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19 i. e. as exercised in coming to the font. Field proposes to soften the strong expression by reading, "it was by no natural necessity that He put, etc., but by freedom of choice He placed it."

20 to xrhston for ton Xriston Field, with the Catena and the Version of Musculus.

21 hleifen, v. p. 170, n. Sav. eilhfen.

22 See Ernesti in v. paragwgh.

23 The Plutus evidently in his mind.

24 This was not uncommon in warmer climates, Euseb. ii. 17.

25 eggelasetai mss., "he will be laughed at" or rather "she (the supposed spectator) will laugh at him." Field reads egelasate with one or two Mss., and alters the punctuation; so that the passage will run "exposing, etc., even if his wife be there .... or anybody else. Do you laugh heartily? Then let us bring before you," etc.

1 So St. Chrysostom reads, as appears from his Commentary on this passage.

2 Sav. taj men gar allaj apokteinanta, seauton anelein estin; to give this sense we should punctuate taj men gar allaj, apokt. eauton, anelein estin.

3 katecanistatai. The word used in the last Homily for the conduct of the covetous towards the poor. See p. 439.

4 See Gal. v. 25, where "live" means "have life," and is distinguished from "walk."

5 Or the command of it, ecousian.

6 uperbainein means to go beyond as well as to go against. He refers to such things as St. Paul's refusing sustenance from the Achaeans. 1 Cor. ix. 4, etc. The tenses prove this to be St. Chrysostom's meaning.

7 i. e. the Syriac, which the Hebrew means in the N. T. probably in all cases-it being then the language of the Hebrews.

8 Col. iii. 3. Ver. 4. confirms his application of it.

9 Perhaps alluding to Il. xv. 362.

10 Chrysostom's interpretation of h ktisij is undoubtedly correct in principle, although he probably gives to it too general an idea in calling it "this whole world"-reaching "even to things without sense also." It is more likely that the apostle has in mind distinctively the irrational creation. (So Meyer, Godet, Thayer, Dwight). Nature is subject to "vanity"-i. e. the law of decay and death, and is poetically spoken of as awaiting the revelation of the sons of God in the hope of sharing in it. The apostle explains that the ktisij was placed in this condition not of its own accord but on account of the will of God, who, however, subjected it to the forces of decay and death on the ground of hope. Hope was the attendant condition of this subjection which took place in consequence of the fall. Hence this condition is not final and the creation desires and groans to be delivered and to share in the "manifestation of the sons of God"-the revelation of them in their true character in the presence of the universe at the coming of Christ.-G. B. S.

11 fatnwmata, Heb. twry#&a

Amos viii. 3. LXX. Hesych. sanidwmata. See Schleusner, Lex. Gr. Vet. Test. for conjectures to account for the translation.

12 Eng. "shall vanish away like smoke." LXX. render wxlmg

esterewqh, they give the same for h+n

Is. xlv. 12.

13 dia thn. St. Chrysostom does not mean to say that one preposition is used for another, as his illustration shows. For the liberty of the sons of God is both the thing of which the creation partakes, and the cause of its partaking; so that the one is put in a sense which implies the other too.

14 apolutrwsin. In the meaning of this word sometimes the manner, and sometimes the completeness of redemption predominates; see Rom. iii. 24, p. 377.

15 lutrwsij, showing that the completeness is implied in the preposition, which should be observed in the doctrinal use of the term.

16 This blending of faith and hope illustrates the connection of faith and love, the Object of love being now known by faith, and appropriated by hope. The personification which follows is a powerful way of representing that in us which apprehends God as itself His gift.

17 So the mss. and Catena: the old reading was ou proshsetai, "will it not satisfy."

18 Magna est vis Graeci verbi sunantilambanesqai, said Calvin. The word means: "takes hold together with us, as if on the other side or as if instead of us" (Godet). The notion of lifting the other end of a burden, or perhaps, of taking hold of it in our place, seems to lie at the basis of this expressive word. Cf. Luke x. 40.-G. B. S.

19 These words show that St. Chrysostom does not mean that we do any good unaided, however much he insists on the freedom of our will.

20 See Bishop Bull, Serm. V. who discusses what this was.

21 St. Ambrose, Epist. 36, gives the same interpretation.

22 The peculiar position of the negative resembles that in Eur. Hec. 1131 (al. 1149), in alloj mh tij eideih tade.

23 6 mss. with glorying, i. e. with something good done on man's part.

24 entreyai perhaps "to urge him to compassion;" (there is no pronoun with this verb).

25 So all mss. but one, and that is obviously an emendation: both the passages cited are from Isaiah.

26 All mss. read kan di argian kan dia raqumian, which order agrees with the stronger sense here given to raqumia: "listlessness" is generally too little expressive of that readiness to yield to temptations which this word implies. But 1 Ms. reads "rather all through vice," kakian, which tends to give the other word a lighter sense.

27 6 mss. pres., and so all just above.

28 Or lives, but see above, p. 433, where the spirit seems to be considered apart from the soul.

29 See St. Augustin's Confessions, p. 250, Oxf. Tr. Clem. Recog. iii. 75; Aristot. Metaph. p. 997; 15, p. 1071, 23, Bekker.

30 liqokollhta, v. Jungerm. ad Polluc. x. 145, V. l. xrusokollhta.

31 Night being put for the time of our sojourn here. Cf. Rom. xiii. 12.

32 Several mss. "which is more precious than the Heavens themselves."

1 See p. 447, and on 2 Cor. xii. 7, Hom. 26, p. 294 O. T.

2 kai en toutoij dialampei to kalon, Eth. i. 2. "even in these (misfortunes) the noble character shines forth."

3 The word His perhaps rightly inserted in our version, is not in the Greek, and Theodoret seems not have taken it so; he says, "for he calleth not any as it may be (aplwj), but those who have a purpose" (a predisposition), proqesin, and so does St. Chrysostom below, and Oecumenius. See on Eph. i. 11. Hom. ii. p. 112 O. T. and note. St. Augustin rejects this exposition and adopts that of our version, Ad Bonif. l. ii. §22, De Corr. et. Gr. §23.

4 suggeneian, but Mar. and 6 mss. eug. nobility.

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