Early Church Fathers
10 The letters denote the order of the parts in the mss. and Edd.
11 kai dogma tiqhsi (E. Edd. eiagei) kai politeian. i. e. "it is assumed, or the case is put, that the person has the right doctrine, of the One True God (that feareth God), and that he is of a right conversation (that worketh righteousness.)"
12 kai dogma tiqhsi (E. Edd. eiagei) kai politeian. i. e. "it is assumed, or the case is put, that the person has the right doctrine, of the One True God (that feareth God), and that he is of a right conversation (that worketh righteousness.)"
13 In the mss. and Edd. the order is confused. In the old text: "The word-Lord of all. First he discourses-with ardor. Yet for all this He did not spare them. Then he proves how He is Lord of all. Which He sent, preaching good tidings, not bringing judgment. [3.] He is sent from God to the Jews. Then He shows this withal from the things which He achieved," etc. So, with verbal alterations, the modern text, except that it omits the clause, ou mhn oude outwj efeisato.
14 Here also the order in the mss. is confused. "Again proof. How God-with power. Whence does this appear? who went about-of the devil. Then from the good that He did, and the greatness," etc. The modern text has the same order, and the alterations do not affect the sense.
15 Perhaps it should be fantasuh, "that he (Cornelius) may not imagine," etc., therefore he mentions first the Divine Mission, then the Crucifixion.
16 tauthj de ouden outw shmeion meizon hn, wj to fagein kai piein. Cat. rightly omits meizon hn. E. Edd. outwj eij apodeicin meizon, wj.
17 The original reporter seems to have misunderstood what was said. If eipe moi be retained, we must read ouxi autoj. The sense is, "Take heed lest any lay the blame of your evil doings upon God. For you know what would be said of a magistrate who should let a murderer go unpunished; that he would be held responsible for all the murders that may be afterwards done by that man, or in consequence of his impunity. Dread lest through your misconduct God be thus blasphemed." But-as if Chrysostom's meaning had been, Since God's purpose in forgiving us our sins was, that we should lead more virtuous and holy lives, therefore let none presume to say that God, by forgiving us, is the cause of the evil doings of which we are afterwards guilty"-the modern text (E. D.,F. Edd.) goes on thus: "For say, if a magistrate, etc. is he judged to be the cause of the murders thereafter committed? By no means. And how is it that we ourselves, while, by the things we dare to do, we expose God to be insulted by godless tongues, do not fear and shadder? For what," etc.
18 E. D. F. Edd. "Therefore, that it may not be possible for Him through us to be called, etc., and lest by the very fact of His being thus blasphemed; we ourselves become liable to the punishment thereof (`For through you,0' it is written, `My Name is blasphemed among the Gentiles,0') let us cause the very opposite to be said, by having our conversation worthy of Him that calleth us, and (worthily) approaching to the baptism of adoption. For great indeed," etc. In C. it is: "teacher of wickedness. Let us cause the very opposite to be said. For great indeed." etc. B. "teacher of wickedness. For great indeed," etc. But the genuineness of the latter clauses, aciwj tou kalountoj politeuomenoi kai tw thj uioqesiaj prosiontej baptismati, which are also needed by the following context, is attested by A. which retains them; for this Ms. abridges much, but never borrows from the modern text.
19 Here all the mss. have Ti feugeij; ti tremeij; ti deoikaj; (Edd. omit the two latter clauses,) which, being out of place here, and required below, we have transposed to the beginning of the set of questions Mh gar ouk eni k. t. l.-Below, he laments that the Catechumens, while delaying their baptism, if possible, to their dying hour, think themselves no way concerned to lead a virtuous life: of the baptism he distinguishes three classes: 1. those who received the sacrament in infancy; 2. those who were baptized in sickness and fear of death, but afterwards recovered: both which sorts, he says, are alike careless (the former because baptized in unconscious infancy), the latter because they did not think to survive, and had no hearty desire to live to the glory of God; 3. those baptized in mature age, and in health; and these also, if at the time their affections were kindled, soon let the flame go out.
20 ouden prospoihsontai, meaning perhaps, "they will pretend to make no account of that: they will say that that makes no difference." Edd. from E. only, oude outwj afistantai, "they do not desist for all that."-Below: kai auta tauta diaplattekai ruqmize: i. e. Christ does not require you to abandon your calling in life, but these same occupations and duties of your station He bids you to mould and bring into entire conformity with His commandments:-ton apragmona bion zhn kai akindunon: something is wanting, the sense being, "making it your object (not to obtain distinction, wealth, etc. but) to lead a quiet life in godliness and honesty." Savile reads zhqi.
