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94 Lit., "prevailing with favourableness of omens," ominum, for which the ms. and first four edd. read h--"of men."

95 That Arnobius had good reason to appeal to this scepticism as a fact, is evident from the lines of Juvenal (ii. 149-152): "Not even children believe that there are any Manes and subterranean realms."

96 Lit., "and." Immediately after, the ms. is corrected in later writing color-es (for -is)-"and the darkest colours."

97 Similiter. This is certainly a suspicious reading, but Arnobius indulges occasionally in similar vague expressions.

98 Lit., "is white."

99 Or, very probably, "the membranes with (i.e., enclosing) the brains," omenta cum cerebris.

100 Goats were sacrificed to Bacchus, but not, so far as is known, to Mercury. Cf. c. 16, p. 524, n. 3.

101 Lit. "by the paction of some transaction is it," etc.

102 So all except both Roman edd., which retain the ms. reading desi-d-eret (corrected -n- by Gelenius)-"wish."

103 So the ms., Hild., and Oehler, reading d-atio, approved of by Stewechius also. The others read r--"reasoning on behalf."

104 Inci-ens so corrected in the margin of Ursinus for ms. ing--"huge." Cf. ch. 18, p. 524, n. 10.

105 The ms. reads excitata conatus (according to Hild.); corrected, as above, by the insertion of ad.

106 Quam, i.e., the earth.

107 Singularly enough, for fecunditate Oberthür reads virginitate-"inextinguishable virginity," which is by no means universally desired in the earth. Orelli, as usual, copies without remark the mistake of his predecessor.

108 Lit., "more prompt to lust of hurting."

109 Lit., "nature of hurting."

110 The ms. reads ad ea quae facti sunt, understood seemingly as above by the edd., by supplying ad before quae. Oehler, however, proposes quia-"because they were made for them." The reading must be regarded as doubtful.

111 i.e., if sacrifices avail to counteract the malevolent dispositions of the gods.

112 Lit., "these." This clause, omitted by Oberthür, is also omitted without remark by Orelli.

113 So the edd., reading farciminum for the ms. facinorum, corrected by Hild. fartorum-"of stuffings." Throughout this passage hardly one of the names of these sacrificial dainties is generally agreed upon; as many are met with nowhere else, the ms. has been adhered to strictly.

114 i.e., probably the hirciae: of the others, silicernia seem to have been put on the table at funerals.

115 i.e., taeda.

116 So Salmasius and Meursius corrected the ms. catillaminu-a-m by omitting a.

117 i.e., tail-piece.

118 Salsamina, by which is perhaps meant the grits and salt cast on the victim; but if so, Arnobius is at variance with Servius (Virgil, Ecl., viii. 81), who expressly states that these were of spelt mixed only with salt; while there is no trace elsewhere of a different usage.

119 The first four edd. retain the unintelligible ms. dirae.

120 i.e., the entrails. The ms., first four edd., and Elm. read illa.

121 So the ms., LB., Oberthür, Orelli, Hild., and Oehler; but aerumnae is found in no other passage with this meaning.

122 Lit., "first heads in gullets."

123 By this, and the word which follows, we know from the etymology that "offerings" to the gods must be meant, but we know nothing more.

124 i.e., cut off for sacrifice.

125 Caro strebula.

126 Plasea.

127 The ms. reads unintelligibly nomen quae, corrected by Gelenius omentum, as above.

128 Lit., "admonish the ease of the palate;" a correction of Salmasius, by omitting a from the ms. palati-a admoneant.

129 Naeniae.

130 Lit., "these kinds of ceremonies, too, were coupled and mixed," etc.

131 On this Oehler remarks, that the books of Moses show that it was certainly used in the East in the most ancient times. But Arnobius has expressly restricted his statement to the use of incense "in these parts."

132 Pium far.

133 [See p. 519, note 1, supra.]

134 Lit., "the returns by which the vital alternation is restored and withdrawn."

135 So the ms., Hild., and Oehler, reading suffec-tionibus alienis, for which the rest read suffi--"the fumigations of others."

136 Lit., "feel and receive one contact."

137 Lit., "as each has been made for the touching of a thing coming from without."

138 So Gelenius and later edd., reading afficitur for the unintelligible reading of ms. and Roman edd., efficit-"effects."

139 So all edd., without remark, reading cog-it-atione, although "meditation" has nothing to do with the sense of smell, and has not been previously mentioned. We should probably read cog-n-atione- "relation," i.e., to such objects.

