Early Church Fathers
9 Thn aitian thj oyewj fhsin. b.c. Sav. marg. meaning, That his face was as the face of an angel was caused by the glory of Christ which he now beholds. The modern text omits this, having said the same thing above in the words apo touton, see note 4, p. 112.
10 Ben. after Morel. from E. without notice of the true reading (A. b.c. N. Cat.), received by Savile, has: #Oqen qeioj auton kai o qanatoj gegone. Mexri gar toutou sugkexwrhto taij yuxaij en tw adh einai. (The latter part is adopted also by D. F.) "Whence also his death became divine. For until this time it had been granted to the souls to be in Hades." This comment is derived from St. Cyril. Al. from whom the Catena cites: "Since we are justified by faith in Him ...He hath wrought a new thing for us, to mhketi men eij adou trexein taj twn swmatwn apallattomenaj yuxaj kaqa kai prwhn, pempesqai de mallon eij xeiraj Qeou zwntoj: that our souls, on their deliverance from our bodies, no longer as aforetime haste into Hades, but are conveyed into the hands of the Living God. And knowing this, Saint Stephen said, "Lord Jesus receive my spirit." Oecumen, repeats this, almost in the same words.
11 In the old text, v. 4-10, are given continuously, and v. 11-19; between them the brief comments which we have restored to their proper places, viz. here and after v. 15: and after v. 19, the comment which we have placed after v. 17. In the modern text, the first comment (omitting legwn einai k. t. l.) is placed after v. 10; in the second, the words, kai shmeia megala egeneto, are omitted; the rest is given after v. 19.
12 The modern text E. F. D. Edd. "But although the persecution then most gained strength, nevertheless God again delivered them, epiteixisaj autoij ta shmeia. Stephen's death, however, did not quench their rage, nay, increased it rather, wherefore also the teachers, etc. But observe again how good things take their turn with them, and how they are in joy. `For there was great joy,0' it says, `in that city.0' And yet there had also been `great lamentation.0' Thus is God ever wont to do, and to temper things grievous with things joyful, that He may be more held in admiration. But of a long time had this disease been upon Simon; wherefore not even thus is he rid of it." But in the genuine text, (A. b.c. N. Cat. ad. v. 15-17, and 3, 4.) the subject to eceileto and epeteixise is not Qeoj, but diwguoj: and the persons delivered are not the disciples, but the Samaritans, described as prokatexomenoi, viz. under the influence of Simon's sorceries. In the last sentence, the meaning is entirely mistaken: for the noshma is the infatuation of the Samaritans, not the wickedness of Simon.-'Epeteixise gar autoij ta shmeia can hardly be rendered without an awkward periphrasis: epiteix. ti tini, a phrase frequently used by St. Chrys., means to raise up something against a person as an epiteixisma, (as Decelea in Attica against the Athenians in the Peloponnesian war:) see Mr. Field's Index to Hom. in Matt.
13 So A. b.c. N. Cat. Of the Edd., Savile alone retains this clause, the rest follow the mod. text, which rejects it. And indeed it can hardly be doubted, that St. Chrys. himself would have expunged, or altered this statement, had he revised these Homilies: for in the next Hom. he shows that the Philip of vv. 26 ff. was certainly not the Apostle, but probably one of the seven deacons. The fact seems to be, that having had no occasion until now to discuss this question, he had assumed (as others had done before him) that the Philip of the Eunuch's history was the Apostle of that name: thus in Hom. ad Gen. xxxv. §2 (delivered but a few years before), he takes this for granted. Here, however, he perceives that the Philip who preached at Samaria could not be the Apostle: but at present he is still under the impression, that the person by whom the Eunuch was converted was St. Philip the Apostle, and accordingly speaks as in the text, "This Philip, I take it, was one of the Seven; he of the story of the Eunuch was one of the Apostles." Of course it was impossible on a review of the circumstances to rest in this conclusion; and in the very beginning of the next Homily he tacitly revokes the notion here advanced, and points out how the command, "Arise, and go to the south," must have been addressed to Philip in Samaria (the deacon), and not Philip the Apostle in Jerusalem. (See the note there.) The early writers frequently confound the Philip of this chapter (the deacon and evangelist, Acts xxi. 9, with the Apostle: Polycrates ap. Eus. H. E. iii. 30, and v. 24, (see Vales and Heinichen on the former passage.) Const. Apol. vi. 7. S. Clementine Strom. iii. p. 192. Comp. St. Augustin Serm. 266. §5.-S. Isadore of Pelusium, Ep. 448, in reply to a correspondent who was not satisfied with his statement (Ep 447), that "Philip who baptized the Eunuch and catechized Simon was not the Apostle, but one of the Seven," and requested proof from Scripture ('Epeidh kai marturian zhteij gpafikhn ...'Epeidh pollown apodeicewn eraj,) bids him observe, ch. viii. 1. that the Apostles remained at Jerusalem: that Philip the Apostle would have been competent to impart the gift of the Spirit: and further suggests, that Philip the deacon, fleeing from the persecution, was on his way through Samaria to Caesarea his native place, (where we afterwards find him xxi. 9), when these events befell, viz. the preaching, etc., at Samaria, and the conversion of the Eunuch.-In the next sentence, ekeinoi (i.e. the Apostles) ouk echesan: wkonomhqh toutouj (i.e. Philip the deacon and others) ecelqein: kai ekeinouj (the Apostles) usterhsai: "should come after," or rather, "should be lacking, be behindhand, not be forthcoming (at the time):" but Cat. kai ekeinouj eterwj, "and those (the Apostles) otherwise."-The modern text, after "next to Stephen," proceeds thus: "Wherefore also, when baptizing, he did not impart the Spirit to the baptized, for neither had he authority to do so, since the gift belonged only to the Twelve. But observe; those went not forth; it was Providentially ordered that these should go forth, oi kai usteroun thj xaritoj dia to mhpw labein Pn. #A., who were deficient in the grace because they had not et received the Holy Ghost. For they received power, etc. Consequently, this was the prerogative of the Apostles."