21 Kai epi prosqhkhj mesei, d prohgoumenwj ekeinoj: kai ouk eiden, fhsi, dikaion k. t. l. The modern text (E. D. F. Edd.) inverts the meaning: Kai ekeinoj men oude en prosqhkhj merei, outoj de kai prohgoumenwj. "And the former does not even by way of additional boon (hold out this), the latter (Christ) as the main thing." Adding, "I have been young, saith (the Psalmist), for indeed I am become old: and I never saw," etc.
22 E. D. F. Edd. "`Yes,0' say you, `those (are to be had) without labor, these with labor.0' Away with (such talk): it is not, no it is not so, but if one must say the truth, those (objects) are more yoked with toils, and are achieved with greater toil: but these, if we choose, easily."
23 #Wste mh proj touto eqizete eautouj, proj to lusin zhtein. A. b.c. Sav. But the modern text has monon for proj touto, and adds alla kai proj to mh zhtein: "therefore accustom yourselves not only to seek the solution (of the questions), but also not to raise the questions."-Below: wste touto manqanomen (so a.d. F. Sav. the rest, manqanwmen) mallon zhtein, ouci (Edd. h) ta zhthqenta luein.
1 This is the only instance in the Acts in which the Holy Spirit is said to be given anterior to baptism (cf. xix. 5, 6) which was generally accompanied by the laying on of hands by the apostles. A special reason is observable here which greatly diminishes the force of Baur's objections to the historicity of the narrative drawn from this exceptional order of events, viz: the marked receptivity of Cornelius and his company. Perhaps it was intended by divine providence to signalize this bringing in of the first fruits of the Gentiles by showing how little the gifts of grace are conditioned upon outward rites. Some critics suppose that this gift of the Spirit before baptism was granted to impress Peter with the idea of the admissibility of the Gentiles, but this seems unnecessary, as he had been taught this lesson already by the vision and had distinctly avowed his conviction (v. 35). Chrysostom's exposition is in the line of the latter interpretation; he forcibly calls this gift of the Spirit an apologiamegalh for Peter. The principle which Bengel lays down in his comments-liberum gratia habet ordinem-together with the special significance of the occasion is a sufficient explanation of the apparently exceptional manner of the bestowment of the Spirit here.-G. B. S.
2 kai o Petroj sxedon aplwj paresti paideuomenoj. Erasm. fere simpliciter adest at discat. Not meaning that St. Peter needed to be taught (see above p. 146, note 1), but that-such is the oikonomia for his exculpation-it is made to appear as if he needed the lesson and was now taught it, and had his misapprehensions rectified in common with them. Ben., entirely mistaking the meaning, has quasi fortuito adest docens.
3 Kai dia touto meu' uperbolhj ginetai. Erasm. Idcirco hoec cum excellentia quadam fiebant. Ben. Ideo haec modo singulari fiunt. But the meaning is, "There is a lavish array of Divine interpositions. The mission of the Angel to Cornelius, Peter's vision, the command given by the Spirit, above all, the gift of the Holy Ghost and the speaking with tongues before the baptism. This last was in itself an unanswerable declaration of the will of God, and sufficed for the Apostle's justification. The others are ek periousiaj, arguments ex abundanti."
4 Some critics (as Meyer, Olshausen) have affirmed the opposite of what Chrys. states, in regard to the oi ek periomhj. He excludes the apostles from this category; they would include them. The oi ek peritomhj, however, seem to have been a special class of Christians in the mind of the writer. In expressing the fact that the Church learned of the reception of the Gentiles, the "apostles and brethren" are named, but when the narrative advances to the thought of the contention against Peter on account of it, a new term is chosen; the writer could not allow the same subject to stand for the verb diekrinonto, but chooses another term-oi ek peritomhj.. The two subjects, then, can hardly be identical. The phrase more probably denotes judaizing Christians, i. e. those who gave special prominence to the Law and the necessity of circumcision (So Lechler, Gloag, Alford).-G. B. S.
5 !Allwj de ou tosoutou to diaforon Samareitwn kai eqnwn. Edd. (from E. alone,) for ou tosouton have polu kai apeiron, "great and infinite the difference between Samaritans and Gentiles."
