Early Church Fathers
13 !Hdh wkeiwto thn proairesin. Strangely rendered by Erasmus, Jam proeelectione assumptus familiariter erat, and Ben. Jam proeelectionem in familiaritatem assumserat.
14 ouden ubristikon, o dh kai epi twn prof. epoioun. The meaning appears from the context to be: he speaks throughout with much epieikeia. When he says apwqeisqe, he does not upbraid them with this as ubrij, a personal outrage to himself and Barnabas. though in fact he might have done so, being just what their fathers did to the prophets: but he does not say, Ye repulse us, for the affront is not to us. And he says it to show that in what he is going to say, "Ye judge yourselves not worthy of eternal life," he does not mean that they do this of humility. In short, he says it not by way of complaint, but to justify what he adds, "Lo, we turn to the Gentiles."
15 Mod. text omits this clause, which we take as an interlocution: q. d. "If the Lord ordered you to go to the Gentiles, why did ye not do this in the first instance." In the next sentence, A. C. kai touto ou par hmwn par umwn de gegone to, pro umwn (B., with accidental omission, kai touto pro umwn. Outw gar), meaning, "And this is not our doing, but yours, the `before you:0' i.e. the Gentiles hearing the word before you. But Cat., kai touto ou pro umwn, par umwn de k. t. l. (attested by the mutilated reading in B.) which we have expressed in the translation.-The mod. text has plhn touto ou par hmwn, par umwn de gegone to pro umwn ofeilon: which Ben. takes to be corrupt, but leaves in the text, only adopting in the translation to par hmwn ofeilon, which interpres legisse videtur. Downe ap. Sav. proposes to pro toutwn umin ofeilomenon vel ofeilon. Sed praestare videtur lectio quam propono, quamque secutus est vetus Interpres Latinus, Ben. forgetting that the Latin version is Erasmus's (Veruntamen hoc non ex nobis facimus. A vobis autem factum est. quod a nobis oportebat, Erasm.) and was made from E. which has no such reading here. Ed. Par. Ben. 2. expresses the sense of E. thus, Quod nos oporteat ante vos gentes erudire,' it is your doing that it is become our duty to teach the Gentiles before you.
16 aplastouj ontaj (i.e. the Gentiles who would otherwise have received the Apostles) kakourgwj dieqhkan, evidently the interpretation of ekakwsan: not evil-treated the Apostles, etc.
17 Mh touto elattwsewj einai nomishj. The innovator (Edd.), mistaking the meaning, connects this and the following clauses thus: "For when they said, ote gar elegon, "Which witnessed," saith it, "before Pontius P., then the (His?) boldness was shown, but here he speaks concerning the people:" what he meant is not easy to see, nor does it much matter. Below, entauqa peri tou laou fhsin, i.e. the parrhsia is in reference to their own nation (Israel): they spake boldly to the Gentiles, fearless of the reproaches of the Jews.
18 It seems clear from the fact that the apostles are said to have been aware (v. 6) of what the Jews had done against them, that the word ormh (v. 5) can hardly mean an "assault" (A. V.) or even "onset" (R. V.) in the sense of any open violence. There would be no propriety in Luke adding that they became aware of an attack upon them. 9Ormh must have here the sense of appetitus animi-a strong movement of mind, an intention to attack them- "Trieb" "Drang." (Meyer.) The word occurs in but one other passage (Jas. iii. 4) where the ormh of the pilot is spoken of as directing the ship, evidently, meaning the "purpose" or "intention." (So Trench, Gloag, Meyer, Lechler, Alford.)-G. B. S.
19 oudamou ton qumon autwn ekkaiontej (restored to its fitting-place after katefugon), i. e. as on all occasions we find them for-bearing to kindle the wrath of their enemies, so here, seeing the intended assault, they fled. Mod. text enqa oudamou and ekkaiein hn, "fled to Derbe," etc. where (the enemies) had nowhere power to let their wrath blaze against them: so that they went away into the country-parts, etc.
20 So the order must be restored instead of, kai touto fhsi dia pistewj ouk ec hmwn: alla to pleon tou Qeou: Qeou gar fhsi to dwpon. The mod. text, "And that it is not ours, but the more (part) God's:" hear Paul saying, "And this not of ourselves, it is the gift of God:" omitting dia pistewj, which is essential to the sense.-Perhaps we may read, kai touto, fhsi, to <\dq_dia p."
