Early Church Fathers
12 oti pro pantwn outoi. Here also, and in th prolhyei twn eqnwn, there seems to be a reference to prwton, as if the meaning were, God "looked upon the Gentiles first to take from them," before the Jews, etc.-After the text, the questions left unanswered above (see note 2, p. 206) might be advantageously introduced. "How could that restoration (after Babylon) be called an egersij, especially as the city was eventually razed to the ground by the Romans? True: but the kingdom of David is in fact more gloriously raised up, in the reign of David's offspring throughout the world. As for the buildings and city, what loss is that? Nay, David himself is more glorious now than he was before, sung as be is in all parts of the world. If then this which the Prophet foretold is come to pass-this is put as St. James's arguments-namely that the city was raised from its ruins (and the subsequent overthrow, when the end of that restoration was attained, does not invalidate the fulfilment), then must the dia ti of this restoration also come to pass, namely, that the residue shall seek the Lord, and all the Gentiles upon whom that Name is called. The city, was raised up for the sake of Christ, to come of them, and to reign over all nations. Consequently, the Prophet shows that the aition (i. e. the dia ti, or final clause) of the building of the city is-the calling of the Gentiles, to ta eqnh klhqhnai."
13 oi upoleipomenoi tote, the Jews whom that (the Babylonian) judgment leaves.
14 mss. and Edd. to de hmetepon. We must read to de hmerwtepon, as above: in the preceding clause something is wanted for antithesis, probably kai ora, to men fortikwteron, oper k. t. l.
15 uper ou ouden gegraptai. This also requires emendation. The sense demands, "About which there is no dispute." The gegraptai may have come in from the text referred to: "to wit, Kaqwj gegraptai," etc.
16 The report seems to be defective here; and in fact N. (Say. marg.) inserts after the text, "showing both God's care towards them and mercy, and their ready mind and piety in obeying: and he says well," etc. But this addition is unknown to A. b.c. Cat., and N. frequently adds to or otherwise alters the original text, where the sense or connection is obscure.-Perhaps however these two sentences may be better transposed to follow the part (b), so that the connection would be, "And again, observe he has been speaking concerning the Gentile converts, not openly of the Jewish believers, and yet in fact what he says is no less for them."-Mod. text with partial transposition, "And he well says, To them, etc. declaring both the purpose of God from the beginning with respect to them, and their obedience and readiness for the calling. What means it? I judge? Instead of, With authority I say that this is so. `But that we write to them,0' he says, `to abstain from0' etc. For these, though bodily, etc. (as below.) And that none may object, why then do we not enjoin the same thing to the Jews? He adds, `For Moses,0' etc.: i.e. Moses discourses to them continually: for this is the meaning of, `Being read every Sabbath day.0' See what condescension!"
17 kaitoi ge pollakij autoij uper (not peri as Ben. renders, de his) dielexqhsan mod. text dielexqh, referred perhaps to Moses or the Law, as in the trajection this sentence follows the last of (a). The clause seems to refer to "pollutions of idols and fornication." q. d. "Why mention these in the decree? The Apostles, especially Paul, often discoursed to them on behalf of these points of Christian duty, i.e. the abstaining from all approach to idolatry, as in the matter of eidwloquta, and from fornication." The answer is: "He mentions them, for the purpose of seeming to maintain the Law, (though at the same time he does not rest them on the authority of the Law, but on that of the Apostles: still the Jewish believers would be gratified by this apparent acknowledgment of the Law), and (with the same view) to make a greater number of entolai, for which reason also he divides the one legal prohibition of blood into the two, apo twn pniktwn kai apo tou aimatoj. The latter, he says, though swmatikai, are necessary to be observed because the non-observance of this law on which the Jews laid so much stress led to great evils-especially made it impossible for Jewish and Gentile believers to eat at the same table. For in every city Moses is preached to Jews and proselytes. Therefore I say it is good that we charge them by letter to abstain from these things," Then, giving a different turn to the reason, "for Moses of old times," etc. he adds. "this is for them which from the Gentiles," etc., as for the Jewish believers, they have Moses to teach them. Thus again seeming to uphold Moses, while in fact he shows, what they might learn from Moses himself, that the Law is come to an end for the Jews also.