6 A. b.c. (after v. 11. which we have removed), Ekeina anagkaia hn (read ta an.) alla dia toutwn auta kataskeuazei. By ekeina he means, what we have heard above, what happened at Caesarea. The modern text (Edd.): "What points were essential, he relates, but of the rest he is silent: or rather by these he confirms them also, kai auta kataskeuazei."
7 touto eikotwj proskeitai. i. e. though this was not mentioned before (see above, p, 145. note 6) with good reason it is added here: viz. for Peter's justification. Edd. from E. "that he may not disgust them: but what had nothing great in it. `He shall speak,0' etc. Do you mark how for this reason I mentioned before, he hastens on?" But the saying, "He shall speak," etc. was great, even greater than that which he omits: but this was not necessary, the other (Chrys. means) made a strong point for Peter's defence, and therefore is added.
8 anwqen autwn thn dianoian oikeioi, viz. by letting them see how all along it was not his doing. Then before legwn proj autouj, something is wanting: e. g. "Which done, he urges most effectively, `Who have received,0'" etc.
69 * The printed text of the Eerdman's reprint is damaged or unreadable here.
9 E. D. F. Edd. "But there was no need to baptize, it may be said, for the baptism was complete, `when the Spirit fell upon them.0' Therefore he does not say, I first ordered them to be baptized but what? `Can any man forbid water that these should not be baptized?0' By this showing that he did nothing himself. What therefore we have obtained, those received."
10 otan hmeij autouj koinwnouj legwmen; "when we put them on a level with us the Apostles and first disciples, in regard that they received the Spirit in the same manner as we received, and as the rest of you did not?"
11 tote o P. usteron ecistatai: kai dia touto fhsin. "But when God gave them the Spirit, then Peter afterwards is astonished," etc. This is evidently corrupt. Tote o P. seems to be part of the text v. 46. tote apekriqh o P. For usteron ecistatai we may perhaps restore, kai proj touto o P. usteron istatai. "On this Peter afterwards insists (as above, p. 156), and with a view to this he says (before), `God hath shown me,0'" etc. The innovator substitutes: "When Peter expounded to them his trance, saying, `God hath shown me,0'" etc. So Edd.
12 Ei gar mhden toutwn hn, ouk hrkei to katorqwma; Of the Edd. only Savile puts this, as it ought to be, interrogatively: Ben. renders, non sat fuisset proestium.
13 monon mh kaqaper oi loipoi twn neofwtistwn epheazontai, otan allouj orwsi fwtisqentaj, kai euquj apiontaj. Docazein dei ton Qeon, kan pantej swqwsi: kai su ean qelhj k. t. l. Above Hom. i. p. 20, it is said, "the sick man" having received baptism in the prospect of death, "if he recovers, is as vexed" because of his baptism "as if some great harm had happened to him." And so it might have been said here, "not (to feel) as some of the newly-baptized (are apt to do, who) are annoyed (or aggrieved, ethreazontai), when they see others" etc.: i.e. who, seeing such cases, think themselves ill used that they were not allowed to defer their baptism to the last moment, but were forced upon the alternative either of leading a strict life, or of forfeiting the grace of baptism. But the assertion oi loipoi twn neof. is too sweeping, and the word ephreazontai is scarcely suitable to this sense: it should rather have been delnopaqousin or anaciopaqousin. The meaning, not fully expressed, is: "only not, like as the rest of the newly-baptized are insulted, taunted or jeered (by some), when they see others," etc.: i.e. it is right to glorify God, only not to imagine that God is glorified by those who, exulting in the safety of their friends who received baptism at the point of death, taunt the rest of the newly baptized, saying. "See, these men are safe: they are baptized to some purpose; while you have received the gift, only to be in danger of losing it."-He adds, "It is right to glorify God, though all be saved"-though that were the case with all except yourself, that they passed at once from baptism to that world, with the gift unimpaired, and no more in danger to be lost. "And as for you, if you will, you have received a greater gift," than they: etc.-For ephreazontai, A. has ephreazousin: and this is adopted by the innovator, who alters the passage thus (E. Edd.): "to glorify God, all' ouk ephreazein (adopted by F. D.) kaqaper oi polloi twn neofwt. etheazousin, when they see, etc. It is right to glorify God, kai oti menein ou sugxwrei: #Wste kai sn ean felhj k. t. l. (Erasm. et non insultare: Ben. non autem insultare illis.)