21 eautouj etalanisan, "not as thou, eautouj emakarisan."
22 dia thn wmothta kai thn apanqrwpian. A strong expression, but so in the Homily on the Parable of the Virgins, Matt. p. 751, Am. Ed. p. 470, he interprets that the oil is charity (alms-giving), and that even virgins, lacking this, "are cast out with the harlots:" kai ton apanqrwpon kai ton anelehmona isthsi met= autwn (sc. twn pornwn).
23 meta aponoiaj, so Hom. xxxi. p. 196, ouk apenohqhsan, "they did not bear themselves proudly."
24 oukoun kai tapeinousqai xrh. "if he to whom most is forgiven, loveth most, so ought he to whom, more is given, to humble himself more."
25 kai tauton ginetai, oion an ei tij pathr yuxrou (mod. text om.) kai pera tou deontoj malqakou paidiou k. t. l. plakounta epidw kai yuxron kai osa terpei monon k. t. l. Erasmus translates loosely, videns puerum, quem supra modum tenere amat, oegrotum, illi frigida et quoecumque ablectant, porrigat. Ben., si pater nimis molli puero, etsi infirmanti, frigidam placentam et quoe solum oblectant porrigat. If the text be not corrupt, pera tou d. malq. may mean, "brought up more tenderly than need be although ill," and yuxrou, "silly." But the yuxron following may rather imply the physical sense as above expressed: the child is a poor creature, with no warmth or life in it, yet the father instead of warm and nourishing food, gives it cake and cold drink, etc.
26 Dia ti ekrothsate; even now while he was protesting against this evil custom, derived from the theatres, some of the hearers could not refrain from expressing their approbation by applause.-Comp. de Sacerdot. lib. v. init. Hom. xv. in Rom. fin, Hom, vii. in Laz. §I. xvii. in Matt §7.
27 malista men oude outw xrhsimoj o epainoj. i.e. as appears from the context, "to the preacher:" it does him no good, it is even a harm, both by hindering him (kwluma) and by elating his mind (skirthmata kai phdhmata thj yuxhj). In the intermediate clause, all' ouk an hkribologhsamhn, mh me tij agroikiaj grafetw, the meaning implied seems to be-"as it would be easy to show, were it not ungracious to point out to you how little your praise is worth."
28 Perieimi gar toutouj zhtwn. Read tropouj. Mod. text adds pantaj eidena to the former sentence, and here II. gar kai autoj tropou pantoiouj epizhtwn.
29 dia twn xrwmatwn thj arethj. Erasm. and Ben. ungrammatically, propter (ob) coloris virtutem; as meaning that such is the virtue or value of the colors, that they are fit to be employed only on imperial portraits. But the connection is plainly this: "the colors are the hues of virtue, the pencil is the tongue, the Artist the Holy Spirit." In the next sentence the old text has: ouk eukolon touto alla to mh pollh sunhqeia katorqwqhnai, which is corrupt, unless indeed it may be construed, "but (it is) the not being, by reason of long habit, successfully achieved: i.e. it only shows that I have not, such is the force of long habit, succeeded in carrying my point." The mod. text Ouk euk, to pragma dokei, kai touto ou fusei alla tw sunhqeia pollh mhpw katorqoun auto memaqhkenai."It seems to be no easy matter, this: and this, not naturally, but by reason that from long habit you have not yet learnt to effect this reformation."
30 ouk hsuxia kai sigh (mss. hsuxia kai sigh) ta panta kekosmhtai (mod. text katexei). We alter the punctuation, and understand by ta panta not "all the proceedings in Church," but "all nature."
31 otan panta sullegh, when all (that he has spoken) is gathered in by diligent attention of the hearers. Mod. text otan touj karpouj sullegh, "when he collects the fruits."