18 The prohibitions imposed by the council upon the Gentiles were chiefly concessions to Jewish prejudice and opinion. Abstinence from meat which had been offered in idols' temples and from things strangled and from blood was forbidden in the Mosaic law (Ex. xxxiv. 15; Lev. xvii. 10-14). Failure to abstain from these would expose the Gentile converts needlessly to the suspicions of the Jewish Christians. The prohibition of fornication must rest upon another ground. is a warning against the custom among Gentiles, which had become so prevalent as to provoke little rebuke or comment. The ground assigned for requiring these abstinences is that Moses is read every Sabbath in the synagogues of the Jews and therefore these very points are kept prominently before the people and therefore unless these indulgences were abandoned, the synagogue preaching would constantly stimulate in the Jews and Judeo-Christians a dislike of the Gentile believers. There is less ground for the view of Chrys. that v. 21. means that the Jewish Christians have no need of instruction on these points because they hear the law read every Sabbath, an explanation, however, which is adopted by such modern scholars as Wordsworth and Neander.-G. B. S.
19 A. B. aphg. ta eqnh ec autou. Dia ti oun mh par autou manq.; C. aphg. ta ec autou panta, oion ta eqnh. Dia ti k. t. l. Cat. aphg ta ec autou manq. Hence we read, aphgage ta eqnh. Dia ti oun mh ta ec autou manqanousin, oion (ta eqnhj) * * *;
20 katastrefein, mss. Perhaps, metastreyai from Gal. i. 7.
21 eceluse to pan, "untied the whole knot," or perhaps "took out of the Law all its strength," as below luei.
22 Perhaps the sentence, touto malista autouj anepausen, retained above as the end of (b), may belong here, in the sense, "This was conclusive; this made the Judaizers desist, if anything could."
23 kaqaper epi oikodomhj ta up' ekeinwn gegenhmena metatiqentej. Mod. text from E. tiqentej, "putting, as in respect of a building, the things done by those (Judaizers)." We have transposed ta up' ek geg. to its proper place. He interprets anask. with reference to Gal. i. 6. metatiqesqe.
24 sunhrpasan Ben. ipsos extorsisse: but the word is used in the Greek of Chrysostom's time, in the sense "conceal," for which Schneider s. v. refers to Valesius on Harpocrat. p. 145. Gronov. in which sense we have rendered it above. Or perhaps, "had wrested it" to make it speak in their favor. To zhtoumenon sunarpazein is a logical phrase, used of one who commits a petitio principii. St. Chrys. however can hardly be correctly reported here: for the letter itself would show, if it were believed to be genuine. that Paul and Barnabas neither sunhrpasan nor alla ant' allwn eipan. He may rather be supposed to have said in substance as follows: "Had Paul and Barnabas returned alone as the bearers of an oral communication, it might be suspected that they gave their own account of the matter: had they come alone, bearing the Epistle, its genuineness might have been called in question: but by sending the Epistle by the hands of men of their own and of high consideration, they left no room for doubt as to the fact of their decision. On the other hand, to have sent these men alone, would have looked like putting a slight upon Barnabas and Paul: but by sending the messengers with them, they showed oti aciopistoi eisin, and by the eulogy expressed in the Epistle itself they stopped the mouths of the gainsayers."
25 The innovator completely mistakes the meaning of this clause: not having the text to guide him, he supposes it to refer to Silas and Judas, and alters thus: "It shows how worthy of credit they are: not making themselves equal, 'it says: they are not so mad. In fact, this is why it adds that expression, Which have hazarded their lives, etc. And why does it say, "It seemed good to the Holy Ghost and to us," and yet it had sufficed." etc.-Below, he has "`To lay upon you no greater burden.0' This they say, because they have to speak," etc. But all this belongs to edocen hmin q. d. "You need not fear us, neither is it of condescension that we speak, or to spare you as being weak-quite the contrary-it seems good to the Holy Ghost "and to us."
26 pollh gar kai twn didaskalwn aidwj hn. It is not clear whether this means, Great was the reverence shown by the teachers also towards them-as in St. Peter's wsper kakeinoi-and therefore they did not treat them as "weak;" or, great was their reverence towards their teachers, so that bad they laid upon them a greater burden, they would have borne it.
27 mss. and Edd. have this clause, anw katw baroj kalousi after Pneumatoj gar hn nomoqesia, and give the kai palin to sunagagontej. After the clause "For that was a superfluous burden" seems to be the proper place for these sentences from below, see note 3, infra. "It shows that the rest are not necessary but superfluous, seeing these things are necessary. "From which if ye keep yourselves ye shall do well." It shows that nothing is lacking to them, but this is sufficient."