140 So LB. and Oehler, reading ni-si. (ms. si), and other edd. inserting non, the negative being absolutely necessary to the sense, and supplied in the next clause.

141 Lit., "nor will it have its cause."

142 Although this is clearly the meaning, Stewechius explained solidos by referring to the ancient belief that such offerings should be wholly consumed, and no fragment left.

143 Briae, drinking-cups, but of their peculiar shape or purpose we know nothing.

144 Lit., "badly."

145 Lit., "being strangled, may be."

146 So LB., Orelli, and Oehler, reading with Salmasius m-u-scos (ms. -i-). Gelenius proposed cnissas, which would refer to the steam of the sacrifices.

147 Lit., "interior."

148 So most edd., reading nimirum quia plus valet, for which the ms., followed by both Roman edd., Hild., and Oehler, read primum. q. v., which Hild. would explain "because it prevails above all rather than;" but this is at least very doubtful.

149 Vino inferio.

150 Lit., "bound by religion."

151 This is admirably illustrated in an inscription quoted by Heraldus: "Jupiter most excellent, supreme, when this day I give and dedicate to thee this altar, I give and dedicate it with these conditions and limits which I say openly to-day."

152 Circumscriptione verborum.

153 Symphoniae. Evidently musical instruments; but while Isidore speaks of them as a kind of drum, other writers call them trumpets and pipes.

154 At daybreak on opening, and at night on closing the temple, the priests of Isis sang hymns in praise of the goddess (cf. Jos. Scaliger, Castigationes ad Cat., etc., p. 132); and to these Arnobius refers sarcastically, as though they had been calls to awake, and lullabies to sing her asleep.

155 At daybreak on opening, and at night on closing the temple, the priests of Isis sang hymns in praise of the goddess (cf. Jos. Scaliger, Castigationes ad Cat., etc., p. 132); and to these Arnobius refers sarcastically, as though they had been calls to awake, and lullabies to sing her asleep.

156 i.e., March 27th, marked Lavatio in a calendar prepared during the reign of Constantius.

157 Lit., "and some rubbing of cinders added," aliqua frictione cineris; an emendation of Ursinus for the possibly correct ms. anti-qua f. c.-"the ancient rubbing," i.e., that practiced in early times.

158 Lit., "anniversary."

159 So the later edd., adopting the emendation of ad suas usiones for the corrupt ms. ad (or ab) suasionibus.

160 i.e., feast at which the image of Ceres was placed on a couch, probably the Cerealia, celebrated in April. This passage flatly contradicts Prof. Ramsay's assertion (Ant., p. 345) that lectisternium is not applied to a banquet offered to a goddess; while it corroborates his statement that such feasts were ordinary events, not extraordinary solemnities, as Mr. Yates says (Smith's Ant., s. v.). See p. 519, n. 2.

161 Lit., "the impression of the cushions is lifted up and raised," i.e., smoothed.

162 Thus the 25th of January is marked as the birthday of the Graces, the 1st of February as that of Hercules, the 1st of March as that of Mars, in the calendar already mentioned.

163 The former dedicated to Flora (cf. iii. 25), the latter to Cybele.

164 Singular.

165 So the margin of Ursinus, Elm., LB., Orelli, Hild., and Oehler; the ms. reading not being known.

166 Lit., "in dancing motions."

167 So Meursius, Orelli, and Oehler, reading existimat-ve, all the others retaining the ms. -ur--"Is Flora thought to be treated," etc.

168 Lit., "adapts."

169 Here also there is doubt as to what the reading of the ms. is. The 1st ed. reads sine culpa-"without blame." which is hardly in keeping with the context, emended causa, as above, by Gelenius.

170 So Orelli explains certare hos spiritu as referring to a contest in which each strove to speak or sing with one breath longer than the rest.

171 Lit., "an animal of no value."

172 Lit., "the modesty of their humility."

173 Lit., "they contain their nature in a corporeal form."

174 Lit., "of."

175 Cf. p. 531, n. 8.

176 Lit., "by opposition of the parts of each." Considerable difficulty has been felt as to the abrupt way in which the book ends as it is arranged in the ms. Orelli has therefore adopted the suggestion of an anonymous critic, and transposed cc. 35, 36, 37 to the end. This does not, however, meet the difficulty; for the same objection still holds good, that there is a want of connection and harmony in these concluding chapters, and that, even when thus arranged, they do not form a fitting conclusion to the whole work.

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