1 A. b.c. Cat. arostrefomenhj Mod. text apostrefomenoi, and adds kai penqouj shmeia poiountej, and so Oecumen.
2 A. b.c. all= oux hsuxasan. The true reading is preserved by Cat. all= ouk isxusen. Mod. text all' oux hsuxazousin.
3 All our mss. twn profhtwn. From the recapitulation we restore twn aoratwn. The meaning may be, He abstains from the mention of things invisible, because he would recall them from their polythesim, therefore avoids whatever would seem to favor the notion of inferior gods. With the restoration aoratwn we obtain a suitable connection for the part b, both grammatically (in respect of the plur. emaqon), and in respect of the sense: they spoke only of things visible, for they had learned not always to speak according to the dignity of the subject, but according to the needs of the hearers. In the next sentence (a) in A. b.c. ti oun; ei pantwn esti dhmiourgoj, dia ti mh kai eij tauta pronoei; we may understand by eij tauta "the nations of the world, or their doings:" but the sense perhaps would be improved by supplying eij after ei, and restoring eij for eij. Perhaps also tauta is a corruption of panta. "If One be the Maker of all, why not One also direct all by His Providence:" i. e. if One Creator, why not One Providence? Why imagine a number of inferior Providences?-Mod. text "nowhere mentioning the Prophets, nor, saying for what reason, being Maker of all, He left the Gentiles independent, ta eqnh afhken autonoma."
4 From this point to the end of the recapitulation the matter required to be rearranged. The letters show the sequence of the parts in the old text: in the mod. text a partial restoration of the order has been attempted. The "method" of the derangement explains itself thus-the true order being denoted by the figures 1, 2, 3, etc. we have two portions transposed into the order, 2, 1; (a, b): then four portions taken alternately in the order 1, 3, 2, 4. (c to f): then again two portions in the order 2, 1, (g, h): then again four portions in the alternate order 1, 3, 2, 4, (i to m): and lastly, two in the order 2, 1.
5 alla mallon epi ton Qeon to pan agein autouj ekeinouj, A. b.c. As v. 17, "Nevertheless," etc. is placed in the mss. before "Observe, he does not wish," etc. the intention is that to pan should refer to the contents of that verse: "he does not say this to increase their culpability, but he wishes them to refer all to God." But then ekeinouj is idle, accordingly mod. text substitutes paideuei. We have removed the text v. 17. to the end of this sentence, so that its comment is (c) ora pwj lanqanontwj k. t. l. and ora ou bouletai k. t. l. will belong to v. 10, and to pan will refer to their ignorance and walking in their own ways.-So Cat. seems to take it, reading agei h autouj ekeinouj, viz. he rather refers the whole to God, than to those (the heathen) themselves.
6 There was doubtless something polemic in the words of vv. 16, 17 inasmuch as the apostle ascribes to the "living God" alone the blessings which the heathen were wont to attribute to their divinities. The language has also a conciliatory element. Their guilt is mitigated, no doubt, by their limited light, but by no means removed, because God had given them evidences of his goodness and power in the return of seasons and harvests. The thought is closely akin to that in the address at Athens (xvii. 23-31) where God is said to have overlooked the times of the ignorance of the heathen, and to that of Rom. i. 18-32; Rom. ii. 14, Rom. ii. 15, where emphasis is laid upon the revelation of God to the heathen world which renders their sinful lives without excuse. The three passages combined yield the following ideas: (1) God has revealed Himself to the heathen in nature and conscience. (2) This revelation is sufficient to found responsibility. (3) As obedience to this inner law would merit God's approval (Rom. ii. 14), so disobedience to it would merit his displeasure. (4) As matter of fact the Gentiles have not followed the light which they had and thus they have wickedly brought upon themselves the wrath of God and the penalties of his moral law.-G. B. S.
7 B. and mod. text have poqon "his affection," C. and Cat. om, A. "his zeal, fervent and set on fire." Below, for katesparkenai, mod. text boulesqai speirai, "because he wished to sow the word (elsewhere)."
8 ou dia twn apostolwn k. t. l. so all our mss. The sense rather requires dia touj ap. or eneka twn ap. "for the sake of the Apostles," etc.
9 paramuqia i, e. by the ordination of elders, as explained below in the recap. "but there they needed pollhj paramuqiaj, and especially they of the Gentiles, who behooved to be taught much."-The qermothj of Paul, shown in his zeal for the establishment of the Gospel among the Gentiles: see below at the end of the recap. Then, eita allh paramuqia, if it be not an accidental repetition of the clause before v. 23. must be referred to the clause. "They commended them to the Lord," which it follows in the mss.