28 Here insert from below: "For it might have been done also without letters-they did this."
29 What follows consists of notes which the redactor did not bring to their proper places. "No more faction-admired it," see note 1 p. 207. "It shows-the Spirit," may belong either to the comment on krinw egw, or to that on "It seemed good to the Holy Ghost and to us."-"It shows that the rest-sufficient," see note 1. These parts being removed, the remainder forms the continuation of the sentence, "it behooved to be done by these," note 2. The concluding words kai met'eirhnhj are the reporter's abridgment of the text "kai [emesthrican, moihsantej de xronon apeluqhsan] met' eirhnhj.
30 The author here assumes the identity of the two visits of Paul to Jerusalem contained in Acts xv. and Gal i. and Gal ii. This has always been the prevailing view. For a full discussion of this and other views, see Gloat, Com. on the Acts ii. 80-84.-G. B. S.
31 The famine is mentioned among the offences within, perhaps because it may have led some to question the Providence of God: see above, p. 159.
32 mss. and Edd. transpose the parts marked a and b. The old text, however, by retaining ti oun at the end of a, as well as at the beginning of c, enables us to restore the order, so that then the clause mhden olwj eidwj en taij Grafaij, no longer disturbs the sense.
33 Edd. pantwj ti erei. A. b.c. pantwj oti erei. "In any wise he will affirm the oti, therefore let us ask the aitiaj di aj."
34 ei iatroj melloij manqanein. Mod. text adds, "Say, Do you accept out of hand and as it chances, whatever you are told?" The connection is: "Apply your mind to what you hear, whether from us or from them, and see whether of us is consistent. Just as you would if you wished to learn medicine: there also you would find conflicting opinions and you would exercise your judgment upon them, not accept all without examination. Do so here; and in the instance which has been taken, you will see that we, affirming the Son to be God, carry out our affirmation consistently; whereas they (the Arians) say indeed that He is God but in fact deny Him the essential properties of Deity."-Edd. and all our mss. Uion legomen hmeij epalhqeuomen k. t. l. We must read either Qeon or Uion Qeon.
35 Connection: I have mentioned one simple criterion: here is another palpable and visible mark. Heretics take their names from men, the founders of their sects, tou airesiarxou dhlountoj A. B. kalountoj C., to onoma Sav. marg. dhlountej, which we adopt. But indeed the reasons you allege are mere pretence, etc.
36 The sentence is left unfinished: "it would be no wonder," "this would be at least consistent," or the like: then ei de eicw b.c. hcw (sic) A., hcw D. Mod. text oude ecw. all corrupt. The sense seems to require, "If you have thought fit," or "gone so far as."
37 Sav. marg. adds "another, Paul of Samosata."
38 Dia ti polloi gegonasin Ellhnej, kai oudeij k. t. l. Mod. text omits dia ti. The first clause seems to be corrupt, or misplaced: for to say that "there have been many heathen, and none of them has asked these questions" (about Christian doctrines), would contradict all that precedes: and if it means There were many Greeks, and diverse schools of philosophy among them, and yet none was deterred from the study of philosophy by those differences, this would not be true. But if this be transposed to the following sentence, which relates to the #Ellhnej at Antioch, then Chrys. says: "Among philosophers also there were these differences, and yet) etc. How is it that (at Antioch) many Greeks became (Christians) and yet none of them asked these questions? Why did they not say," etc.
39 Edd. have a longer peroration from F, partly followed by D. "And live according to His will while we are yet in this life present, that with virtue having accomplished the remaining time of our life, we may be able, etc., and together with them which have pleased Him be found worthy of honor, by the grace and loving-kindness of His only-begotten Son, and the All-holy and Life-giving Spirit, the One true Godhead, now and ever, world without end." Amen.
1 mss. and Edd. after twn apostolwn add twn loipwn, which we omit as evidently out of place: for "the Apostles" here are Paul and Barnabas. Possibly it should be dia twn loipwn, "by the rest of the particulars related on former occasions," but if so, this must be placed after twn ap. to hqoj.
2 The notes of this Homily have fallen into extreme confusion, and we have but partially succeeded in restoring the true order.
