj. Hippolytus here follows his master Irenaeus (Haer., iv. 9), and in doing so enunciatess an Opinion, and uses an expression adopted universally by patristic writers, up to the period of St. Augustine. This great philosopher and divine, however, shook the entire fabric of existing theology respecting the will, and started diffculties, speculative ones at least, which admit of no solution short of the annihilation of finite thought and volition. See translator's Treatise on Metaphysics, chap. x. [Also compare Irenaeus, vol. i.p. 518, and Clement, vol. ii. pp. 319 passimto 525; also vol. iii. 301, and vol. iv. Tertullian and Origen. See Indexeson Free-will.]

53 Dr. Wordsworth translates the passage thus: "Endued with free will, but not dominant; having reason, but not able to govern," etc.

54 [One of the most pithy of all statements as to the origin of subjectiveevil, i.e., evil in humanity.]

55 See Origen, in Joann., tom. ii. sec. 7.

56 Ps. xxxii. 9.

57 Ps. cx. 3; 2 Pet. i. 18, 19.

58 In making the Logos a living principle in the prophets, and as speaking through them to the Church of God in all ages, Hippolytus agrees with Origen. This constitutes another reason for the marginal note "Origen's opinion," already mentioned. (See Origen, peri =arxwn, i. I.)

59 Hippolytus expresses similar opinions respecting the economy of the prophets, in his work, De Antichristo, sec. 2.

60 Hippolytus here compares the ancient prophets with the oracles of the Gentiles. The heathen seers did not give forth their vaticinations spontaneously, but furnished responses to those only who made inquiries after them, says Dr. Wordsworth.

61 pefurakota, This is the reading adopted by Cruice and Wordsworth. The translator has followed Cruice's rendering, refinxissewhile Dr. Wordsworth construes the word "fashioned." The latter is mare literal, as furawmeans to knead, though the sense imparted to it by Cruice would seem more coincident with the scriptural account ( 1 Cor. v. 7; 2 Cor. v. 17; Gal. vi. 15). Bunsen does not alter peforhkota, the reading of the its, and translates it, "to have put on the old man through a new formation." Sauppe reads pefurhkota. See Hippolytus, De Antichristo, sec. 26, in Danielem (p. 205, Mai); and Irenaeus, v. 6.

62 [See Irenaeus (a very beautiful passage), voL i. p. 391.]

63 [See vol. iv. pp, 255 and 383.]

64 This is the reading adopted by Cruice and Bunsen. Dr. Wordsworth translates the passage thus: "acknowledging thyself a man of like nature with Christ, and thou also waiting for the appearance of what thou gavest Him." The source of consolatian to man which Hippolytus, according to Dr. Wordsworth, is here anxious to indicate, is the glorification of human nature in the person of the Lord Jesus Christ. Dr. Wordsworth therefore objects to Bunsen's rendermg, as it gives to the passage a meaning different from this.

65 [The translator's excessive interpolations sometimes needlessly dilute the terse characteristics of the author. Thus, with confusing brackets, the Edinburgh reads: "who so often lead your armies to victory." This is not Hippolytus, and, in such instances, I feel bound to reduce a plethoric text.]

66 [Here the practical idea of the Philosophumenacomes out; and compare vol. iv. pp. 469 and 570.]

67 Dr. Wordsworth justifies Hippolytus' use of the pagan word "Tartarus," by citing the passage (2 Pet. ii. 4), "For if God spared not the angels that sinned, but cast them down to hell, and delivered them into chains of darkness (seiraij zofou tartarwsaj), to be reserved unto judgment," etc. [Elucidation XVII. and vol. iv. 140.]

68 Schneidewin suggests a comparison of this passage with Hippolytus' fragment, Against Plato, concerning the Cause of the Universe(p 22O, ed. Fabricii; p. 68, ed. de Lagarde).

69 The different renderings of this passage, according to different readings, are as follow: "And the worm the scum of the body, turning to the Body that foamed it forth as to that which nourisheth it" (Wordsworth). "The worm which winds itself without rest round the mouldering body, to feed upon it" (Bunsen and Scott). "The worm wriggling as over the filth of the (putrescent) flesh towards the exhaling body" (Roeper). "The worm turning itself towards the substance of the body, towards, (I say,) the exhalations of the decaying frame, as to food" (Schneidewm). The words chiefly altered are: opousian, into (I) ep ousian, (2) ep= alousia(3) apaustwj; and epistrefouenoninto (I) epistrefon, (2) epi trofhn.

70 [This startling expression is justified by such texts as 2 Pet. i. 4compared with John xvii. 22, 23, and Rev. iii. 21. Thus, Christ overrules the Tempter (Gen. iii. 5), and gives more than was offered by the "Father of Lies."]

71 [Compare John x. 34with Rev. v. 10. kings of the earth may be called "gods," in a sense; ergo,etc.]

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