Early Church Fathers
204 Matt. xxii. 15-34.
205 Chap. xxi. 23-27.
206 John i. 19-27.
207 The conditions of effective prayer are, that it should be made in the name of Christ (John xv. 16), with faith, and according to God's will (1 John v. 14).
208 This has been regarded as a strong proof-text for the doctrine of original sin. Bengel calls it "a shining testimony for original sin." Stier says it is "the strongest proof-text for original sin in the whole of the Holy Scriptures." Meyer says the reference is to actual sin; while Plumptre declares that "the words at once recognise the fact of man's depravity, and assert that it is not total."
209 Ps. xxiv. 1.
210 Ps. cxlvi. 6.
211 Bona; the Vulgate does not contain it.
212 The nearest approach that any uninspired Jewish teacher came to the Golden Rule-the designation by which these words are known-was the saying of Hillel, "What is unpleasant to thyself, do not to thy neighbour. This is the whole law, and all the rest is commentary upon it." Beautiful as the saying is, it falls behind Christ's words, because it is merely negative, while they are a positive requirement. The Stoics and the Chinese ethics also have a similar negative precept. It is strange that the Teaching of the Twelve Apostles (1. 2) gives the negative form, and not the positive precept. Augustin says we ought to be glad when writers before Christ spoke things in the Gospel (En. in Ps. cxl. 6).
213 Matt. xxii. 37-40.
214 Matt. v. 8.
215 Introite; Vulgate, intrate.
216 The narrowness of the way is taken to represent the self-denial and hardships of disciples (Meyer, Mansel, etc.), or righteousness (Bengel, Schaff, etc.). "The picture is a dark one, and yet it represents but too faithfully the impression made, I do not say on Calvinist or true Christian, but on any ethical teacher, by the actual state of mankind around us. If there is any wider hope, it is found in hints and suggestions of the possibilities of the future (I Pet. iii. 19, iv. 6)," etc. ( Plumptre).
217 Lene...sarcina; Vulgate, suave...onus.
218 Lene...sarcina; Vulgate, suave...onus.
219 Matt. xi. 28-30.
220 Cavete a pseudoprophetis; Vulgate, attendite a falsis prophetis.
221 Excellency of fruitage is sanctity of life (Bonitas fructuum est sanctitas vitae (Bengel).
222 More particularly his works against the Manichaeans, Contra Faustum Manichaeum, etc. Augustin also made much use of this passage against the Pelagians, to show that the will must be aided to produce good thoughts and deeds; that the unregenerate man is incapable of restoring himself.
223 Matt. xii. 33, 34.
224 Matt. xxiii. 3,2.
225 Jer. xii. 13.
226 Gal. v. 19-23.
227 Isa. lvii. 21, according to the Septuagint.
228 Col. ii. 3.
229 Many called Him Lord, but He never called any one Lord (ipsum multi, etiam amplissimi viri,-ipse neminem ne Pilatum quidem, dominum vocavit.-Bengel).
230 1 Cor. xii. 3.
231 1 Cor. xiii. 6.
232 Dicam; Vulgate, confitebor; Greek, o9mologh/sw. Meyer says, "It is the conscious dignity of the future Judge of the world." Bengel calls attention to the great power of the word (magna potestas hujus dicti). In this action Christ lays the most confident claim to functions not imparted to any human being.
233 Luke x. 20.
234 1 Cor. vi. 9.
235 Exod. vii. and viii.
236 Inducantur etiam electi; Vulgate, inducantur, si fieri potest, etiam electi.
237 Matt xxiv. 23-25.
238 Mitem...diversa sentientes; Vulgate, mansuetum...resistunt veritati.
239 Mitem...diversa sentientes; Vulgate, mansuetum...resistunt veritati.
240 2 Tim. ii. 24, 25.
241 Matt. v. 9.
242 Similis est... Vulgate, assimilabitur. Meyer, Tholuck, etc, refer this to the future judgment, "I will make him like," etc., when Christ will establish those who keep His sayings for ever (opposed by Alford etc.).
243 1 Cor. x. 4. So Alford, who thinks this signification too plain to be overlooked.
244 Offenderunt; Vulgate, irruerunt.
245 The transitory teachings and institutions of men as opposed to Christ's own word.
246 Offenderunt; Vulgate, irruerunt.
247 Facta est; Vulgate, fuit.
248 Vulgate adds et Pharisaei. The people were astonished, not merely at His teachings, but the dignity and self-consciousness with which Christ uttered them, quod nova quaedam majestas et insueta hominum mentes ad se raperet (Calvin). The Scribes spoke as expounders of the law, and referred back to Moses for their authority; Christ spoke in His own name, and as an independent legislator, vested with greater authority than Moses and a higher dignity. The Scribes by elaborate sophistry often drew many meanings from a single precept, and burdened the people with an intricate and endless variety of precepts for the details of conduct, laying painful stress upon their observance; Christ directed attention from outward acts to the motive and intent of the heart. "He opposed a genuine righteousness to the mock righteousness of the Scribes and Pharisees."
249 Ps. xii. 5, 6.
250 Isa. xi. 2, 3.
1 The writer may be pardoned for alluding to his own experience in connection with this point. In the exegetical labours of some years, he found himself accepting the theory that the three Synoptists wrote independently of each other. Afterwards, when the task of editing Dr. Robinson's Greek Harmony compelled him to compare again and again every word of each account, the evidences of independence seemed to him to be overwhelming.
2 See Schaff, History of the Christian Church, vol. ii. rev. ed., pp. 493 sqq., 726 sqq.; also Schaff-Herzog, Encyclopedia, article "Diatessaron." For the literature, see as above, and the supplementary volume of the Ante-Nicene Fathers, pp. 33-35. Tatian's Address to the Greeks may be found in vol. ii. Ante-Nicene Fathers, pp. 65-83.
3 For full titles of these volumes, see Schaff, as above.
4 The letter of Eusebius to Caprianus is given by C. R. Gregory (Prolegomena to Tischendorf's eighth edition, part i. pp. 143-153), together with a full list of the sections arranged under the separate canons. The numbers signify as follows:-
1. In all four Gospels, 71.
2. In Matthew, Mark, Luke, 111.
3. In Matthew, Luke, John, 22.
4. In Matthew, Mark, John, 26.
5. In Matthew, Luke, 82.
6. In Matthew, Mark, 47.
7. In Matthew, John, 7.
8. In Luke, Mark, 14.
9. In Luke, John, 21.
10. In one Gospel: Matthew, 62; Mark, 21; Luke, 71; John, 97.