14 kreisswn eij poiwn to qelhma Kuriou, h murioi paranomoi, St. Chrys. repeatedly cites this, and almost in the same words, as a text of Scripture, and the Edd. refer it to Ecclus. xvi. 3, but there it is, kreisswn gar eij h xilioi (with no various reading), and here the following words, oi (B. ei) gar murioi proj ton (to, B. F. ena oudepw efqasan, seem to be meant as part of the citation. For these E. Edd. substitute, Touto kai tij sofoj ainittomenoj outw twj fhsi. Savile adopts both, but reads ou gar murioi.
15 Oudeij thn epimeleian exei tou paidoj tou eautou: oudeij ecei zhlon proj presbuthn idwn mimhsasqai. i.e. "The young are neglected by their own parents and masters, and elsewhere they see no good example of the old to move them to virtue."
16 Epi de tou Qeou tou deomenon hmwn, ouk eti. So A. b.c. The modern text, tou oud.
17 pantej neoi yuxroi kai gerontej. The last word must be corrupt, for he is speaking only of the young: perhaps it should be gemontej with some genitive, e. g. "full of folly," or "evil thoughts." Then, kaqarmata mallon h neoi, more fit to be swept away from the floor as filthy litter than to be regarded as young men. But kaqarma, in the sense derived from the heathen ritual, has no equivalent in our language: it means, what remains of the sacrifice used for lustration or atonement, which as having taken into itself the uncleanness or the guilt which was to be removed, was regarded with the utmost abhorrence.
18 oi de epieikesteroi autwn. Erasm., Et quidam ex illis, adhuc meliores scilicet. Ben. alios modestiores scilicet. But the irony is not of this kind, and the word here has its proper sense: "men whose conduct is more of a piece, the more consistent of them." Some stand and talk during the prayers, yet kneel and are silent for the Benediction: but these make no such inconsistent pretence: they do not commit this absurdity at least.-Comp. Hom. i. in. Oziam, §4, t. vi. p. 101. "A grievous disease prevails in the Church: when we have purposed to hold converse with God, and are in the act of sending up the doxology to Him we interrupt our business. and each takes his neighbor aside to talk with him about his domestic concerns, about the goings on in the agora, the public, the theatre, the army: how this was well managed, that neglected: what is the strong point, and what the weak point in this or that business: in short, about all sorts of public and private matters they talk here with one another. this pardonable? When a man speaks with the earthly sovereign, he speaks only on the subjects the sovereign chooses to speak and put questions about, and if against the will of the sovereign he should presume to start any other subject, he would bring upon himself the severest punishment. And you, who are speaking with the King of kings, to Whom the angels minister with dread reverence, do you leave your converse with Him to talk about mire, and dust, and spiders-for that is what earthly things are? But you say, the public affairs are in such a bad way, and there is much to talk of and much to be anxious about. And whose fault is that? They say, The blunders of our rulers are the cause. No, not the blunders of our rulers, but our sins: the punishment of our faults. It is these have ruined all, have brought upon us all our sufferings, wars, and defeats. Therefore if we had an Abraham, a Moses, a David, a Solomon, for our ruler, yea, the most righteous of men, it would signify nothing as far as the cause of all our evils is concerned ...And if we have one of the most iniquitous of men, a blundering ill-managing person for our ruler, it is our own folly and wickedness that has brought this upon us, it is the punishment of our sins. Therefore let each when he comes here think of his own sins, and not complain of others." Hom. ix. in 1 Tim. he complains of the women talking in Church.
19 The illustration is taken from some kind of shield dance, which formed one of the amusements of the camp, skilfully executed by a large body of soldiers. The innovator, (E. D. F. Edd.) not understanding the allusion, substitutes: "If you go to a diversion, you will see all keeping time in the dance, and nothing done negligently. As therefore in a well-harmonized and curiously wrought lyre, one well sounding symphony results from the orderly arrangement severally of the component parts, so here there ought to result from all one symphonious harmony. For we are become one Church, we count as members, `fitly joined together0' of one Head, we all make one Body: if any carnal point be done negligently, the whole, etc. Thus the good order," etc.
