Early Church Fathers
1 Pesinus was in Galatia, Apamea in Bithynia, Appiaria I have not identified.
2 Libellos, a technical word signifying a formal petition of complaint or accusation.
3 Curiosus, an official whose duty it was to investigate charges, and inform the Emperor of offenders.
4 i. e., Easter Eve.
5 <\i>\oi\koi e0ukth/roi<\|i>\. Churches were sometimes so called, more often, however, private chapels as distinguished from parish churches. The meaning here is not very obvious; perhaps some chambers attached to the Church, where catechumens prayed before baptism, are referred to.
6 Campiductores-their special business was to drill recruits.
7 I have followed the Latin here. The Greek version of the pssage seems to me hopelessly confused.
8 The Council of Sardica was convened A.D. 343, (or A.D. 344 ?) with a view of settling the Arian controversy. The Oriental bishops, however, of whom the majority belonged to the Arian faction, seceded from Sardica, and held a separate council at Philippopolis. where they drew up a creed which was condemned by the Western bishops as heretical.
1 Sozomen , Ch. Hist., VIII.2.
2 Socrates and Kurtz (in both the 10th edition of his Kirchengeschichte, I. 223) confound this Basil with Basil the Great Cappadocia, who was eighteen years older than Chrysostom and died in 379. Chrysostom's friend was probably (as Baronius and Montfaucon conjecture) edentical Basil, bishop of lRaphanea in Syria near Antioch, who attended the Council of Constatntinople in 381. Comp. Stephens, l.c. p. 14; and Venables in Smith & Wace, I. 297.
3 See the Greek original of this collect in Chrysostom's Liturgy, in Migne's edition, Tom. xii. 908; Daniel's Codex Liturgicus, tom. iv.; Fasc. II. 343 (comp. the foot-note in tom. iii. 358); and Fr. Procter's History of the Book of Common Prayer (11th ed. 1874), p. 245 sq. The precise origin of this prayer is uncertain. It does not occur in the oldest Mss. of Chrysostom's Liturgy, but in those of the Liturgy of St. Basil. It precedes the third anthem in the communion service, and was used since the ninth century or earlier in the exarchate of C'sarea and the patriarchate of Constantinople. In the Oriental churches the prayer is said silently by the priest. See Bjerring, The Offices of the Oriental Church, p. 43. In the Anglican Church, it was placed at the end of the Litany (by Cranmer), in 1544, and at the close of the daily Morning and Evening Prayer in 1661. In the English Homilies (Hom. I.), Chrysostom is called "that godly clerk and great preacher".
4 So Montfaucon, Tillemont, Neander, Stephens, Venables, and others. Baur (Vorlesungen _ber die Dogmengerschichte, Bd. I. Abthlg. II., p. 50) and others erroneously State the year 354 or 355, Villemain assigns the year 344 as that of his birth.
5 Babai\ , oi[ai para\ xristianoi= gunai=ke/j ei,si. Chrysostom himself relates this of his heathen teacher (by whom, undoubtedly, we are to understand Libanios), though, it is true, with immediate reference only to the twenty years' widowhood of his mothor, and adds: "Such is the praise and admiration of widowhood not only with us, but even with the heathen." Ad viduam juniorem (Opera, Bened. ed. Tom. i. 340; in Migne's ed. Tom. i., P.II., 601).
6 Sozomen, Ch. Hist., VIII 2.
7 Socrates and Kurtz (in the 10th edition of his Kirchengeschichte, I. 223), confound this Basil with Basil the Great of Cappadocia,who was eighteen years older than Chrysostom and died in 379. Chrysostom's friend was probably (as Baronius and Montfaucon conjecture) identical with Basil, bishop of Raphanea in Syria, near Antioch, who attended the Council of Constantinople in 381. Comp. Stephens, 1. c. p. 14; and Venables in Smith & Wace, I.297.
8 De Sacerd. I. 5.
9 Socrates and Sozomenos represent Diodor and Karterius as abbots under whom Chrysostom lived as monk, but Neander (in the 3d ed. I.29) thinks it more likely that Chrysostom was previously instructed by Diodor at Antioch. .
10 Par'nesis ad Theodorum Lapsum, in Migne's ed. I., Pars I. 277-319. The second letter is milder than the first, and was written earlier. It is somewhat doubtful whether the first refers to the same case. Neander (I.38 sq.) conjectures that the second only is addressed to Theodore.
11 Comp. on the patristic views of accommodation, Neander, Geschichte der Christl. Ethik., p.156 sqq.; and Wuttke, Christl. Sittenlehre 3d ed. vol.II., 305 sq. Canon Venables of Lincoln (in Smith & Wace, I. 519 sq.) justly condemns Chrysostom's conduct on this occasion '"as utterly at variance with the principles of truth and honor."
12 On the origin and character of early monasticism ,see Schaff, Ch. Hist, vol. III., 147 sqq.
13 In the first volume, first part, of Migne's edition, col. 277-532.
14 Migne, 111.693 sqq.
15 Decline and Fall, ch. xxiv.