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84 Ps. ciii. 14.

85 Gen. iii. 19.

86 Luke xv. 32.

87 Phil. iv. 13.

88 In his De Dono Persev. sec. 53, he tells us that these words were quoted to Pelagius, when at Rome, by a certain bishop, and that they excited him to contradict them so warmly as nearly to result in a rupture between Pelagius and the bishop.

89 I Cor. i. 31.

90 Ecclus. xxiii. 6.

91 Titus i. 15.

92 Rom. xiv. 20.

93 I Tim. iv. 4.

94 I Cor. viii. 8.

95 Col. ii. 16.

96 Rom. xiii. 23.

97 He here refers to the doctrine of the Manichaeans in the matter of eating flesh. In his De Mor. Manich. secs. 36, 37, he discusses the prohibition of flesh to the "Elect." From Ep. ccxxxvi. we find that the "Hearers" had not to practice abstinence from marriage and from eating flesh. For other information on this subject, see notes, pp. 66 and 83.

98 Gen. ix. 3.

99 I Kings xvii. 6.

100 Matt. iii. 4.

101 Gen. xxv. 34.

102 2 Sam xxiii. 15-17

103 Matt. iv. 3.

104 Num. xi.

105 So all God's gifts are to be used, but not abused; and those who deny the right use of any, do so by virtually accepting the principle of asceticism. As Augustin, in his De Mor. Ecc. Cath. sec. 39, says of all transient things, we "should use them as far as is required for the purposes and duties of life, with the moderation of an employer instead of the ardour of a lover."

106 Luke v. 8.

107 John xvi. 33.

108 Rom. viii. 34.

109 I Cor. xii. 22.

110 Ps. cxxxix. 16; he similarly applies this passage when commenting on it in Ps. cxxxviii. 21, and also in Serm. cxxxv.

111 "For some," says Thomas Taylor (Works, vol. I. "Christ's Temptation," p. 11), "through vain prefidence of God's protection, run in times of contagion into infected houses, which upon just calling a man may: but for one to run out of his calling in the way of an ordinary visitation, he shall find that God's angels have commission to protect him no longer than he is in his way (Ps. xci. 11), and that being out of it, this arrow of the Lord shall sooner hit him than another that is not half so confident." We should not, as Fuller quaintly says, "hollo in the ears of a sleeping temptation:" and when we are tempted, let us remember that if (Hibbert, Syntagma Theologicum, p. 342) "a giant knock while the door is shut, he may with ease be still kept out; but if once open, that he gets in but a limb of himself, then there is no course left to keep out the remaining bulk." See also Augustin on Peter's case, De Corrept. et Grat. c. 9.

112 Job vii. 1, Old Vers. See p. 153, note 1.

113 Ps. vi. 2.

114 Ps. lxxvii. 10.

115 I John ii. 16.

116 2 Cor. v. 2. 157

117 Gen. i. 31.

118 Tobit iv.

119 Gen xxvii. 1

120 Gen. xlviii. 13-19

121 From the beginning of the hymn of St. Ambrose, part of which is quoted, ix. sec. 32, above.

122 Assumunt eam, in hymno tuo, non absumuntur ab ea.

123 Ps. xxv. 15.

124 Ps. cxxi. 4.

125 Sanctificatori meo, but some Mss. have sacreficatori.

126 See xi. sec. 7, and note, below.

127 See note 6, sec. 40, above.

128 Ps. lviii. 10, Vulg.

129 Ps. xxvi. 3.

130 Ps. lxiii. 27.

131 I John ii. 16. 158

132 Augustin's great end was to attain the knowledge of God. Hence, in his Soliloquia, i. 7, we read: "Deum et animam scire cupio. Nihilne plus? Nihil omnino." And he only esteemed the knowledge of physical laws so far as they would lead to Him. (See v. sec. 7, above, and the note there.) In his De Ordine, ii. 14, 15, etc., writing at the time of his conversion, he had contended that the knowledge of the liberal sciences would lead to a knowledge of the divine wisdom; but in his Retractations (i. 3, sec. 2) he regrets this, pointing out that while many holy men have not this knowledge, many who have it are not holy. Compare also Enchir. c. 16; Serm. lxviii. 1, 2; and De Civ. Dei, ix. 22.

133 John xxi. 22.

134 In allusion to those venatios, or hunting scenes, in which the less savage animals were slain. These were held in the circus, which was sometimes planted for the occasion, so as to resemble a forest. See Smith's Greek and Roman Antiquities, under "Venatio," and vi. sec. 13, note, above. 159

135 Ps. ciii. 3-5.

136 Matt. xi. 30.

137 Jas. iv. 6.

138 Ps. xviii. 7.

139 Isa. xiv. 13, 14.

140 Luke xii. 32.

141 Ps. x. 3, in Vulg. and LXX.

142 Isa. xlviii. 10, and Prov. xxvii. 21.

143 Lam. iii. 48.

144 Ps. xix. 12. See note 5, page 47, above.

145 In his De Vera Relig. sec. 92, he points out that adversity also, when it comes to a good man, will disclose to him how far his heart is set on worldly things: "Hoc enim sine amore nostro aderat, quod sine dolore discedit."

146 I John ii. 16. See beginning of sec. 41, above.

147 Lev. xix. 18. See book xii. secs. 35, 41, below.

148 It may be well, in connection with the striking piece of soul-anatomy in this and the last two sections, to advert to other passages in which Augustin speaks of the temptation arising from the praise of men. In Serm. cccxxxix. 1, he says that he does not altogether dislike praise when it comes from the good, though feeling it to be a snare, and does not reject it: "Ne ingrati sint quibus praedico." That is, as he says above, he accepted it for his "neighbour's good," since, had his neighbour not been ready to give praise, it would have indicated a wrong condition of heart in him. We are, therefore, as he argues in his De Serm. Dom. in Mon. ii. 1, 2, 6, to see that the design of our acts be not that men should see and praise us (compare also Enarr. in Ps. lxv. 2). If they praise us it is well, since it shows that their heart is right; but if we "act rightly only because of the praise of men" (Matt. vi. 2, 5), we seek our own glory and not that of God. See also Serms. xciii. 9, clix. 10, etc.; and De Civ. Dei, v. 13, 14.

149 Gal. vi. 3.

150 1 John i. 8.

151 Ps. cxli. 5, according to the Vulg. and LXX. The Authorized Version (with which the Targum is in accord) gives the more probable sense, when it makes the oil to be that of the righteous and not that of the sinner: "Let the righteous smite me, it shall be a kindness; and let him reprove me, it shall be an excellent oil, which shall not break my head."

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