14 Kai ora touj korufaiouj ouk allouj tinaj alla Petron. b.c. D. F. N. Cat. but A. adds, seemingly from a marginal gloss, kai 'Iwannhn mhn, "and John, however," E. (Edd.) oten kai touj kor. ouk allouj tinaj estin idein touto poiountaj. "Whence also the leaders, not any others, are to be seen doing this."
15 Ouk an de eipen, A. B. D. F. ouk an didotai tote eipen, C. ouk an eiden, Cat. Sav. marg. iden N. Read, ouk an "idwn de" eipen.-E. ouk an outwj eipen.
16 Chrys. a propriately remarks that the word idwn (18) implies that there were visible manifestations connected with the gifts of the Spirit here spoken of. This would seem to show that when it said (16) that the Holy Spirit had not fallen upon any of the Samaritans. that the ordinary influences of the Spirit which accompany conversion, were not referred to, but some special and miraculous endowments such as the gift of tongues. and of prophecy and perhaps of miracles were meant.-G. B. S.
17 Kai touto afosiwsei (monon add. D. F.) epoiei, deon klausai kai penqhsai. Cat. afosiwmenwj, l. afosioumenwj "as a mere formal ceremony ominis causa."
18 What follows, to the end of the Exposition, has by some accident fallen into strange confusion. In the Translation we have endeavored to restore the proper order. In the first place it should be observed, that the portion beginning Oi men diamarturamenoi, p. 148. D. Ben and ending at ote prwton episteusan, p. 149. A. consisting of about 20 lines, is interchanged with the portion of about 25 lines, beginning Deon oun touton, and ending ekei tou apostolou, p 149, C. These being restored to their proper order, which is evident from the contents of the two portions, we have, to the end of the Recapitulation, two portions, dividing at ouk isxusen elein touj apostolouj (ecistato,) p. 148, B. the former beginning with the exposition of v. 4, the second with v. 7, and both ending at v. 24. These, it may be supposed, are two several and successive expositions. But it will be seen on comparing them, that each in itself is often abrupt and incomplete, and that their parts fit into each other in a way which can hardly be accidental. It may also be remarked, that the length of each is the same; each containing about 46 lines. We have marked the order of the mss. and Edd. by the letters a, b, prefixed to the several parts.
19 This sentence alone seems still to be out of its place. 'Epeidh de antisthnai ouk isxusen k. t. l. might be very fitly inserted in the passage below, ending ouk isx. elein t. ap. which is otherwise mutilated: see the note there.
20 Between this and the following sentence the mss. and Edd. give the exposition of v. 25.
21 Ei gar meta afeleiaj egineto, kai kan F.) apedecato (apedecanto C. F.) autou thn proqumian. b.c. F. The preceding sentence from (a) is kai mhn afelh edei einai. The connection being lost, this passage was not understood, and A. omits it, B. F. N. read asfaleiaj, and E. D. substitute, "If however he had come (proshlqen) as he ought to have come, he would have been received, he would not like a pest have been driven away."
22 #Ora auton miaron onta. The modern text (Edd.) alters the sense: ora pwj, kaitoi miaroj wn, omwj. "See how, miscreant though he is, nevertheless, etc."
23 Simon believed (13) only in an intellectual sense, being impressed with wonder, rather than convinced of sin. So, now, it is fear of calamity and penalty, not repentance, which leads him to ask the apostles to pray for him.-G. B. S.
24 Qewrwn autou ta shmeia, enomize dunasqai lanqanein: enomize texnhn einai to pragma: epeidh de ouk isxusen idein (Sav. marg. elein) touj apostolouj, ecistato kai proshlqen. A. b.c. This, which is the conclusion of (a), is both corrupt and defective. He is enlarging upon the miaria of Simon's conduct, as shown in the preceding ote hlegxqn ...ote palin hlegxqn: comp. the following sentence. It looks as if the sentence epeidh de antisthnai ouk isxusen k. t. l. must belong to this place. The reading elein t. ap. is probably the true one: oti ealw is twice said of Simon. Perhaps the passage may be restored somewhat thus: "Seeing his miracles, he was amazed, and came over." He thought to escape detection, he thought the thing was an art: but when he had not power to resist, he plays the hypocrite, as the magicians did, who said, "This is the finger of God. Having seen the Apostles," (hence the reading idein t. ap.) how by laying on of hands etc.; again he thought it was an art, he thought to purchase it with money: but when he was not able to defeat the Apostles (as it was said above, "he wished to get matter of accusation against them,") again he plays the hypocrite, and says, "Pray ye for me. etc."-Edd. from E. "Seeing signs wrought he was amazed, showing that all was a lie (on his part). It is not said, Proshlqen, but, 'Ecistato. And why did he not do the former at once? He thought to be able, etc. epeidh de ouk isxuse laqein t. ap., proshlqen."
25 allwj de, kai tupon autoij ededwkei tote, ote oi Samapeitai episteusan. A. B. D. F. Sav. marg. But C. "to rid them of magic, to put them in mind of the doctrine which they learned from Christ when first they believed:" which reading is adopted by E. and Edd.
26 The preaching of Philip in Samaria was the first Gentile mission, for the Samaritans were a mixed people and were regarded as heathen by the Jews. An interesting concatenation of events took its rise in the bold preaching of Stephen. On the one side there proceeded from this the increased opposition of the Jewish nation and the sad calamity of the preacher's own death, but on the other there flowed from this opposition and the persecution which was consequent upon it great benefit. The Christians were indeed scattered abroad by ill-treatment, but with them went the gospel message, and the great work of heathen missions dated directly back to the martyrdom of Stephen. Christian history furnishes no more impressive illustration of the saying of Tertullian: "The blood of martyrs is seed."-G. B. S.