1 The narrative beginning with xi. 19, may be considered as a resumption of viii. 4, sq. where the preaching of Philip in Samaria is referred to the persecution at Jerusalem as its occasion. The dispersion of the disciples now becomes the means of a great extension of the Gospel and the founding of the first Gentile Church (at Antioch in Syria). This is the third great movement in the spread of early Christianity. The order is: (1) The preaching of Philip in Samaria, (2) The conversion of Cornelius and his company-the first Gentile additions to the church. (3) This mission which resulted in the founding of the church at Antioch. But at this time Divine Providence was preparing an agent who was destined soon to enter upon his great life work as the Christian missionary to the Gentile world, to prove the chief means of spreading the gospel throughout the Roman world-this was the former persecutor Saul, now transformed into the great apostle to the Gentiles. The conversion of Cornelius must have occurred about eight years after the ascension of Jesus. During this time the church had continued Jewish. But in this very period the conditions were preparing for the extension of Christianity to the Gentile world. Stephen had caught glimpses of the largeness of God's truth and purposes. Peter had learned that God is no respecter of persons. The mother church at Jerusalem now finds that God's grace has outrun all their former conception of its scope; consecrated and able men like Barnabas and Paul are rising up to labor in the line of the more comprehensive conception of Christianity's method and purpose which is now dawning upon the consciousness of the church.-G. B. S.
2 While the textual evidence for the reading 9Ellhnistaj (v. 20.) predominates over that for the reading #Ellhnaj (A. C.), yet the latter is the reading adopted by Meyer, Tischendorf, and most critics (not so, W. and H.) on grounds of internal evidence, such as: (1) That they should preach to Hellenists-men of Jewish nationality residing out of Judea-would be nothing noteworthy, since they had long been received into the Christian community. (2) The contrast between vv. 19 and 20 would be greatly weakened, if not lost, on the supposition that Hellenistic Jews were meant. If this view is correct, they now preached to the Greeks, the uncircumcised heathen, and the Antioch Church was founded and its reception into Christian fellowship approved by the mother church at Jerusalem. Antioch now became an important centre of Christian work, second only to Jerusalem. Here Paul labored a year. and from Antioch he went forth to his three great missionary journeys.-G. B. S.
3 The name Christians was probably given by the Gentiles. The word appears but twice, besides here, in the N. T. (Acts xxvi. 8; 1 Pet. iv. 16), and in both cases it is implied that the name was a name applied to the disciples of Jesus by others. The Jews could hardly have originated the name since Christ was to them but the Greek equivalent for their sacred name Messiah, and from that word they would not have formed a name for the hated sect. The Jews called them rather Nazarenes (Acts xxiv. 5). The Romans seem to have misunderstood the origin of the name, as Tacitus says: A uctor nominis ejus (Christiani) Christus, as if Christus was an appellative instead of a title.-G. B. S.
4 all' oi thj odou monon hkouon, so Cat. (Oecum. which we adopt. A.B.C. all oti, the modern text all eti.
5 anagkaiwj de entauqa, as above pwj anagkaiwj. But in the mss. part of the text v. 28. being transposed, it reads "But here of necessity he says there will be a great dearth," etc.-Below, Ei di autouj hn, pantwj edei kai onta pausasqai. Ti hdikhsan #Ellhnej, ina kai autoi twn kakwn metexwsin; eudokimhsai gar autouj mallon exrhn, oti to autwn epoioun, k. t. l. 'All' ei dia ta kaka, fhsin, k. t. l. So the old text in mss. and Cat. The meaning is obscure, but on the whole it seems most probable that all this is an interlocution of an objector. "If as you say, it was because of the Jews, assuredly it ought, even when it was there, to have ceased (and not gone on to the rest of the world). What harm had the Gentiles done, that they should share in the punishment? Why, they ought rather to have been distinguished by special marks of the Divine favor, because they were doing their part (in executing God's judgments upon the Jews), were slaying, punishing. etc. Observe, too, the time when this visitation first came-precisely when the Gentiles were added to the Church. Whereas if, as you say, it was because of the evil, the Jews inflicted upon the believers, these (the believers, Jews and Gentiles) ought to have been exempted," etc. The modern text has: "But even if (all' ei kai) it were because of them, yet because of the rest (dia touj allouj) it ought, even when it was, to have ceased. For what harm had the Gentiles done, that even they, having done no harm, should have their share of the evils? But if not because of the Jews verily they ought rather to have been even marked objects of favor," etc. Perhaps this was intended to mean: "Suppose it was inflicted by the demons, the Gods of the heathen, because of the Christians, why were the Gentiles included? And as for the Jews. if it was not, as I say, sent by God because of their wickedness, but as the heathen say, was a token of the anger of their Gods because of the new religion, why assuredly the Jews ought. to have been marked objects of favor because they were doing all they could to exterminate the faith." But if so, it does not appear how the next sentence, was understood, "And observe at what time," etc.