3 Mod. text omits this question: C. for afeij has afeqeij, "he that was left, or, dismissed." Part of the answer has dropped out, "Paul did well: for" etc. The interlocutor rejoins: "Then if Paul did well, Barnabas did ill?" Here Edd. and all our mss. oukoun, fhsi, kakoj o Barnabaj; to which mod. text adds, "By no means: but it is even exceedingly absurd to imagine this. And how is it not absurd to say, that for so small a matter this man became evil?" We restore oukoun kakwj o Barnabaj;
4 malista men oun kai e/teuqen (as by other instances of human infirmity, so by this also) deiknutai ta anqrwpina, i.e. we are shown what in the preaching of the Gospel proceeded from man: that man, as man, did his part, which part is betokened by the ordinary characters of human nature. If even in Christ it behooved that He should not do all as God, but that His Human Nature should also be seen working, much more was it necessary that the Apostles, being but men, should work as men, not do all by the immediate power of the Spirit.
5 This refers to hciou in the sense "he begged," as he says below, in the beginning of the Recapitulation, kaitoi ouk edei acioun auton exonta kathgorein meta tauta.
6 If this sentence be in its place, something is wanting for connection: e.g. (It was a great oikonomia) for the more extended preaching of the word: since on Barnabas's plan these "at Cyprus" were to have a second visitation, but those "in Asia" not even once. But it may be suspected that this part is altogether misplaced: and that the outoi are the brethren "in the cities where we have preached," and ekeinoi the people of Macedonia," etc. See end of Recap. where Chrys. says, had it not been for this parting, the word would not have been carried into Macedonia.
7 Chrys. has treated the dissension of Paul and Barnabas with discrimination, without, however, placing quite the emphasis upon hciou-"he thought good not to"-"he determined not to"-and upon ton apostanta-"who had fallen away from-apostatized from,"-which those terms seem to require. The conduct of Mark in returning to Jerusalem from Pamphylia (Acts xiii. 13) was clearly regarded as reprehensible by Paul, apparently as an example of fickleness in the service of Christ. It is not strange that Barnabas, Mark's cousin (Col. iv. 10) should have been more lenient in his judgment of his conduct. It is certain that this difference of opinion regarding Mark did not lead to any estrangement of Paul and Mark, for in his imprisonment the apostle speaks of Mark as a trusted fellow-worker (Col. iv. 10; 2 Tim, iv. 11).-G. B. S.
8 The method of the derangement here is, that there being five portions, these were taken alternately, in the order 1, 3, 5, and then 2, 4.
9 So Edd. and all our mss. apesth ap' autwn o Barnabaj: which may mean, "And so the same may now be said of Barnabas, viz. that he departed (from Paul)," etc. The same word apesth is applied to Barnabas below, p. 216.
10 sugkatebhsan allhloij outw meizon agaqon einai to xwrisqhnai. The meaning is as below. that they parted kata sunesin. Mod. text "sugkat. all. idein. The point required is to see that," etc. Then, Outw m. a. gegone to xwr. "Thus their being parted became a greater good," etc.-Kai profasin ek toutou to pragma elabe, i. e. "They saw that it was best to part viz.: that so the word would be more extensively preached, and this difference gave a pretext for so doing." He means that the contention was oikonomia (see the Recap.), the object being, partly this which is here mentioned, partly a lesson to Mark.
11 Edd. and mss. ou proshkato, against the sense of the passage, whence Oecum. omits the negative, not much improving it. The Catena has preserved the true reading, ou prohkato. See instances of confusion the other way in Mr. Field's Index to Hom. in Matt. s. v. prosihmi.
12 wste deicai ton timhsanta auton kalwj bebouleumenon. The sense requires ton tim. auton kai ton mh timhsanta kalwj beb. or the like: "that both Barnabas and Paul had taken the course which was for his (Mark's) own good."
13 oti kai ephgeto auton. The meaning seems to be, (but the confusion into which the text has fallen, leaves it very uncertain), "The wonder is that he took Timothy, being as he was the son of a heathen father, and uncircumcised."
14 oti ekeino ekwluen. Mod. text kai mh to IIn. to A. ekeleusen; But see the Recap. where the question is explained, viz., How is it that when they were to be kept from preaching, the Holy Ghost spoke to them, but here a vision, and that in a dream, is all?