27 In St. Chrysostom's time, little had been done for the conversion and instruction of the peasantry: hence in the latter half of the fourth century paganus came to be as synonymous with "heathen." Even Christian proprietors neglected their duty in this regard, while they improved their properties, and swelled their revenues by great oppression of their tenants and laborers : see Hom. in Matt. xliii., lxi. and at the same time connived at the practice of the old idolatries , for the sake of the dues accruing to them from the temples which still remained. Thus Zeno of Verona, Serm. xv. p. 120, complains: In proediis vestris fumantia undique sola fana non nostis, quoe, si vera dicenda sunt, dissimulanda subtiliter custoditis. Jus templorum ne quis vobis eripiat, quotidie litigatis. The Christianity which was outwardly professed in the country parts was often for want of Churches and Clergy little more than nominal: and the heathen orator Libanius, in his Oratio pro Templis, addressed to the Emperor Theodosius: perhaps did not greatly exaggerate in the following description: "When you are told , that through this proceeding on your part (viz. the destruction of the Temples and suppression of the sacrifices) many are become Christians, you must not forget to distinguish between show and reality . They are not a whit changed from what they were before: they only say they are so. They resort indeed to public acts of religion, and mingle themselves with the general body of Christians . But when they have a show of praying, they invoke either none or the Gods."-Moreover, the country clergy were often themselves ill-taught and needing instruction. Thus Hom. in Col. (t. xi. p. 392) delivered at Constantinople, Chrys. says: "How much instruction is needed by your brethren in the country, and by their teachers (kai touj ekeinwn didaskalouj)!" Which perhaps was the result of a law passed a.d. 398, Cod. Theodos. xvi. tit. 2 l. 33 which enacted, that the clergy for the Churches founded on states, or in villages, should be from no other state or village, but that to which the Church pertained: and of these a certain number, at the discretion of the bishop, according to the extent of the village, etc.-On the other hand, Chrys. "on the Statues," Or, xix. t. ii. p. 189 dwells with much delight on the virtues and patriarchal simplicity of the rural clergy in Syria, and the Christian attainments of their people.
28 9Wsanei gunaika agagwn h numfhn, h qugatera, th 'Ekkl. outw diakeiso. Before qug., A. B. F. N. insert kai, E. alone douj, and so Edd. Perhaps we may read wsanei numfh, h gun. ag., h douj qug.
29 "The first-fruits of corn and of grapes, or wine were presented as oblations at the Altar, and the elements for the Holy Eucharist thence taken. See Can. Apost. ii. Cod. Afr. c. 37. Concil. Trull. c. 28. In a Sermon of St. Chrys. on the Ascension, this peculiar usage is mentioned, that a handful of ears of corn in the beginning of harvest was brought to the Church, words of benediction spoken over them, and so the whole field was considered as blessed. #Oper ginetai epi twn pediwn twn staxuhforwn, oligouj tij staxuaj labwn, kai mikro/ dragma poihsaj kai prose/egkwn tw Qew, dia tou mikrou pasan thn arouran eulogei: outw kai o Xristoj k. t. l. (t. ii. 450. C.)" Neander.
30 dia se. Erasrm. propter te, Ben. pro te, but this would be uper sou, as below where this benefit is mentioned, uper tou kekthmenou.
31 aitai pleoneciaj. Edd. from E. itamouj: ta de entauqa pan tounantion. "make them forward and impudent. But here all is just the reverse." Below, wj eikona badizonta tou 'Abr. in the sense above expressed, as if it had been badizousan_. E. has eij for wj, "walking after the likeness:" and Sav. marg, eij oikon bad. meta ton 'Abr. "walking into his house after (the manner of) Abraham."
32 kai riyai eauton uption kai meta thn aiwran thn swmatikhn kai luxnikoij kai ewqinoij umnoij paragenesqai. This passage has perplexed scribes and editors. Aiwra "a swing, swinging bed, hammock," or, as here, "litter," or rather, "a swinging in such a conveyance: after the swinging motion in his litter, pleasant and healthful for the body." The meaning is: "without fatigue, lying at his ease on his back, he is borne to Church in his litter, and after this wholesome enjoyment for the body, gets good for his soul, in attending at evening and morning prayer. Ben. seipsumque projicere supinum, et past illam corpoream quietem: as if it related to taking rest in his bed, which is inconsistent with the scope of the description. Erasmus, et quiescere "in villa" securum, et habere "deambulationem" servientem corpori, "to sleep securely `in his villa.0' and to `take a walk0' which is good for the body." Neander simply, und sich niederzuwerfen, "to prostrate himself," (viz. on entering the Church)-overlooking both urtion and aiwran swm. Of the mss. A., for kai riyai k. t. l. substitutes, kai meta trofhn swm. "and after taking food for the body." C. ex corr. gives ewan for aiwran, F. wran, Sav. marg. "wran al. ewan:" both unmeaning: N. wran with two letters erased before it; and B. kai meta thn enathn wran thj swmatikhj metalabein trofhj kai en luxn., "and after the ninth hour to partake of the food for the body, and to attend at evening and morning hymns:" quoe lectio non spernenda videtur,' Ben. On the contrary, it is both needless and unsuitable, for the repast is mentioned afterwards. The "hymns" are the yalmoj epiluxnioj s. luxnikoj, ad incensum lucernoe, which was Psalm cxli. yalmoj ewqinoj, Psalm lxiii. St. Chrysost. in Psalm cxl. and Constit. Apost. ii. 59, viii. 37.