10 The appointment of elders in every church (which the apostles visited on this journey) is made by Paul and Barnabas. Meyer supposes that the apostles only superintended the popular choice by the church itself. The word employed (xeirotonej), meaning to stretch forth the hand, as in voting would seem especially appropriate to the idea of a popular election, but the participle here employed (xeirotonhsantej) has not the church but Paul and Barnabas for its subject. It seems necessary, therefore, to take it in the general and derived sense-to elect-to choose. There were several elders for each church as there had been several for each synagogue, the model for the constitution of the early churches. They were also called bishops (episkopoi). These with the deacons were the only church officers. (Phil. 1. 1.) Their duty was to be leaders, teachers, and rulers in the churches. They were at once pastors, teachers and rulers. Their functions were co"r-dinate. No one of them was above the others in any particular church. Each church had several co-pastors, teachers or bishops.-G. B. S.
11 touj eniautouj. Cat. touj eniausiaiouj uetouj, "the yearly rains."-Below, our mss. have, "And out of the city," being afraid of those, O the madness! "they dragged him." etc. (w thj maniaj! repeated from above).-Mod. text But "out of the city they dragged" (him). perhaps being afraid of him, ekeinon.
12 Mega gar ontwj megalh yuxh gennaia: for this, which is evidently meant as eulogy of St Paul. the Mod. text substitutes Mega ontwj agaqon h qliyij: kai megalhj yuxhj kai gennaiaj katorqwma. "A great benefit indeed is affliction, and an achievement of a great and generous soul."
13 all' omwj tanantia epoiei. But A. epaqen, mod. text erasxen, "the treatment he received was just the opposite to these (honors)."
14 touj odontaj endaknousin. Erasm. dentibus studentes, endakontej mod. text for which, as "gnashing the teeth" does not suit the context, Ben. gives dentes excussi.
15 roph esti, kai to pan katwrqwsaj euqewj, mh sunarpaghj mhde kinhqhj. Mod. text roph esti, "be not hurried and thou" etc; hm kin., "do not move, and," etc.-Below megalh paramuqia. meaning either consolation to the beholders, or rather as below, a soothing of the excited passions of the opponent.
16 'All' axrhstoj ginetai: i. e. "It is bad for himself that he should go unpunished: so he becomes good for nothing."
17 epoihsen: i. e. "He would not Himself have exercised this forbearance." Mod. text epetacen, "He would not have enjoined this."
18 All our mss. kai kaqaper puretoj otan sfodron pneush, and this the Edd. retain without remark. We restore pneuma, or anemoj ...sfodra. Between pneuma and anemoj as an inter-linear correction arose the absurd reading puretoj.
19 In the mod. text ti poiountej; is placed before Konin epib and sigwntej is connected with touj kunaj kalwmen: "by holding our peace let us call the dogs," etc.
20 In the original the sense is perplexed by the negligent use of the demonstr. outoj and ekeinoj, supra p. 42. The meaning is: "B. (the second person mentioned) says to A. (suppose a pornh perifanhj), "You are so and so," such being the fact: she retorts with a like reproach, which is not true: whether is most damaged (ubristai)? Not she, for being what the other calls her she is just where she was before. The disgrace is to him; and that, not from her words, for they do not fit: but from his own indecent railing: so that he thinking to disgrace her has more disgraced himself. He is more disgraced by calling the other the thing that she is, than by being called by her the thing that he is not."
21 asuneidhsiaj apiston docan labwn: which being unintelligible, must be restored by replacing h before asun. and before apistou (so mod. text rightly for apiston). "He gets the doza either of asuneid. in which case he is a foul calumniator, or of an apistoj:" which latter in the way in which it is put supra Hom. xiv. p. 193: "as regards himself, he has shown all men that he is not to be trusted, as not knowing how to screen his neighbor's faults."
22 twn ep agoraj suromenwn, not as Ben. eorum qui forum frequentant: but, "one of those old hags, bawds, and the like, whom for their crimes you may see dragged by the officers to punishment, and screaming out their foul-mouthed railings."
23 tauta ek thj polewj ta sunedria. So all our mss.: perhaps tautaj-taj sunhqeiaj.