6 !Eti 'Iakwboj ezh. So, except E., all our mss.-Ben. finds it strange that this clause is added in some mss. "For what is it to the matter in hand, that James was yet living? And which James? For James the brother of John is mentioned presently afterwards. as slain with the sword: and James the brother of the Lord, Bishop of Jerusalem, is repeatedly mentioned as living, in the subsequent history. Then for what purpose should it be noticed here that he was alive? And yet why the copyists should add this clause, is not easy to see." The copyists are not in fault. St. Chrys. (not fully reported) is identifying this visit to Jerusalem with the visit mentioned in Gal. ii. The mention there made (v. 9) of James, whom at the moment he takes to be James the brother of John (especially as he is named with Cephas and John), leads him to remark, "James was yet alive:" i.e. when Paul and Barnabas went up with the alms, and when this conference ensued. (Acts xi.) A similar inadvertency with respect to St. Philip has been noted above, p. 115, note 1-E. substitutes tosouton wfelei o limoj. and connects the following sentence with this by reading Kai ora autouj, where the rest have Oraj autouj, as if the qliyij here spoken of was the famine: which however had not yet begun. Hence Ben. Et vide illos ex fame, etc. In like manner the innovator has mistaken the connection below. See note 1, p. 165. In fact. the Recapitulation begins here.
7 Here Edd. from E. insert the formula of recapitulation, all idwmen k. t. l.
8 Edd, from E.: "Wherefore also with purpose of heart he exhorted all: that is, with encomium and praise:" as if th proqesei thj kardiaj belonged to parekalei, in the sense, "with heartfelt earnestness he exhorted."
9 ou Paulon: dia mikrwn arxhn to pragma elambane. C. omits Paulon: dia, D. om. ou Paulon. Edd. from E., "not Paul: and how by the small means, the affair took its beginning, but when it became conspicuous, then they sent Barnabas. And why did they not send him before this? They took much forethought for their own people, and did not wish the Jews to accuse them because they received the Gentiles: and yet because of their inevitably mixing with them, since there was some questioning about to arise, the matters relating to Cornelius forestalled (this). Then indeed they say," etc.
10 The meaning seems to be, that they let the preaching to the Gentiles take its course at first; and were enabled to say to the Jews, "See, the Gentiles receive the word without encouragement from us: kai ou tosauthj apolauonta epimeleiaj."
11 The matter contained in this second recapitulation looks as if it were derived from a different, and in part fuller, report. The innovator as above (note 1, p. 164) connects it with the preceding: "they receive the offerings sent from them; who also, not as we," etc.
12 Kai ouk elaloun ton logon ei mh 'Ioudaioij monoij: outwj ton men twn anqrwpwn fobon ouden hgounto: ton de tou nomou proetimwn. 'Ioudaioij monoij elaloun. For proetimwn, A. B. prosetimoun. The passage is corrupt, but the sense is sufficiently plain, and is thus expressed by E. Edd. "Which thing itself helped not a little. But they came also to Cyprus, where was great fearlessness (adeej), and greater freedom from anxiety. `But to none,0' it says, `did they speak the word save to Jews only.0' Not because of the fear of men, of which they made no account, did they this thing:" but keeping the law, and still bearing them, kai autouj eti diabastazonte."-Below, v. 23, Edd. from E, "Perhaps by praising the multitude and receiving them, by this he converted more: as above, muta egkwmuiou kai epainou.
13 He means, There is no lack of wealth, no lack of hearing the word of God: this is the afqonia diplh. Yet many poor around us are famishing, and the rich who might aid them, starve their own souls, by their neglect of almsgiving: diplouj limoj.
14 hmeij de en spatalh tou eleouj ontej tou Qeou. Read hmeij de (en spatalh ontej), tou eleouj tou Qeou, sc. aporountej. The mod. text substitutes spanei for spatalh.