33 Sumbainei tiuaj ek yeitonwn oikein kai epitropouj exein. Sav. marg. legein. The meaning is not clearly expressed, but it seems to be this; "It chances that some important personage has an estate in your neighborhood, and occasionally resides there. His overseer informs him of your Church: he sends for your presbyter, invites him to his table, gains from him such information about your village, as he would never have acquired otherwise; for he thinks it beneath him even to call upon you. In this way, however, he learns that yours is a well-ordered village: and should any crime be committed in that part of the country by unknown persons no suspicion even wall light upon your people; no troublesome inquisition will be held, no fine or penalty levied on your estate." The v. 1. legein cannot be the true reading, but something of this sort must be supplied: oi kai legousin autw. It seems also that something is wanting between tinaj and ek geit. e. g. tinaj ek twn dunatwterwn ek geit. oikein.
34 olwj ei ouwtw poleij mh poihshj. Ben. Si omnino id facias, ne facias tamen. Neander, Wenn du so handelst, wirst du nichts thun, as if it were ou poihseij.
1 So all the mss. and the Catena: except E. which having already made Chrys. affirm that Philip was one of the seven. supra, p. 115, and note 1, gives a different turn to this passage. "It seems to me, that he received this command while in Samaria: because from Jerusalem one does not go southward, but to the north: but from Samaria it is to the south." An unnecessary comment; for it would hardly occur to any reader of the Acts to suppose that Philip had returned to Jerusalem.
2 "Behold, an eunuch (comp. p. 122, note 4), a barbarian-both circumstances calculated to make him indisposed to study -add to this, his dignified station and opulence: the very circumstance of his being on a journey, and riding in a chariot: for to a person travelling in this way, it is not easy to attend to reading, but on the contrary very troublesome: yet his strong desire and earnestness set aside all these hindrances," etc. Hom. in Gen. xxxv. §1. Throughout the exposition of the history of the eunuch there given (t. iv. p. 350-352) he is called a barbarian: so in the tenth of the "Eleven Homilies," §5, t. xii. 393, 394, he is called a "barbarian," and "alien," allofuloj, but also "a Jew:" all' oux o barbaroj tote ekeinoj tauta eipe (viz excuses for delaying baptism) kai tauta 'Ioudaioj wn k. t. l. i.e. as Matthai explains in l., "a Jewish proselyte." -Both expositions should be compared with this in the text.
3 akribeian. Below, oraj oti ta dogmata aphrtismena eixe. The 37th verse (Philip's answer and the Eunuch's confession) seems to have been absent from St. Chrysostom' copy (unless indeed it is implied in the passage just cited). It is found in Laud's Gr. and Lat. copy of the Acts, part is cited by St. Irenaeus p. 196. and part by St. Cypr. p. 318, but unknown to the other ancient authorities.
4 wste oun usteron auton qanmasqhnai, touto egeneto: i.e. as below, the eunuch saw that it was the work of God: it was done in order that he might not think oti anqrwpoj estin astin aplwj.-Edd. from E. "Why, it may be asked, did the Spirit of the Lord carry Philip away? Because he was to pass through other cities, and to preach the Gospel. Consequently this was done, etc. that he might not think what had happened to him was of man, but of God."
5 sunapelqein (Oec. sumparelqein) auta. As there is no auton, the meaning seems to be as above expressed, not, "would have desired Philip to go with him."
6 What follows is confused in the mss. and Edd., by transposition of the portions of text here marked a, b; and c, d: the order in the mss. being b, a, d. c, e.
7 Kai gar to twn pioteuontwn aciopiston ikanon autouj arai ei de epmmeinen (B. epemenon) ekei, poion to egklhma; Meaning, perhaps, that the character and station of such converts as the eunuch would weigh much with their countrymen (touj allofulouj). Though if the eunuch had stayed behind in Judea, who could have blamed him?-The modern text: "-sufficient to persuade the learners to be roused up themselves also to the same zeal."
8 euxerwj, ora meqÖ\ oshj afqoniaj. Cat. The mss. omit euxerwj. He means, angelic manifestations.
9 It is probable that this eunuch was an Ethiopian by birth and a Jewish proselyte. It was customary for such foreign proselytes, as well as for Jewish non-residents, to go up to Jerusalem to worship. Others suppose him to have been a Jew, resident in Ethiopia; but he is designated as "an Ethiopian." The fact that those in his condition were not admitted to full standing in the congregation of Israel (Deut. xxiii. 1) is not a sufficient reason for the opinion of Meyer that this man must have been an uncircumcised heathen-a "proselyte of the gate," since he could occupy the same relation as native Jews in his condition. Ethiopia lay to the S. of Egypt and Candace was queen of Meroe, the northern portion of the country. Eunuchs not only served as keepers of the harem but sometimes, as here, as royal treasurers.-G. B. S.
10 ti de ekwlusen panta auton akribwj maqein kai en tw oxhmati onta\ kai gar erhmoj hn kai ouk hn to pragma epideicij. We conjecture the first clause to be meant as the answer to an objection: How should Philip know all these particulars? It may indeed relate to the eunuch's accurate knowledge (akribeia) above mentioned, note 1. The latter part, however, seems to belong to v. 28 to which the Catena refers the mention of the xalepwtaton kauma.-Edd. (from E. alone), "Pray what hindered, say you, that he should learn all, even when in the chariot, and especially in the desert? Because the matter was not one of display. But let us look over again what has been read. And beholds," etc.
11 arpazei: but this, derived from v. 39 is not the right word here.-This, with the clause immediately preceding in the mss., is thus altered by the innovator (E. Edd.): "So little did P. know (outwj ouk hdei F.) for whose sake he was come into the desert: because also (oti kai, F. D. oqen) not now an Angel, but the Spirit bears him away. But the eunuch sees none of these things, being as yet not fully initiated (atelhj, imperfectus Ben.); or because also these things are not for the more bodily, but for the more spiritual: nor indeed does he learn the things which Philip is fully taught (ekdidasketai)."