1 #Ora pantaxou thj eij ta eqnh diorqwsewj (the putting things right, the introduction of the right and proper course: mod. text metabasewj) anagkaian thn arxhn eisagomenhn. Mod. text ap' autwn eisag. which Ben. renders, vide ubique transitum ad Gentes necessario a Judaeis inductum. But the meaning is: "Throughout, it is so ordered by the Providence of God, that the Apostles do not seem to act spontaneously in this matter, but to be led by the force of circumstances." The persons (Peter, Paul, James) are not specified, the sense being: First, upon fault being found, there is apologizing and self-justifying: then, upon the Jews' open aversion, the preaching comes to the Gentiles: now, upon a new emergency, a law is enacted.-In the next sentence, b.c. diaforwj: A. and mod. text adiaforwj, which we retain.
2 Mod. text iswj oudamwj upoptoj hn, "perhaps he would not have been any way suspected."
3 With Luke's narrative of the Apostolic council at Jerusalem should be compared Paul's (Gal. ii.) which gives additional particulars. The conference marked an epoch in the history of the church. Here came into decisive conflict two opposing tendencies-the Pharisaic tendency which insisted that the Gentiles must enter the Kingdom through the door of the law, and the catholic spirit which, following the principles of Stephen's apology and appreciating the revelations made to Peter, insisted that adherence to the Mosaic law was not only unnecessary, but was positively inconsistent with the freedom and completeness of Christ's salvation. The decree of the council was, no doubt, of great service in checking the Judaizing tendencies of the early church. It was in the line of this decree that the work of Paul was done, as the champion of catholic Christianity. The chief points to be noted in v. 1-12 are: (1) The representatives of the narrower Jewish view came to Antioch on purpose to antagonize the work of Paul and Barnabas among the Gentiles (v. 1). (2) They took the extreme position that salvation depended on circumcision and caused great anxiety and debate among the Gentile Christians regarding their relations to the Mosaic law (v. 2). (3) The Apostles and messengers who were sent to appeal the question to the leaders of the mother church at Jerusalem answered their objections by the fact of the Gentiles' conversion (v. 3-5). (4) Peter's position was now clear and pronounced. This is implied even in his subsequent conduct at Antioch whence he withdrew from the Gentiles (Gal. ii. 11 sq.) which Paul represents as an inconsistency. (5) Peter's view is first given both on account of his prominence among the Apostles and because he had been the first to bear the gospel to the Gentiles.-G. B. S.
4 In the mss. and Edd. the part marked (b) is transposed to the beginning (c) of the remarks introductory to the morale, so that the Recapitulation (announced by mod. text at the end of the first sentence of (a) is split into two halves and the latter given first. In the old text the two parts (b) (c) make the entire Recapitulation, so that it is by no means akribesteron.
5 Mod. text "Therefore they depart (thither) and stay no short time there (ch. xiv. 28). 'But there arose certain of the Pharisees (v. 5) yet laboring under the disease," etc.
6 twn eij touj 'Ioudaiouj sumbebhkotwn: i.e. of the dispute about circumcision, see below p. 203, note 7. The first sentence of (c) "Great effrontery (this) of the Pharisees," etc., would come in suitably here, but it is required for introduction of the sentence which follows it, "But see the Apostles," etc.
7 Here mod. text has the formula, 'All' idwmen anwqen ta eirhmena.
8 Kai touto de ou mikron, 'Ioudaiwn pisteuontwn kai toutwn ouk apostrafentwn, apo rou topou, apo tou kairou. Mod. text substitutes the sense of the latter words: duo toutoij o legei pistoutai, tw kairw kai tw topw: but for the former, ou mikron de to kai 'Ioudaiwn pisteuontwn touto apostrafhnai, quod etiam Judaeis credentibus hoc avertatur. Ben. We reject toutwn, which disturbs the sense. He says: "Long ago-therefore why raise this question now, which was settled in those early days, when Jews received the faith, not rejected it with aversion? which aversion of theirs is now the occasion of the preachers' turning to the Gentiles. Yet even then the will of God was plainly declared. Thus the Apostle argues strongly both from the place-here in the midst of the Jews-and from the time."
9 wsper ep' autwn: referring to i. 24. as below on kardiognwsthj. He means, "It was a purpose of the Lord, and a high distinction: therefore he does not say, He would, or was willing that the Gentiles should hear, but He elected me for this work, as He elected us to the Apostleship."
