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21 We may note here that Augustin maintains the existence of the relationship between these two events. He says in his Enchiridion, c. xxix., that "the restored part of humanity will fill up the gap which the rebellion and fall of the devils had left in the company of the angels. For this is the promise to the saints, that at the resurrection they shall be equal to the angels of God (Luke xx. 36). And thus the Jerusalem which is above, which is the mother of us all, the City of God, shall not be spoiled of any of the number of her citizens, shall perhaps reign over even a more abundant population." He speaks to the same effect at the close of ch. 1 of his De Civ. Dei, xxii. This doctrine was enlarged upon by some of the writers of the seventeenth century.

22 See his De Civ. Dei, xxii. 1, where he beautifully compares sin to blindness, in that it makes us miserable in depriving us of the sight of God. Also his De Cat. Rud. sec. 24, where he shows that the restlessness and changefulness of the world cannot give rest. Comp. p. 46, note 7, above.

23 Ps. xviii. 28.

24 Ps. civ. 2.

25 Ps. cxxxix. 12.

26 Ps. xxxi. 20. "In abscondito vultus tui," Old Ver. Augustin in his comment on this passage (Enarr. 4, sec. 8) gives us his interpretation. He points out that the refuge of a particular place (e.g. the bosom of Abraham) is not enough. We must have God with us here as our refuge, and then we will be hidden in His countenance hereafter; or in other words, if we receive Him into our heart now, He will hereafter receive us into His countenance-Ille post hoc seculum excipiet te vultu suo. For heaven is a prepared place for a prepared people, and we must be fitted to live with Him there by going to Him now, and this, to quote from his De Serm. Dom. in Mon. i. 27, "not with a slow movement of the body, but with the swift impulse of love."

27 See p. 133, note 2, above.

28 See De Trin. xv. 17-19.

29 Ps ix. 13.

30 Luke ii. 14, Vulg.

31 Compare De Civ. Dei, xi. 28: "For the specific gravity of bodies is, as it were, their love, whether they are carried downwards by their weight, or upwards by their levity."

32 Ps. lxxxiv. 5.

33 Ps. cxxii. 1.

34 Eph. v. 8.

35 Et qui non potest, which words, however, some Mss. omit, reading, Qui potest intelligat; a te petat.

36 John i. 9; See p. 76, note 2, and p. 181, note 2, above.

37 As Augustin constantly urges of God, "Cujus nulla scientia est in anima, nisi scire quomodo eum nesciat" (De Ord. ii. 18), so we may say of the Trinity. The objectors to the doctrine sometimes speak as if it were irrational (Mansel's Bampton Lectures, lect. vi., notes 9, 10). But while the doctrine is above reason, it is not contrary thereto; and, as Dr. Newman observes in his Grammar of Assent, v. 2 (a book which the student should remember has been written since his union with the Roman Church), though the doctrine be mysterious, and, when taken as a whole, transcends all our experience, there is that on which the spiritual life of the Christian can repose in its "propositions taken one by one, and that not in the case of intellectual and thoughtful minds only, but of all religious minds whatever, in the case of a child or a peasant as well as of a philosopher." With the above compare the words of Leibnitz in his "Discours de la Conformité de la Foi avec la Raison," sec. 56: "Il en est de même des autres mystères, où les esprits modérés trouveront toujours une explication suffisante pour croire, et jamais autant qu'il en faut pour comprendre. Il nous suffit d'un certain ce que c'est (tie0sti); mais le comment (pw=j) nous passe, et ne nous est point nécessaire" (Euvres de Locke et Leibnitz). See also p. 175, note 1, above, on the "incomprehensibility" of eternity.

38 While giving illustrations of the Trinity like the above, he would not have a man think "that he has discovered that which is above these, Unchangeable." (See also De Trin. xv. 5, end.) He is very fond of such illustrations. In his De Civ. Dei, xi. 26, 27, for example, we have a parallel to this in our text, in the union of existence, knowledge, and love in man; in his De Trin. ix. 4, 17, 18, we have mind, knowledge, and love; ibid. x. 19, memory, understanding, and will; and ibid. xi. 16, memory, thought, and will. In his De Lib. Arb. ii. 7, again, we have the doctrine illustrated by the union of being, life, and knowledge in man. He also finds illustrations of the doctrine in other created things, as in their measure, weight, and number (De Trin. xi. 18), and their existence, figure, and order (De Vera Relig. xiii.). The nature of these illustrations would at first sight seem to involve him in the Sabellian heresy, which denied the fulness of the Godhead to each of the three Persons of the Trinity; but this is only in appearance. He does not use these illustrations as presenting anything analogous to the union of the three Persons in the Godhead, but as dimly illustrative of it. He declares his belief in the Athanasian doctrine, which, as Dr. Newman observes (Grammar of Assent ,v. 2), "may be said to be summed up in this very formula on which St. Augustin lays so much stress,-`Tres et Unus, 0' not merely `Unum. 0' " Nothing can be clearer than his words in his De Civ. Dei, xi. 24: "When we inquire regarding each singly, it is said that each is God and Almighty; and when we speak of all together, it is said that there are not three Gods, nor three Almighties, but one God Almighty." Compare with this his De Trin. vii., end of ch. 11, where the language is equally emphatic. See also Mansel, as above, lect. vi. and notes 11 and 12.