12 !Idete (ide B.) to (ton N.) atufon. ouden lampron epefereto sxhma. Read to sxhma.-E. D. F. Edd., Eide and oude gar. Vidit illum esse a fastu alienum: neque enim splendidum gestabat vestitum. Ben. and similarly Erasm. as if the meaning were, "the eunuch saw there was no pride in Philip, for he had no splendid clothing." But it is the eunuch in whom this (to atufon) is praised, (see below, §4 init.) that he did not disdain Philip for the meanness of his appearance: comp. Hom. in Gen. xxxv. §2. "For when the Apostle (supra, p. 115, note 1) had said, "Knowest thou," and came up to him in mean attire (meta eutelouj sxhmatoj), the eunuch did not take it amiss, was not indignant, did not think himself insulted. ...but he, the man in great authority, the barbarian, the man riding in a chariot, besought him, the person of mean appearance, who might for his dress have easily been despised, to come up and sit with him," etc.
13 edeiknu boulomenon eipein. This seems meant to explain why the eunuch at once besought Philip to come up into the chariot: his running showed that he wished to say something.-E. Edd. "was a sign of his wishing to speak, and the reading (a sign) of his studiousness. For he was reading at a time when the sun makes the heat more violent."
14 The rendering of h de perioxh thj grafhj given in the text (A. V.) is also that of the R. V. Another interpretation is referred by many scholars: "the content of the Scripture" (grafh being used in the limited sense of the particular passage in question). This view harmonizes with the derivation of perioxh (periexel/) meaning an enclosure, or that which is enclosed. Irafh is also used in the limited sense in v. 35 (So, Meyer, Hackett, and Thayer's Lex.)
15 @H (N. om. Cat. to) olwj eidnai ooti allwj kai (om. C.) peri allwn legousin oi profhtai, h oti k. t. l. A. b.c. Cat. We read, to olwj eidenai h. ...But the modern text: "It seems to me that he knew not that the prophets speak of other persons: or if not this, he was ignorant that they discourse concerning themselves in another person;" omitting the last clause, sfodra epskemmenou (Cat. perieskemmenh) h erwthsij.-In the next sentence B. has retained the true reading, ektomian, for which the rest have tamian. N. tamieian.
16 The eunuch must have heard much said about Jesus at Jerusalem for he had been crucified but five or six years before. In this time of persecution and excitement, discussions would be rife concerning the Christian interpretation of prophecy. The eunuch seems to have heard two theories concerning the prophecies (e.g. Is. liii.) relating to the "Servant of Jehovah," one that the prophet was speaking of the Messiah (whom the Christians asserted Jesus to be) and the other that the prophet spoke concerning himself in these prophecies, an opinion not wholly abandoned in modern times. The eunuch's sudden conversion presupposes prolonged consideration of the claims of Jesua to be the Messiah and a keen interest in religious truth.-G. B. S.
17 Edd. "on what danger casting himself, still even so he is afraid lest he should suffer some harm. This is the reason why he takes others with him, probably to rid himself of his fear: or also, because they were many against whom he was going, he takes many, in order that the more boldly, whomsoever he should find, both men and women," etc. Just the opposite to C.'s meaning: viz. "It is not to be supposed, because he took many with him, that he had any fears for himself: he was above all such regards. The fact is, he wished to show them all (both the Jews at Jerusalem, and the companions of his journey), how they ought to act:" dia thj odou pasin autoij deicai ebouleto. C. however has pasin autou, N. pasin autouj, meaning: "by means of his journey, he wished to show them (the Christians bound) to all." Perhaps the true reading is autou thn proqumian, or the like. E. D. F. Edd. "Especially as by means of the journey he wished to show them all (pasin autoij), that all depended on him (autou to pan on)."
18 o dia touto apiwn: i.e. who would have a right to be believed, because it was known that he left Jerusalem for the purpose of persecuting. Had it taken place in Jerusalem or in Damascus, some would have given one account of the matter, some another-as, in the case of our Lord, when the voice came to Him from heaven at Jerusalem, "some said it thundered, some that an Angel spake to Him," (so Chrys. explains below, p. 125)-but, happening in the way it did, the person most interested in it, and who by this very thing was caused to take so momentous a step, was the authentic narrator; i.e. the story was to come from him, as the only competent authority: all' autoj aciopistoj hn dihgoumenoj (so Cat.: C., hn dihghsasqai: the other mss. hdihgoumenoj) o dia touto apiwn: Infra, p. 125, outoj de aciopistoj hn apaggellwn mallon ta eautou.-In the next sentence, Touto goun legei, kai proj 'Agrippan apologoumenoj, something seems wanting before kai, as supplied in the translation: but also both before and after these words: e.g. For the men which were with him, heard not the voice, and were amazed and overpowered. In fact, he says this in his oration on the stairs, "They heard not the voice of Him that spake to me," and when pleading before Agrippa, he says, "And when we were all fallen to the ground, I heard a voice." etc.
19 'Alla touton monon ephrwse: may be rendered, They all saw the light, but it blinded only Paul:-or, Him however it only blinded, did not cast him into insensibility, but left him otherwise in possession of his faculties.
20 The remainder of the verse and the first part of v. 6 to proj auton, were absent from Chrysostom's copy (and Cat. Oec. Theoph.) as from Codd. A. b.c. (of New Test.) and Laud's Gr. and Lat. of Acts: but the last have the clause, sklhron soi p. k. l. after diwkeij, v. 4. St. Hil. omits the clause durum est, etc. but has, tremens et pavens, etc.-"The voice of Paul:" Didymus in Cat. gives this as Chrysostom's solution of the seeming contradiction between this statement and that of St. Paul in xxii. 9. "In the first narrative, they heard Paul's voice, saying, Who art thou, Lord? But saw no man save Paul: in the second, they saw the light, but did not hear the voice of the Lord."