15 In the mss. this sentence is placed before "And now he crosses over," etc. v. 10.-"In this manner:" i. e. in a night-vision or dream; the allusion is to xxiii. 11, "the Lord stood by him," confused with xxvii, 23, "the Angel of the Lord."
16 i.e. just displeasure on the one side: lenity, compassion, intercession, etc. on the other. Thus God is wroth with Miriam, Moses pleads for her, and so in the other cases.
17 Mod. text omits this clause relating to St. Paul, as in the old text it is incomplete, the remainder of the sentence ("would not have been wroth," etc.) having been transposed to the end of what relates to Barnabas, after "relating to the decree."-Below, alla lambanousin eautouj, may perhaps be eautoij, sc. touj deomenouj below, i.e. choose their spheres of action where each was most needed. But the context rather seems to require this sense: "There is no animosity between them, but they take their parts in this dispute for the good of those who, as Mark, need the instruction which was to be derived from the gentleness of Barnabas, and the severity of Paul's character. Paul indeed is stern, but his object is to do good: as 2 Thess. iii. 13, where (comp. the context) rebuking, and enjoining severity to be shown to the disorderly, he says, "And be not weary in well-doing." We have changed the order of the two sentences, "And he rebukes," etc. and, "As he does elsewhere," etc.-Touto kai en th sunhqeia poioumen. i. e. this putting on a show of anger, to do good to one whom we would correct: or perhaps, of altercation, as when, for instance, father and mother take opposite parts, the one for punishing, the other for sparing an erring child-sunaganakthsai tw IIaulw. Ben. indignati esse in Paulum. But whether it means this, or "to have had indignation together with Paul," there is nothing to show: nor is it clear what is the reference of the following sentences; unless it be, But he would not allow these persons who were indignant along with, or at, him, to retain this feeling: he takes them apart, makes them see the thing in its right light, and so departs in peace, "being commended by the brethren to the grace of God," with the prayers of concord and charity. Great is the power of such prayer. (See the former comment on this verse, p. 214.)-Kau uper megalou acioij, kan anacioj hj. Perhaps it should be h, "Whether it be on behalf of a great man (as Paul), or whether the person be unworthy," etc.
18 So in Gen. Serm. ix. text iv. 695. D. Chrys. infers from this passage with 2 Tim. i. 5, that the father emeinen en th asebeia kai ou meteballeto. Hom. i. in 2 Tim. p. 660. E. "Because of his father who was a Gentile, and because of the Jews he took and circumcised him. Do you mark how the Law began to be dissolved, in the taking place of these mixed marriages?" (so here ora hdh ton nomon duomenon.) In the mss. all this is extremely confused by transpositions (the method; 1, 4: 2, 5: 3, 6) and misplacing of the portions of sacred text (where these are given). Thus here, "And therefore because of the Jews which were in those parts he circumcised him. Ouk hn emperitomoj."-Mod. text "thy mother Eunice. And he took and circumcised him. And wherefore, he himself goes on to say: Because of the Jews, etc. For this reason then he is circumcised. Or also because of his father: for he continued to be a Greek. So then he was not circumcised. Observe the Law already broken. But some think he was born," etc. He is commenting on the fact, that Timothy was uncircumcised: viz., because his father was a heathen. Here then was a devout man, who from a child had known the Holy Scriptures, and yet continued uncircumcised. So that in these mixed marriages we see the Law already broken, independently of the Gospel. It may be indeed that he was born after the conversion of his mother to the faith, and therefore she was not anxious to circumcise him. But this (he adds) is not likely.
19 For Timothy from a child had been brought up religiously as a Jew, yet now it was an offence that he should continue uncircumcised.
20 Therefore he might have been exempt by the Apostles' decree. St. Paul, however, having carried his point in securing the immunity of the Gentile converts, did not care to insist upon this in behalf of Timothy.
21 Our author correctly apprehends the ground on which Paul circumcised Timothy-an act which has often been thought to be inconsistent with his steadfast resistance to the imposition of the Jewish law. It is noticeable that he did not allow Titus to be circumcised (Gal. ii. 3) when the Jewish-Christian faction desired it. The two cases are materially different in the following particulars: (1) Titus was a Gentile; Timothy was born of a Jewish mother. (2) The circumcision of Titus was demanded by the Judaizers; that of Timothy was performed for prudential reasons as a concession to unbelieving Jews in order that Paul might the better win them to Christ. (3) The question of circumcising Titus was a doctrinal question which was not the case in the instance before us. Meyer well says: "Paul acted according to the principle of wise and conciliatory accommodation, not out of concession to the Judaistic dogma of the necessity of circumcision for obtaining the Messianic salvation."-G. B. S.