15 kaqaper kai hmeij tote malista auoumen tinaj, otan legwsinhmin ...kai mh epagagwmen, A. b.c. We read tina, and epagagwsin. "When people bid us exhort some person, adding, Peradventure he will hear, not, He will certainly hear, we are then most urgent in our endeavor to persuade him." The mod. text otan legwmen. i. e. "When we would induce some persons to exhort some one, we the more effectually urge them to do so, when we say, Peradventure he will hear," etc. The sense would be improved by reading hmaj <\=85_wuousi tinej, "persons then most urge us, when they say," etc.
16 ei tauthj (mod. text adds monon) thj gumnothtoj epistasai ton tropon: which might also be taken with the following sentence, If you know what sort of nakedness this is (why then, only think) what numbers of women, etc. A. has posai oun. The mod. text adds, dunhsh gnwnai radiwd kai thn authj katastolhn. "If you know the sort of nakedness this is, you will easily be able to know the (manner of) clothing it."
17 E Edd. "Say, We need other (garments) there, not these."-Below, uerouj de, ouk eti: i. e. cold, not heat, makes the naked body shudder: not cold, but hell-fire, the naked soul.
18 In the "Acts of Paul and Thekla," Grab. Spicileg. Patr. t. i. p. 95. reprinted with a translation by Jeremiah Jones, On the Canon of the N. T., vol. ii. p. 353 ff. the incident is thus related (ch. ii.): "When the proconsul heard this, he ordered Paul to be boubd, and to be put in prison. ...But Thekla, in the night taking off her earnings, gave them to turnkey, and he opened for her the doors, and let her in: and having given to the keeper of the Prison a silver mirror, she was admitted unto paul, and having sat at his feet, heard from him the mighty works of god." the earliest notice of this works occurs in Tertull. de Bapt. c. 17: Thekla is mentioned, or her history referred to, by other ancient writers, as St. Greg. Naz., Sulpic. Severus, St. Augustin; see Jones u. s. p. 387 ff. A Homily in her praise ascribed to St. Chrysostom, t. ii. p. 749, is justly placed by Savile among the amfiballomena.
1 The modern text (E. D. F. Edd.) "But here it is said in this sense, elsewhere in a different sense. For when Matthew says, `In those days cometh John preaching,0' he speaks it not as meaning the days immediately following. but `those0' in which the things he relates were about to take place. For it is the custom of Scripture to use this mode of speech, and at one time to expound in their sequence the things successively taking place, at another to relate as in immediate succession the things about to take place afterwards. And he well says that Herod the king did this, for this was not he of Christ's time:" as if Chrys. meant, He does right to call him king, for this was not the tetrarch of the Gospel history. But this is merely a parenthetic remark: the point to which the kalwj legei refers is this-that the persecution is now raised by a king, not by the Jews: "he does well to designate Herod as the king, thereby showing that the trial here was of a different kind, more severe, as the power wielded against them was greater."
2 en de kairw toioutw toiauta epratton. So mss. and Edd. But the Catena has en de kairw toioutw prattein ouk hqelon. "They had no objection to killing, but they had rather not do it at such a time."
3 This seems more suitable to the clause, "And his chains fell off from his hands: but see below in the recapitulation, p. 170.
4 i. e. so unexpected was it, so entirely had he made up his mind that he was to be put to death, that he thought it all a dream.
5 i. e. on the morrow, to be led out to execution, and then and there deliver him.
6 touto de piston egeneto. That would have astonished: this was calculated to obtain belief. E. D. F. Edd. touto de uper autwn egeneto. "But this was done for their sakes for they would not have been counted human beings, if he had done all after the manner of God, ei qeoprepwj panta epoiei."
7 In the old text this sentence and the next are transposed. The mod. text has restored the true order, but for hdonhn has apallaghn, "his deliverance to come to him all at once."-The connection may be thus supplied, "When he came to himself, he found himself there at large, and with his hands no longer chained. And this circumstance again is a strong evidence that he had not fled."
8 The order in mss. and Edd. is a, b, c. Auth, in the beginning of (c) evidently refers to thj parainesewj thj Iam. in (a).