21 outw kai touj maqhtaj ekalesen ek deuterou (Cat. and Sav. marg. join ek d. to the next sentence). The meaning is: As here, there is an interval between the conversion of Saul, and Christ's announcement of the purpose for which he was called (which in Acts xxvi. 15, Acts xxvi. 16 are put together as if all was said at the same time), so in the case of the disciples, Andrew, John, and Simon, there was a first call, related in John i.; then after a while, Christ called them a second time, (see Hom. in Matt. xiv. §2) namely, to be fishers of men, Matt. iv. In both cases there was an interval, during which he and they were prepared for the further revelation of His will concerning them. The mod. t. (E. Edd.) omits this clause, and substitutes, kai di wn parakeleuetai auton poiein paraxrhma k. t. l. "And by what He bids him do, straightway gives him." etc.
22 !Estw ekeinoi autw exarizonto. Hom. in illud, Saulus adhuc spirans, etc. §5, t. iii. p. 105. "But shameless objectors may say (of Peter), that because he was Christ's disciple, because he had been partaker at His table, had been with Him three years, had been under His teaching, had been deluded and cajoled by Him (ekolakeuqh up' autou apathqeij), therefore it is that he preaches His resurrection: but when thou seest Paul, a man who knew Him not, had never heard Him, had never been under His teaching: a man, who even after His crucifixion makes war upon Him, puts to death them that believe in Him, throws all into confusion and disorder, when thou seest him suddenly converted, and in his toils for the Gospel outstripping the friends of Christ: what plea canst thou then have for thine effrontery, in disbelieving the word of the Resurrection?"
23 'Epeidh de eplhrwqh (eplhroforhqh, A. om., Cat. ephrwqh, E. D. F. Edd.) thj despoteiaj autou ta tekmhria kai thj filanqrwpiaj tote apokrinetai (for t. a. E. D. F. Edd. gnwrizei, Cat. eiden) ina (gar add B.) mh tij eiph oti upekrineto, o kai aimatwn epiqumwn k. t. l. (h kai ina mh tij <\=85_upekr. IIwj gar o kai aim. ep. k. t. l. E. D. F. Edd.) We read 'Epeidh de ephrwqh, ...thj f. eide. Tote ap. Kurie, k. t. l. ina ln k. t. l.
24 Dia ti kai eij geennan hucato apelqein uper tou Xristou; The modern text substitutes, "that he wished even to be accursed (Rom. ix. 2.) for Christ," See Hom. xvi, ad Rom. in 1. But Chrys. elsewhere uses as strong expressions as he does here. Hom. ii. in 2 Thess. §4 oude thn peeran thj geennhj hgeito ti einai dia ton tou Xristou poqon. And, dia ton tou X. poqon, katadexetai kai eij geennan empesein kai thj basileiaj ekpesein, (cited in the Ecloga de Laud. Paul. t. xii. p. 659, E.)
25 to atufon, above, p. 122, 2. Comp. x. §5. of the Eleven Homilies, t. xii. p. 393. "Admire how this man, barbarian as he was, and alien, and liable to be puffed up with his great authority, demeaned himself towards a man, poor, beggarly: unknown, whom until then he had never set eyes on. ...If our rulers now, believers though they be, and taught to be humble-minded, and with nothing of the barbarian about them, meeting in the public place, I do not say an unknown stranger, but one whom they know, would be in no great hurry to give him a seat beside him (in their carriage), how came this man to condescend so much to a perfect stranger-for I will not cease to insist upon this-a stranger, I say, one whom he had never seen, a mean-looking person, apt to be de. spised for his appearance, as to bid him mount and sit beside him? Yet this he did, and to his tongue committed his salvation, and endured to put himself in the position of a learner: yea, beseeches, intreats, supplicates, saying, `I pray thee, of whom saith the Prophet this?0' and receives with profound attention what he says. And not only so, but having received, he was not remiss, did not put off, did not say, `Let me get back to my own country, let me see my friends, my family, my kinsfolk0'-which is what many Christians say now-a-days when called to baptism: `let me get to my country, let me see my wife, let me see my children with my other kinsfolk: with them present, and making holiday with me, so will I enjoy the benefit of baptism, so partake of the Grace.0' But not these words spake he, the barbarian: Jew as he was, and trained to make strict account of places, especially with (the Law) ever sounding in his ears the duty of observing the Place, insomuch that he had gone a long journey to Jerusalem, on purpose that he might worship in the place which God commanded: and behold, all at once casting away all that he had been used to in this regard, and relinquishing this strict observance of place, no sooner is the discourse finished, and he sees a fountain by the roadside, than he says, `See, here is water, what doth hinder me to be baptized?0'"
26 The letters (a) (b) denote the order of the two parts in mss. and Edd.
27 dia to asqenej eti: Edd, give this to the preceding sentence, and then: Oude proteron outwj hn eukolon, wj ote o profhthj auton kathxhsen: "nor was it so easy before, as (it was) when the Prophet had catechized him:" which is irrelevant to the question: for Philip might have found him engaged in the same study then as afterwards. The old text has: ouk hn eukoloj, o profhthj gar auton kathxhsen, but A. rightly omits gar. Something is wanting; e. g. either, "until Philip catechized him," or rather, "but yet the prophet catechized him." What follows is much confused in the mss. By "the prophecy itself" Chrys. probably means more than the two verses given in the Acts, viz. Isai. liii. 7-12.-"It is likely he had heard that He had been crucified," so C. D. F. (i. e. as appears further on, the eunuch when at Jerusalem had heard of the Crucifixion, had seen the rent in the rocks, etc., another reason why it was fit that he should have first visited Jerusalem:) but B., "Perhaps he had not heard:" and E. Edd., "Hence he learnt." After "taken from the earth," C. alone has, kai ta alla os' (sic) amartian ouk epoihsen, the others, oti am. ouk ep. after which Savile alone adds, "nor was guide found in His mouth." After estaurwqh something is wanting, e. g. nun de emaqen or kathxhqh. In kai ta alla there seems to be a reference to the sequel in "the prophecy itself," viz. "and the rest which may be read in Isaiah, as that He did no sin," etc.-A., as usual, omits the whole passage: E. refashions it thus; "Hence He learnt that He was crucified, that His life is taken away from the earth, that He did no sin, that He prevailed to save others also, that His generation is not to be declared, that the rocks were rent, that the veil was torn, that dead men were raised from the tombs: or rather, all these things Philip told him." etc. so Edd.