39 Matt. xxviii. 19.

40 He similarly interprets "heaven and earth" in his De Gen. ad Lit. ii. 4. With this compare Chrysostom's illustration in his De Paenit. hom. 8. The Church is like the ark of Noah, yet different from it. Into that ark as the animals entered, so they came forth. The fox remained a fox, the hawk a hawk, and the serpent a serpent. But with the spiritual ark it is not so, for in it evil dispositions are changed. This illustration of Chrysostom is used with an effective but rough eloquence by the Italian preacher Segneri, in his Quaresimale, serm. iv. sec.

41 Rom. vi. 17.

42 Ps. xxxix. II.

43 Ps. xxxvi. 6.

44 Gen. i. 3.

45 See p. 47, note 10, above.

46 Matt. iii. 2.

47 "His putting repentance and light together is, for that baptism was anciently called illumination, as Heb. vi. 4, Ps. xlii. 2."-W. W. See also p. 118, note 4, part 1, above, for the meaning of "illumination."

48 Ps. xlii. 6.

49 That is, Christ. See p. 130, note 8, part 2, above; and compare the De Div. Quaest., lxxxiii. 6.

50 Eph. v. 8.

51 2 Cor. v. 7.

52 Rom. viii. 24.

53 The "deep" Augustin interprets (as do the majority of Patristic commentators), in Ps. xli. 8, sec. 13, to be the heart of man; and the "deep" that calls unto it, is the preacher who has his own "deep" of infirmity, even as Peter had.

54 Ps. xlii. 7.

55 1 Cor. iii. 1.

56 Phil. iii. 13.

57 2 Cor. v. 2, 4.

58 Ps. xlii. 1, 2.

59 2 Cor. v. 2.

60 Rom. xii. 2.

61 1 Cor. xiv. 20 (margin).

62 Gal. iii. 1.

63 Acts ii. 19.

64 Eph. iv. 8.

65 Mal. iii. 10.

66 Ps xlvi. 4.

67 John iii. 29.

68 Rom. viii. 23.

69 John iii. 29.

70 Ps. xlii. 7.

71 2 Cor. xi. 3, and 1 John iii. 3.

72 Ibid. ver. 2.

73 Ps. xlii. 3.

74 Ibid. ver. 4.

75 Ibid. ver. 5.

76 Ps. cxix. 105.

77 Job xiv. 13.

78 Eph. ii. 3, and v. 8.

79 Rom. viii. 10.

80 Cant. ii. 17.

81 Ps. v. 3

82 Ps. xxx. 12

83 Ps. xliii. 5.

84 Rom. viii. 11.

85 2 Cor. i. 22.

86 Rom. viii. 24.

87 Though of the light, we are not yet in the light; and though, in this grey dawn of the coming day, we have a foretaste of the vision that shall be, we cannot hope, as he says in Ps. v. 4, to "see Him as He is" until the darkness of sin be overpast.

88 Eph. v. 8, and 1 Thess. v. 5.

89 Ps. vii. 9.

90 Gen. i. 5.

91 1 Cor. iv. 7.

92 Rom. ix. 21.

93 Gen. i. 6.

94 See sec. 33, below, and references there given.

95 Isa. xxxiv. 4, and Rev. vi. 14.

96 Ps. civ. 2; in the Vulg. being, "extendens caelum sicut pellem." The LXX. agrees with the Vulg. in translating hckayeIiiyeb@ei

, "as a curtain," by "as a skin."

97 Gen. iii. 21. Skins he makes the emblems of mortality, as being taken from dead animals. See p. 112, note 8, above.

98 That is, the firmament of Scripture was after man's sin stretched over him as a parchment scroll,-stretched over him for his enlightenment by the ministry of mortal men. This idea is enlarged on in Ps. viii. 4, sec. 7, etc., xviii. sec. 2, xxxii. 6, 7, and cxlvi. 8, sec. 15.

99 We have the same idea in Ps. ciii. sec. 8: "Cum enim viverent nondum erat extenta pellis, nondum erat extentum caelum, ut tegeret orbem terrarum."

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