Early Church Fathers
1 Or feel they need an effort enagwniouj. See on Rom. xi. 21 p. 349.
2 For h ei mh tonto, E. gives (as emendation) eita palin, and ekeiqen, for apo 'Arabiaj, but retains the h ei mh touto of the preceding clause, which equally needs correction.
3 Near the end of Hom. 19, we have kan adikonmenw perituxh prosthsetai, which proves that he takes the word in the sense here given. "Unless," added by Ben. and 2 mss. "he do it with diligence and zeal."
4 penia here seems distinguished from ptwxeia, as in the Plutus.
5 Viz. in composition.
6 apokaradokia, Rom. viii. 19.
7 apekdexomenoi, Rom. viii. 23.
8 apolutrwsij Rom. viii. 23, see ad loc. Hom. xiv. p. 445.
9 Chrys. evidently takes prohgoqmenoi (10) in the sense of excelling; others understand the word temporally and render anticipating. The word (hapaxl.) is better taken as in our vss. preferring, 1. e. "going before, as guides, namely, with the conduct which incites others to follow," (Meyer).-G. B. S.
10 A.V. not slothful in business; R. V. In diligence not slothful.
11 Here the mss. and vss. vary between tw kuriw and tw kairw (v. 11). The latter text gives the idea of serving the time or adapting one's self to the opportunity. and is adopted by many (as Meyer, Godet) on the ground that the precept: serving the Lord is too general to be in point here among these specific exhortations. The mss. evidence for tw kuriw, however is too strong to be overthrown by a consideration so subjective ()e
12 St. Chrysostom (on 2 Tim. i. 16, p. 189 O. T.) adopts and argues on the reading, mneiaij, for which there is some authority. See Brit. Crit. No. LI. pp. 80, 81.
13 katadiwkein. lit. hunt them down.
14 So Field: the passage is corrupt in the mss. Vulg. "As did Abraham also then with largeness and ready mind. And on this ground he deserves one's admiration most, that when," etc.
15 Some mss. add, "first of all men."
16 Or "dealt kindly with him."
1 toij tapeinoij is best taken here as neuter (Meyer, De Wette, R. V.) corresponding in this respect to ta uyhla. Meyer renders and interprets thus: "being drawn onward by the lowly; i.e. instead of following the impulse to high things. rather yielding to that which is humble, to the claims and tasks which are presented to you by the humbler relations of life, entering into this impulse towards the lower strata and spheres of life which lays claim to you, and following it. The tapeina ought to have for the Christian a force of attraction in virtue of which he yields himself to fellowship with them and allows himself to be guided by them in the determination of his conduct." Those who understand tapeinoij as masculine are divided between the meanings: of low rank and of humble disposition. Chrys.' interpretation combines both ideas.-G. B. S.
2 antidosewj. It means a recompense upon the other.
3 Most mss. omit "he would not. . ...fed."
4 mikroyuxoj, Ed. Ben. quotes St. Bas. Ep. 74 and St. Ath. t. i. p. 142 a and 152 f. Hist. tracts pp. 41 and marg., 55, to show that this word may be used in the sense of "malicious." It sometimes means "niggardly," both being characteristics of a little mind. v. p. 106 and 373.
5 The meaning which is here attached to the expression: thou shalt heap coals of fire upon his head, viz.: thou shalt bring the divine vengeance upon him, is very improbable. Such a consideration could not be urged as a motive of Christian love. Augustin well says: "How does any one love the man to whom he gives food and drink for the very purpose of heaping coals of fire upon his head, if `coals of fire0' in this place dignify some heavy punishment?" The meaning is: thou shalt by returning good for evil, bring the evildoer to shame and remorse. This course will be the dictate of Christian love because it will tend to reveal the man's wrong-doing to himself, induce repentance for it and lead him to forsake it. The repentance of Saul is an example (1 Sam. xxiv. 17). "And Saul lifted up his voice and wept. And he said: thou art more righteous than I: for thou hast rendered unto me good, whereas I have rendered unto thee evil."-G. B. S.
6 It may be objected that St. Paul was not speaking to a person in a rage, but generally to all. However, it is plain that the admonition is meant for those who want it. And there are many people who justify themselves in bearing malice, so as to require such management even in a general admonition.
7 The Fathers generally believed the devils were connected with idol-worship. See Tertullian de Spectac. p. 202 O. W. St. Augustin de Civ. Dei, i. 32, etc. Clem. Al. Protr. c. 3.
1 The distinction which Chrys. carries through his interpretation of this passage on human government, between authority in abstracto and in concreto belongs rather to a philosophical treatment of the subject than to an exposition of the apostle's language. The use of general terms like ecousia and ousia cannot have been designed to leave room for concrete exceptions since the apostle blends general and specific terms throughout the passage [arxontej (3) qeou diakonoj (4)]. The question of obeying unjust rulers and supporting the "powers" in unjust measures, the apostle does not raise.He is stating a general principle and he says nothing of exceptions. His language does not exclude the possibility of exceptions when the reign of rulers becomes clearly subversive of moral order and opposed to the principles of the divine government.-G. B. S
2 See 1 Cor. vii. 21; Col. iii. 22; Tim. vi. 2. Slavery is clearly recognized as a lawful state of life, appointed by Providence, andin Col. iv. 1, is shown to have a typical meaning; this does not necessarily imply the common opinion of the Greeks (Ar. Pol. i. 1), that there is a natural distinction of men into the free and the slavish.
3 Most mss. omit "and honoring."
4 Or Deacon; the Coronation Service illustrates the sacred view of the kingly office; as by the use of the Dalmatic (sect. x.), which belongs also to Deacons; see Palmer, Or. Lit. append. sect. iv.
5 Compare Butler, Analogy 1, 2, and Arist. Eth. v. 1. "The law commands to do the acts of a brave man, such as not quitting one's post, not flying, not throwing away one's arms. And those of a sober man, as not to commit adultery, or to insult any one. And those of a meek person, as not to strike, not to defame; and so with other virtues and vices, ..." Where he means that the law cannot enforce the character but can demand the acts, and is so far drawing man towards what is suitable to his nature. Butler shows that this is a part of God's moral government.
6 Arist. Eth. viii. 8, "The political union of men seems to have been first formed for advantage, and for this it is upheld." See Pol. i. 2, where he says of it, that "it is formed that men may live, but is (in the nature of things) that they may live well."
7 St. Augustin de Civ. Dei, xix. 17, writes, "But the heavenly city, or rather that part of it which sojourneth in this mortal state, and liveth by faith, must likewise make use of this kind of peace, till that mortality, for which such peace is needful, pass away." And xix. 26, he quotes Tim. ii. 2, and Jer. xxix. 7, to the same purpose.
8 tupwqeij, see p. 513, outwj etupwsen. The sense appears to be, "whose precise character in every form of government Himself determines."
9 Or "ye owe," it may seem that this is his sense, from "thou owest," but he would have it look the other way.
10 St. Chrysostom omits "Thou shalt not covet." Many mss. of the New Testament omit "Thou shalt not hear false witness," but all known mss. of St. Chrysostom have it, as well as the printed copies.
11 anakefalaioutai, see p. 472, note 3.