28 In the quotation the N. T. follows the LXX. (Is. liii: 7, Is. liii: 8), which but imperfectly renders the original. The meaning is obscure in Hebrew, but the best rendering is probably that of the R. V. which renders v. 8 thus: "By oppression and judgment he was taken away; and as for his generation, who among them considered that he was cut off out of the land of the living?" for which the LXX. and N. T. have: "In his humiliation his judgment was taken away: His generation who shall declare, for his life is taken from the earth." It is almost useless to inquire what the LXX. translators could have meant by this rendering. Concerning the meaning of the first clause, there are four theories: (1) The judgment announced by His enemies was taken away, i. e., annulled by God (Bengel, Lechler). (2) His judicial power was taken away during his humiliation, i.e., he did not appear as men's judge (Humphrey). (3) His judgment (punishment) was taken away, i. e., ended-by death (Meyer, Robinson). (4) The judgment due him-the rights of justice-was withheld by his enemies (Gloag, Hackett).
The latter part of the LXX. trans.: "who shall declare," etc., has been understood in the following ways: (1) Who shall declare his divine Sonship?-the reference being to the "eternal generation" of the Son (the Patristic view). (2) Who shall declare the number of his spiritual seed, i.e., predict the extent of his kingdom? (the Reformers). (3) Who shall declare the wickedness of his contemporaries, for he was put to death (Meyer, De Wette, Lechler, Alford, Gloag). This interp. assigns to the word "generation," the same meaning which the R. V. gives to it in the original passage and is the preferable view. It should be admitted that this is a probable theory of what the LXX. ought to have meant by the words which they used; that they did consciously mean this is far less certain.-G. B. S.
29 wsper oun ouden outw skandalizein eiwqe touj paxuterouj: i.e. Saul's conversion would have weighed with the Jews ei noun eixon, but it was a great stumbling-block to them as paxuteroi: "as indeed nothing is so apt to prove a stumbling-block to men of duller minds," as this is-viz. the sudden conversion of one of their own party to the opposite side.
30 kai oti ouk an epeisqh 'Ananiaj, A. b.c. But Edd. omit Ananias: "because he (Paul) would not otherwise have been persuaded." In the next sentence, C. F. have 'Entrefomenoi, "nurtured:" B. entrufwntej, "luxuriating:" A. E. D. Edd. enstrefomenoi.
31 dhson. i.e. tie them up, and keep them shut. E. Edd. kataxwson, "Bury." Below, for kai mh akouoi autwn, we read ina mh. C. however has akouei, which may imply that the sentence should be joined to the preceding one, ou toiauth kolasij, ei tij kataxwseien auta en koprw, kai ei mh akouei autwn: "not such the punishment, were one to bury, etc., as it is if he refuse to hear them."
32 All the mss. and Edd. Mh laleite, "Speak not." But the context plainly requires the sense. "Speak on, if you will: we will not do what you bid us:" though it should rather be, Ouk akouomen.
33 E. umin, "your mouths," so Edd. except Sav. and below, o akouwn kai mh peiqomenoj meizonwj katafronei, where the old text has, o akouwn meiz. kat. kai dia toutou kwluwn, "by this," viz. by putting his hand on the speaker's mouth.
34 When the Deacon had ordered silence by proclaiming, if need were, several times, IIrosexwmen' the Reader commenced the Lesson, if from the Old Testament or the Gospels, with the formula, Tade legei Kurioj, "Thus saith the Lord:" (for the Epistles. with, "Dearly beloved Brethren.") See Hom. in 2 Thess. iii. §4. p. 527. D.
35 Eipon, ej ofisqhn, fhsi, kai tote apesth ap' emou. Ben. rendering the passage with Erasmus, "Deceptus sum, et tunc recessit a me," remarks. "I do not see how this agrees with what precedes." The Paris Editor, "Novi. inquiunt. et tum miki effluxit," as if it were a proverb. In the LXX, it is, Eipa, sofisqhsomai, kai auth emakrunqh ap' emou. E. V. said "I will be wise, but it was far from me."
36 \Ara mh apatwmen eautouj, nomizontej tauta ellhnisti umin legein; mss. and Edd., ara mh without the interrogation. Ben. "Igitur ne decipiamus nosmetipsos hoec Groeco more dici." The meaning seems to be, "When we tell you these things as euaggelia, do we deceive ourselves in thinking that we are speaking Greek-that we are using the term aright?-Yes to judge from your looks, one may see that they are anything but euaggelia to you. 9Ymeij kathfeite, umeij kekwfwsqe: apoplhktoi tugxanete katw kuptontej." The innovator (E. Edd.) quite alters the meaning, as if it were, "You look as indifferent as if it were no concern of yours;" viz. "Or, have you nothing to do with thesse things? But you are struck deaf (kekwfwsqe), and as if you were in a fit, hang down your heads."-Below, for kai palin etera erw, oion, the same have, oiaper esti kai ta toiauta, "such as are also these."
37 Edd. Kala ge: ou gar tauta euaggelia: read Kalage (ougap;) tauta euaggelia. In the next sentence, Ti moi twn euaggeliwn; Ben. "Quid mihi est evangeliorum."