22 A. b.c. Cat. eij authn thn rizan thj Makedoniaj egeneto (Cat. egenonto). Ook aei (Cat., ouk an ei) kata parocusmon enhrdhse to IIn. to #A. The former sentence may possibly mean, that Philippi became the root of the Churches in Macedonia. But it is more probable that the text is mutilated here, and that Chrys. speaks of the parting of Paul and Barnabas, as having become the very root or cause of the extension of the Gospel (into Macedonia and Greece). In the next sentence, the reading of Cat. may perhaps deserve the preference. "Not, if (they had parted) in a state of exasperation, would the Holy Ghost have (thus) wrought."-Mod. text "And besides, even the voyage showed this: for there was no long time ere they arrive at the very root of Macedonia (oqen eij <\=85_paraginontai). So that the sharp contention is providentially ordered to be for the best. For (otherwise) the Holy Ghost would not have wrought, Macedonia would not have received the Word. But this so rapid progress," etc.
23 kai panta kaloumen. Mod. text substitutes the proverbial expression, kai panta kalwn kinoumen, "we put every rope in motion," which is hardly suitable here, and not at all necessary. "We call to our aid horse-feeders, and doctors, and every one else who can help us."
24 Our mss. have alogwn: Savile (from N.?) lagwn, which we adopt.
25 kai suretai xamai kaqaper paidion, kai asxhmonei muria: this cannot be meant for the horse, but for the rider. Perhaps kai oudeij, kan suretai k t. l.
26 kai to but Sav. Marg. kai tw mh kreittona xrhmatwn einai: some slight emendation is necessary, but it is not clear whether it should be, kai mh tw. ..."and not to his being above wealth:" i.e. good in spite of his riches: or kai to mh ...with some verb supplied, i.e. "and make it a reproach to him that (though a good man) he is not above riches," seeing he does not abandon his wealth.-Mod. text kai tw mh endea xrhmatwn einai:
27 mallon meta thj poreiaj kai kosmw kekoshmenoj numfikw: o de epikaq. k. t. l. The passage is corrupt: perhaps, as in the Translation, it should be mallon h numfikw, but this as a description of the horse is evidently out of place. For por., we read xoreiaj as in mod. text (which has kai meta thj xoreiaj kosmw kek. h numfikw.) Then transposing this, we read o de epikaq., meta thj xor., kai.-Below, b.c. an skoliazh: A. and mod. text askwliazh-alluding to the game of leaping on greased bladders or skins, unctos salire per utres; which does not suit twn xwlwn.
1 mss. and Edd. place ou en. proseuxh einai after apo tou topou, so that it reads, "See Paul again judaizing both from the time and from the place." Chrys. here explains the enomizeto (in the sense "was thought"): viz. St. Paul expected to find a congregation assembled for prayer, both because the place was set apart for that purpose, and because it was the sabbath.
2 Two variations of text occur in v. 13, which materially affect the meaning. Modern critics read pulhj St. polewj-"they went outside the gate" and enomizomen instead of enomizeto-"where we supposed there was a place of prayer." (So b.c. ).
R.V., Tischendorf, Westcott and Hort.) If the reading enomizeto is retained, it more probably means; "where a place of prayer was wont to be" rather than (as Chrys.) "where, it was thought, that prayer would be." The proseuxai were places of prayer situated often in the open air, and chosen in the neighborhood of streams on account of the custom of washing the hands before prayer. They served the purposes of synagogues in places where they did not exist.-G.B.S.
3 all= autouj afhke kuriouj einai, kai. Mod. text, ouk afhke k. e. alla kai.
4 =Alla di oikonomian epoioun. B. Cat. "their seeming reluctance was `economy.0'" A. C., #Ola di oik. ep. Mod. text, Wste panta di oik. ep.