10 #Ara kardiaj dei pantaxou zhtein. i. e. "He implies that God, as knowing the hearts of all men saw the fitness of these Gentiles, therefore chose them, and made no distinction between us and them in point of fitness. Consequently, the heart, not circumcision, is what we must everywhere look to. Nay, he adds, this same expression, kardiognwsthj was used by the Apostles on the occasion above referred to: so that Peter, by using it here also, declares the Gentiles to be upon a par with the Apostles themselves: no difference between us the Apostles, and them."
11 mss. 'Ecekaqare proteron ton logon, kai tote k. t. l. Either ton logon has come in from another place (perhaps after eij foberon katelhce below), or some words are lost, e. g. pistei th eij ton logon.
12 The foberon is in the kaq' on tropon kakeinoi. "Our danger, through the Law, is greater than theirs. Not only are they put upon a par with us. but we may be thankful to be put upon a par with them." To bring out this point, he reviews the tenor and drift of St. Peter's speech.
13 Eikotwj kai autoi loipon epimarturousi: that autoi means the Prophets (cited by St. James), seems to be shown by toij hdh genomenoij, "what they long ago foretold, which is even now come to pass."
14 to gar katamikron touto isxuroteron genomenon twn eqnwn: touto gar peirazontoj hn k. t. l. Mod. text touto gar kata mikpon epagomenon egineto isxuroteron: ekeino de peir. hn.-The meaning is: "He does not come at once to the point, but advances to it gradually: first, `Put no difference-though, as he afterwards shows, if there be a difference it is in their favor: we are not to think it much that they are to be saved as we, but that we may trust to be saved even as they.0'"
15 Above, it was "disbelieving God, as not able to save by faith." Here, "You are tempting God by your unbelief: whereas the question is not so much whether He can save without the Law, as ei dunatai kai meta nomon (B. tou nomou) swsai."
16 ouk aperxontai diaballontej touj en 'Ant. This also shows the epiekeia of Paul and Barnabas, that when they come to Jerusalem, we do not find them complaining of the Jews who had come to Antioch, but they confine themselves to the recital of "all that God had done with them," v. 4: as he had said above, ouden legousi peri twn eij touj 'Ioudaiouj sumbebhkotwn. The next clause, 'All' ekeiqen palin lambanousin aformhn may be referred to the Apostles, "they again take advantage of this opportunity, viz. of the Judaizing opposition, to establish the freedom of the Gentiles." We have referred it to the Pharisaic brethren, v. 5, for the sake of connection with the following outwj emeletwn to filarxein.-In the next clause, kai (mod. text oi kai), ouk eidotwn twn apostolwn ememfqhsan, Sav. marg. has 'pemfqhsan, "these Judaizers were not sent with knowledge of the Apostles."
17 'Epieikeia, gentleness, in the sense of moderation and forbearance, keeping one's temper: here distinguished from the temper of the yuxroj, which is unruffled only because he does not feel, and that of the flatterer, who puts up with everything for the sake of pleasing.
18 He means, that to basileij, when there is an enemy in the field against them, the engrossing theme of discourse, even at table, is how to overcome their enemies. Such was probably the state of things when this Homily was preached: for the note of time in Hom. xliv. implies that it was delivered either at the close of 400 or the beginning of 401 a.d.: now the former of these years was signalized by the revolt and defeat of Gainas. Hence the following passage might be rendered, "they are holding assemblies each day, appointing generals and demanding taxes," etc. The war ended Dec. 400, in the defeat of Gainas.
1 All our mss. and the Cat. apo te newn apo te palaiwn bebaioumenou twn profhtwn ton logon, which must be rendered, "Confirming the word of the prophets:" so Ed. Par. Ben. 2, where the other Edd. have pal. prof. beb., which is in fact what the sense requires: "from the prophets, new (as Symeon) and old."
