Early Church Fathers
6 allotrion, which means either "alien," or "another man's."
7 So LXX. Cod. Alex. Theodoret in loc. makes David herein a type of Christ.
8 Prov. xviii. 17, LXX. and Vulg. Our version is, "He that is first in his own cause seemeth just." The text is much quoted by the Fathers, as Hil. in Ps. cxxxv.
9 See a remarkable form in use in China on the occasion of such calamities, Windischman, Philos. im fortgang der Weltgeschichte, i. p. 29.
10 Prov. xii. 10, LXX. Know occurs in Exod. xxiii. 9, for "enter into the feelings of."
11 korufaiw. The common title of St. Peter among the Fathers.
1 "That, as Chrys., Calvin, Grotius, and many, including Rückert and Olshauseu assume, Paul intended `courteously and gently0' (Luther) to suggest to the Romans that they should likewise bestow alms on those at Jerusalem, is very improbable, inasmuch as no reason is perceivable why he should not have ventured on a direct summons, and seeing, moreover, that he looked upon the work of collection as concluded, ver. 25," Meyer.-G. B. S.
2 leitourgia, in Classical Greek, is performing a public service at one's own expense.
3 2 Cor. ix. 5. Mosheim de Rebus Christianorum ante Const. p. 118, also Diss. ad Hist. Eccl. pert. vol. 2, 1. St. Chrys. speaks at length of wealth on 1 Cor. xiv. 19, Hom. 35, p 499, O. T. He thinks it lawful, but dangerous, and recommends alms almost without limitation.
4 A. V. bounty, but margin, blessing.
5 It is certain that Chrys. is incorrect in his interpretation of the statement: "When I come unto you I shall come in the fulness of the blessing of the Gospel of Christ." (29.) The meaning is not that he shall find them abounding in this blessing, but that he (Paul) will come to them furnished with the fulness of this blessing. The joyful hopes of Paul respecting his journey to Rome and labors there, were not, indeed, wholly thwarted, but how different were the experiences of his journey and life there from what he had expected. He went thither a prisoner and such missionary labors as he was permitted to perform were accomplished while he was kept in ward by the civil authorities of Rome. And, yet, notwithstanding these hardships, who can doubt that his prayer was answered? He found joy in the saints at Rome who came out from the city as far as Appii Forum and the Three Taverns to welcome him (Acts xxviii. 15); he was permitted for two years, at least, to occupy his own hired house and freely to "preach the kingdom of God and teach the things concerning the Lord Jesus Christ with all boldness, none forbidding him" (Acts xxviii. 30, Acts xxviii. 31); this preaching was crowned with signal success extending to the conversion of some of the members of Caesar's household (Phil. iv. 22). It is propable that we owe to this same period of imprisonment at Rome the four epistles to the Colossians, Ephesians, Philemon, and Philippians; if so, we have in them a reflection of the manifold activities and profound spiritual experiences of the apostle during his stay in Rome which constitute a genuine providential fulfilment of his desires, although it proved that as in the case of an earlier visit to Jerusalem, he went not knowing, the things that should befall him there (Acts xx. 22).-G. B. S.
6 2 mss. add, So directing them to do this.
7 See Bingham, b. ii. c. 22, for a full account of the office of the widows, deaconesses, etc., also Cave, Prim. Christ. part i. c. 8. Theodoret thinks it a sign of there being a considerable Church at Cenchrea, that they had a deaconess there.
8 sulleitourgouj. Afterwards the common term by which Bishops spoke of each other. As the Nicene Fathers of Alexander. Ep. Synod. v. fin. Theod. i. 9.
9 By "the church in the house" of Priscilla and Aquila, Chrys. understands the pious family which constituted the household. Such was the view of many of the older interpreters. The more probable view is that the "churches in the houses" (cf. 1 Cor. xvi. 19; Col. iv. 15; Philem. 2) were assemblies of a part of the collective church of the city, formed for the sake of convenience of meeting, especially in the largest towns. There is no reason to believe that all the persons named below were members of the household-church of Priscilla and Aquila.-G. B. S.
10 Omitted by most mss.
11 thn proj ton xorton filoneikian. See Matt. vi. 30; Luke xii. 28; Clem. Al. (Port.) p. 232.
12 katanucai, see p. 487, and p. 448.
13 See the use made of such recollections at the close of the 32d Homily.
14 He seems to have some place at Antioch in his mind, but we do not know that St. Paul was ever hound there.
15 filosofian, he means their simple habits; as in keeping: sheep, and the character perhaps implied in Moses' choice.
16 kataklan, Phryn. ap Bek. Anec. p. 45.
17 The remaining leaves of the Bodl. ms. are lost.
18 periderraiwn thus spelt. Jul. Poll. 5, 56.
1 So mss. Ben. Sav. entolhj.
2 Stallbaum ad Plat. Phileb. 74.
3 See the Introduction to Boyle's Reflections, where this is beautifully applied to the improvement of all fragments of time by meditation.
4 Such as the Manichees, see St. Aug. Conf. p. 340, O. T. note at the end, and Marcion. Tert. adv. M. lib. 4.
5 This was done by his relies. St. Chrys. Hom. 1 ad Pop. Ant. §2, on the Statues, p. 4, O. T.
6 A raised place in which the Clergy were, v. Suicer, and Bingham, b. viii. c. 6, §1, and 9-12.
7 Or "Teaching of the word." tou thj logou thj didaskaliaj, but we have tou logou thj paraklhsewj, Heb. xiii. 22. The word of Exhortation.
8 St. C. does not seem to be here alluding to the former, but to the latter part of this very difficult passage. The most comprehensive view of it, on this interpretation, seems to be, that Christ has so hallowed all pain, that it has a saving influence in it: yet not in such wise saving, that the bearing of the great pain and peril of childbearing will atone for the neglect of the after labors of education. See Marlorate and Corn. a Lapide. in loc. The whole interpretation is questionable. Theoph. mentions some who take the words "the childbearing" of the birth of our Lord, which he rejects as not agreeing with what follows. But Estius justly observes, that the "abiding," etc. may be better applied to the man and wife.
9 St Chrys. takes the word in its literal sense of a captive in war. If so meant it might be figurative, but it most likely refers either to an imprisonment, or to what he speaks of Cor. xi. 26, as perils from robbers.
10 Lit. "far more like a prisoner"-for Field reads aixmalwtotera for xalepwtera.
11 St. Chrys. on 2 Cor. viii. 23, p. 215. O. T. and Phil. ii. 25, p. 104 O. T. takes this word to mean messengers of the Churches. Theodoret, on Phil. ii. 25, takes it to mean "Bishop," as on 1 Tim. ii. 8, he says, "they then called the same persons Bishops and Elders, but those who are now called Bishops they named Apostles." St. Chrys. Hom. in St. Ignat. call him an Apostle.
12 Hammond reads the name Junias, and supposes a man to be intended.
13 It is impossible to determine with certainty whether epiohmoi en toij apostoloij (7) means that the persons referred to were themselves apostles, or merely that they were held in high esteem by the apostles. The interpretation of Chrys. (the former) is possible both in point of language and in view of the fact that apostoloi embraced more than the twelve in N. T. usage, e. g. Paul, Barnabas, and probably, James, the Lord's Brother (Gal. i. 19) (so Tholuck, Rückert, Ewald). The more probable view is that Andronicus and Junias [not Junia as Chrys., certainly not if his interpretation is correct; that a woman should have been an apostle is out of the question] are designated as distinguished, honorably known among (by) the apostles. (So De Wette, Philippi, Holmann, Meyer).-G. B. S.