9 James the brother of John was the son of Zebedee, commonly called the "elder" James. He was the first of the apostles to suffer martyrdom. The other James, called "the Lord's brother" (Gal. i, 19.) mentioned in v. 17 (cf. Acts xv. 13; Acts xxi. 18) was the Bishop of Jerusalem, a man of much importance and influence in the apostolic church, whom Paul reckons among the "pillars" (Gal. ii. 9). Chrys. gives no opinion here concerning him. Three views have prevailed in the church: (1) that he was the same as the apostle, James the son of Alphaeus and is called the "brother" of Jesus in the loose sense of that word in which it is taken as equivalent to "relative." (2) That he was the son of Joseph by a former marriage. (3) That he was the son of Joseph and Mary-the real brother of Jesus and is called an apostle in Gal. i. 19, in the more comprehensive sense which that word acquired according to which it was applied also to Paul and Barnabas (Acts xiv. 14). This view seems to me the correct one. There were also other brothers (Matt. xii. 46; Matt xiii. 55, Matt xiii. 56) Joses, Simon and Judas, and sisters who are not personally named. Chrys. seems to have held view (2) in his earlier writings, but to have adopted view (1), following Jerome. (Cf. Lightfoot on Galatians, pp. 289, 290).-G. B. S.
10 A. b.c. kakia, asebeia. Cat fonoj adikoj kakiaj; asebeia taij k. t. l. Mod. text substitutes for these two words, Pollh h anoia tou 9Hrwdou.
11 Kaqwj de wonto A. b.c. Either this is out of its place, or the sentence is incomplete. The mod. text substitutes, "And when he had apprehended him, he put him in prison."
12 ouk estasiasan, ouk eforubhqsan: alluding perhaps to the factious and turbulent proceedings, which in his time often ensued when a Bishop was removed or at the point of death. But possibly estaj. is corrupt.-Below, Touto de hn uper Petrou, etc. the meaning seems to be, "That Herod was permitted to do this, and that Peter was delivered into his hands, not withdrawing upon the death of James, was all the better for Peter: it gave fresh proof of his worth, it showed how courageous he was in himself, independently of supernatural aid."
13 A. b.c. Cat. kai to <\dq_en taxei,<\|dq_ wste mh raqumhsai: kai eplhen auton: (C. kai ekplhcij hn eij auton) outw baqewj ekaqeuden. Perhaps C. has preserved the true reading, see on v. 11. If so, it should be transposed with the part marked (a), viz. "-by the Angel: and it was an amazement to him, so deeply did he sleep: but he thought he saw a vision." The letters as usual denote the order of parts in the mss. Before (b), the clause, "And he passed the first and second ward," is inserted. It is not easy to see what can be the reference of the question, Pwj; pou eisin oi airetikoi; it can hardly be meant for the mention of the sandals and cloak, v. 8, for the persons who objected to the Christians, that, according to Christ's command, they ought to have no shoes, nor two coats, etc. were not heretics, but heathens: see Hom. in illud, Salutate Prisc. et Aq. t. iii. 181. and Hom. in. in Philip. t. xi. 272 (the latter cited in the Catena here).
14 A. b.c. Cat. apisthunai, "be disbelieved?" But this is evidently corrupt.
15 iswj ekeinoj o aei autoij sunwn. Oecumen, may have read ouk ekeinoj, for he has, ina deich oti ou tou aei sunontoj autoij 'Iwannou thn mhtera fhsin: "to show that he does not mean the mother of John (the Apostle) who was always with them, he adds his distinctive name."
16 en autoij toij adikousin. Perhaps it may mean, He brings it home to the conviction of the wrong-doers themselves, etc. 'Ekeinwn, i. e. the enemies. But adikoumenoij would suit the meaning better than adikousin, and then ekeinwn would be right: otherwise it should be autwn.
17 The interpretation of Chrys, regarding the idea of the company assembled in Mary's house expressed by: "It is his angel," is doubtless correct. Others interpret: "It is his messenger"-a messenger sent by Peter to them, but it is said that Rhoda recognized Peter's voice (14). Others understand angel in the sense of spirit-a view which is not sanctioned by linguistic usage. Their idea was that Peter's guardian angel who had taken on his form and appearance was before the door. The belief in guardian angels attending individuals was common in later Jewish theology as well as in the Greek and Roman religions. It was doubtless stimulated in the early church by the saying of Jesus concerning children: "In heaven their angels do alwavs behold the face of my Father who is in heaven" (Matt. xvii. 10), which seems to sanction the idea (cf. Heb. 1. 14).-G. B. S.