2 This was James, the Lord's brother (Gal. i. 19), who, according to the uniform tradition of the early church, was the Bishop of Jerusalem. He evidently was the chief pastor, as he presides at this conference, and when Judaizing teachers afterwards went down to Antioch from Jerusalem they are spoken of as coming "from James" (Gal. ii, 12). From this it has been inferred that he was the leader of a Judaistic party, but this view is inconsistent with his address here and also with Paul's testimony who says that the "pillar" apostles "imparted nothing" to him, that is, did not correct or supplement his teaching. He was no doubt of a conservative tendency respecting the questions in dispute and may not have been always self-consistent, as Peter certainly was not, but there can be no doubt of his substantial agreement with Paul. His doctrine of justification by works as well as by faith in his epistle is not against this view, since he uses both the words "faith" and "works" in a different sense from Paul, meaning by the former "belief" and by the latter the deeds which are the fruit of the Christian life, instead of meritorious obedience to the Mosaic law.-G. B. S.
3 Edd. epixwriazein, Cat. egxronizein, substituted for the less usual egxwriazein of A. b.c. Sav.-Below, Sumewn, fhsin, echghsato en tw Louka profhteusaj. Cat. "He who in Luke prophesied, Lord, now lettest Thou Thy servant depart."-It is remarkable that it does not occur to Chrys. that Symeon is Simon Peter, though 2 Pet. i. 1 has Sumewn Petroj in the Cod. Alexandr., and many other mss. In the Mod. text Chrys. is made to say: "Some say that this is he who is mentioned by Luke: others, that he is some other person of the same name. (Acts xiii. 1?) But whether it be the one or the other is a point about which there is no need to be particular; but only. to receive as necessary the things which the person declared."
4 apo men tou xronou dhloj hn, to de aciopiston ouk eixe: the former clause seems to be corrupt. The sense in general is, He was manifestly (a prophet), but had not the same authority as the old prophets. Probably the form of opposition was this: epeidh ekeinoj apo men * * dhloj hn, apo de tou xronou to aciopiston ouk eixe dia to mh palaioj einai. "Since Symeon, though from * * he was manifestly (a prophet), yet from time had not the like authority because he was not ancient."
5 Mod. text, "But it is not of these things that he speaks. And what raising up, you will say, does he mean? That after Babylon." We point it, poian legei egersin thn meta Babulwna; "Was it raised up? was it not rather razed to the ground (by the Romans)? True it was rebuilt after the return from Babylon, but what sort of raising up does he call that?" For the answer to these questions, not given here, see the Recapitulation (note 4, p. 207).
6 Most modern texts omit panta at the end of v. 17 and then join directly to it gnwsta ap' aiwnoj only, dropping out the words of the T. R.: esti tw qewpanta ta erga autou. This reading yields the following translation: "the Gentiles upon whom my name is called, saith the Lord, who maketh these things known from the beginning of the world." (So Tischendorf, Alford, Meyer, Westcott and Hort, Gloag. R. V.). This reading encounters the difficulty that the words gnwsta ap' aiwnoj are considered as a part of the quotation which, in reality, they are not. It is probable that this fact may have led to their expansion into an independent sentence.-G. B. S.
7 All our mss. epeidh ouk hsan akhkootej tou nomou, which contradicts v. 21. We restore epeidh oun. In b.c. v. 21, with the words epeidh ouk hsan ak. tou nomou is repeated after, "We have judged."
8 mss. and Edd. Kai ora pwj fortikwj ekeinouj diaballontej epistellousin. The sense absolutely requires pwj ou fort. It would be strange if Chrys. made to fortikon and to diaballein matter of commendation: moreover in his very next remark he says just the contrary, and below, p. 209.
9 Pauloj de loipon edidasken. Perhaps this may belong to the Recapitulation, v. 12.-In the mod. text the matter is a good deal transposed, without any necessity, and the Recapitulation is made to begin after the sentence ending, "love of glory."-This seems to be the proper place for the first of the sentences following the Recapitulation, p. 210, note 3, viz. "No more faction. On this occasion I suppose it was that they received the right hand, as he says himself, `They gave to me and Barnabas the right hands of fellowship.0' On this (same) occasion he says, `They added nothing to me.0' For they confirmed his view: they praised and admired it."
10 epiphda N. Cat. (ephpida sic A. b.c.) mod. text apophda, "recoils" from hearing Paul.
11 The scribes did not perceive that ec arxhj is the answer to the question, Ti estin, kaqwj prwton k. t. l. therefore transposed this sentence and gave ez arxhj to the sentence (a) (Cat. omits them.) Mod. text, the question being thus left unanswered, substitutes "Symeon hath declared"-kaqwj pr. k. t. l. 'Ec apxhj afodroteron men.