5 Most critical editions read in v. 16. puqwna st. puqwnoj (following A. b.c. )
). In this case the word is in apposition with pneuma and has the force of an adjective, "having a Pythonic spirit," in allusion to the serpent which was said to have guarded Delphi and to have been slain by Apollo. From this feat the God was called Pythius, and in his temple the priestess was called "the Pythian," as being inspired by Apollo. Hence the term became equivalent to a daimonion mantlkon. In later times the power of the ventriloquist was attributed to such a Pythonic spirit (as by Plutarch) and the LXX. render the word bw)
by eggastrimuqoj in accordance with this view. Meyer maintains that this damsel had the power of ventriloquism which the people attributed to a pneuma puqwna. The apostle did not share this opinion but treated the case as one of demoniacal possession.-G. B. S.
6 B. and Cat. ebouleto loipon aciopiston eauton (B. auton) poiein. The other mss. ebouleto (ebouleueto A.C.) gar mh ac. auton poiein: wished to make him (Paul) not credible. That the former is the true reading, is shown by what follows: ina sthsh ta uper eautou: i.e., to gain credit with the believers in order to deceive them afterwards. In the next clause, we read with Cat. and Sav. ta kaq= eautou, our mss. eautouj, and so the other Edd.
7 The scribe has copied the parts in the order 1, 3, 5: 2, 4, 6. See p. 213, note 5.
8 Edd. have 'Epeidh gar, and join this sentence with the following. The compiler of the Catena perceived that the Recapitulation begins with the next sentence, which he therefore ves to v. 13, though he repeats it wrongly under v. 24.-Mod. text, inserts the 'All\ idwmen k. t. l. before Gnuh, f., porfuropwlij.
9 This is the first recorded instance of the persecution of Christians by the Roman power. Hitherto the persecutions have proceeded from the Jews and here it is inflicted upon the Christians because they are considered to be Jews who were now under special disfavor, having been shortly before banished from Rome by Claudius.-G.B.S.
10 Here mod. text. "But let us look over again what has been said. `A woman,0' it says, `a seller of purple,0'" etc.
11 mss. and Edd. to gar khruttein ouk anqrwpwn alla IIn. 'Epei oun alazonikwj epoioun bowntej k. t. l. The passage needs emendation. We read ouk for oun. "They did not catch at praise, least of all from a demon: for they were no braggarts, knowing that the power to preach was not of men," etc.
12 ina meizonoj qaumatoj aitioi genwntai. B. Cat. Sav. marg. The other mss. read ina meizonoj acioi qaum. g., "They forbear to answer, so as to become worthy of more admiration." Hence this clause has been transposed. We refer it to v. 23. "The magistrates give order for their safe custody, thereby becoming the means of a greater miracle."
13 b.c., kai xwrij thj alhqeiaj, en autw tw pragmati. A. and mod. text, kai x. thj bohqeiaj autw. tw. pr., "even without the Divine succour, even though that had been withheld, yet their sufferings were ipso facto a benefit." But this alteration is not necessary. "Even apart from the Truth which they preached,-irrespectively of the fact that they were preachers of the Truth-their sufferings were a benefit. Even though they were deceived, and not preachers of the Truth, they gained by suffering: it made them strong," etc.
14 As no "secondly" follows this "first," the scribes have supplied the seeming deficiency: thus N. (Sav. marg.) prwton men oti to swma anepithdeion proj panta kai ekneneurismenon esti: deuteron de oti kai-. Mod. text IIr. men gar tou toioutou to swma auto ekluton kai pepladhkoj: epeita kai-.
15 Mod. text, "his eyes watery, his mouth smelling of wine." It is evident that Chrys. is very imperfectly reported here.
16 tefra kai konij ginetai. Unless there be an hiatus here, the meaning is, he has no more solidity in him than so much ashes and dust.
17 Mod. text, proj docan monon, proj hdonhn: "but only to vainglory, to pleasure."
18 poiei antouj bruxein kai wmodian (r. wmwdian). In Jer. xxxi. (Gr. xxxviii.) 29, the phrase is odontej twn teknwn hmwdiasan and so Hippocrat. uses the verb. aimwdian. But as Ed. Par. Ben. 2, remarks, the passage of Jer. is sometimes cited with wmwdiasan; Synops. Athanas. t. ii. 167. Isidor. Pelus. iv. Ep. 4.
19 Here, Edd. before Par. Ben. 2, adopt the amplified peroration of D. F. "Covetings, wrath, envyings, strifes, grudgings, emulations, and all the other passions. In these we ought to aim at being inactive, and with all earnestness to do the work of the virtues, that we may attain," etc.