1 Oecumen. adds from some other source, "but Ananias who was one of the Seventy:" and afterwards, "And this Ananias was a deacon, as Paul himself testifies in the Canons:" the latter from Ammonius the Presbyter, in the Catena.-Below, Kai oti (Cat., #Oti gar) ou twn sodra epishmwn hn, dhlon, C. comp. p. 279. But Edd. "But that Ananias also was one of the very distinguished persons, is plain both from what (the Lord) reveals and says to him, and from what he himself says in answer: Lord, I have heard," etc.'
2 Kai foboumenon idwn, oude outwj eipen. Ouk apisthqhsh. The mod, t. prefixes Mallon de, and adds, alla ti\ 'Anastaj poreuqhti. "Nay, even seeing him afraid, even then He said not, Thou shalt not be disbelieved: (Erasm. negligently, Be not unbelieving:) but what? Arise," etc. So Morel. Sav. but Ben. puts a full stop at idwn: as if the meaning were, "because He would teach us," etc.: or rather, "because He also saw him to be afraid. Nor did He speak thus. Thou shalt not," etc. But the full stop should be placed at eipen: "nay, though he saw him afraid, He did not tell him what had happened to Paul-the victory He had won over this adversary. But only, Fear not to be disbelieved for he hath seen," etc.
3 ina wsper eceplhtten toutw, outw kakeinw. (Sav. marg. touto, kakeino.) "That as He (Christ) astonished (Ananias) by the one, so He may by the other." toutw, by the announcement of Saul as a believer; ekeinw, by that of his becoming a preacher, and before Gentiles and kings. (Chrys. is negligent in his use of the pronouns outoj and ekeinoj.) Or it may be, "that as he (Saul) astonished (men) by his conversion, so by his wonderful boldness as a preacher."-E. Edd. omit this, and substitute, "as to prevail over all nations and kings."
4 "But when was the name of Jesus put upon Paul, that he should recover his sight? Here is either something wrong in the text, or we must say that Ananias put the name of Jesus on Paul, when, having laid his hands on him, he told him that it was Jesus from whom he should receive his sight." Ben.,-who surely must have overlooked the clause oper epaqen epi tou nomou, to which these words belong.-Above, Tinej fasi thj phrwsewj einai touto shmeion, the meaning is, that this falling off the scales, etc., is an emblem of his mental blindness, and of his recovery therefrom, The innovator, not understanding this, alters it to, tautaj tinej fasi thj p. autou einai aitiaj. "Some say that these were the cause of his blindness:" which is accepted by Edd.-And below, "lest any should imagine," etc., where tij, E. bracketted by Sav., adopted by the other Edd. is due to the same hand.
5 For 'Ihsoun (the reading accredited by the leading authorities in v. 20) here and in the second exposition, E. alone has Xriston (with text recept.) adopted by Edd.
6 Kai euqewj ek trooimiwn, qanatwn o anqrwpoj hn viz. ch. vii. 58. C. has qanatwn, for which A. conjecturally substitutes qaumastoj.
7 The narratives given by Paul himself of his conversion in Acts xxii. and Acts xxvi. as well as allusion to the subjects in his epistles, present some harmonistic difficulties, which have, however, been greatly exaggerated by a criticism which is unfavorable to the historical character of the Acts. The constant factors in all the accounts are: the light from heaven, the voice of Jesus and Saul's answer, and the solemn charge commissioning Saul to bear the name of Christ to the Gentiles. In Acts xxvi. the interview with Ananias is omitted; in chap. xxii. it is narrated, but the occasion of Ananias' going to Saul is not given; in chap. ix. the Lord is represented as speaking to him and bidding him go, and it is affirmed that at the same time Saul has a vision of his coming. In xxii. the address of Ananias is considerably more extended than in ix. Some minor points of difference have been noted, as: in ix. 7 it is said that Saul's companions heard the voice but saw no one, while in xxii. 9, it is said that they saw the light but heard not the voice of Him who spoke. The discrepancy is resolved by many by translating hkousan (xxii. 9) "understood"-an admissable sense (so, Lechler, Hackett, Lange). It is certainly an unwarranted criticism which rejects the common matter of the various narratives upon the ground of such incidental variations in the traditions in which a great and mysterious experience has been preserved.-G. B. S.
8 Skeuoj de kaleitai dikaiwj: deiknuntoj tou logou oti ouk esti fusikh h kakia: skeuoj, fhsin, ekloghj: to dokimon gar ekleg-omeqa. A. b.c. N. i.e. "Justly is he called a skeuoj, for he is well-fitted for the work of Christ by his energy and earnestness. These need but to be turned to the right objects. It is contrary to right reason to say, that evil is a physical quality or essence, and therefore unchangeable. (See this argued Hom. lix. in Matt. p. 596.) A fit implement, therefore, and of no common kind: a skeuoj ekloghj, of all others to be chosen, because of its approved suitableness for the purpose." Thus St. Chrysostom constantly interprets this expression. Hom. xviii. in Rom. §6 t. ix. 638. "When the stars were created, the Angels admired: but this man Christ Himself admired, saying, A chosen vessel is this man to Me!" Comm. in c. 1. Gal. §9, t. x. 674 "Called me by His grace. Yet God saith, that He called Him, because of his virtue, (dia thn arethn,) saying, A chosen vessel, etc.: i.e. fit to do service, and do a great work. . But Paul himself everywhere ascribes it all to grace." Hom. iii. in 1 Tim. §1, t. xi. 562. "God, foreknowing what he would be before he began to preach, saith, A chosen vessel etc. For as they who in war bear the royal standard, the labarum as we call it, have need of much skill and bravery not to deliver it into the enemy's hands, so they that bear the name of Christ," etc. And de Compunct. ad Demetr. lib. i. §9, t. i 138. "Since grace will have our part, (ta par' hmwn zhtei,) therefore some it follows and abides with, from some it departs, and to the rest it never even reaches. And to show that God first examined well the bent of the will (proairesij,) and thereupon gave the grace before this blessed man had done aught wonderful, hear what the Lord saith of him: A chosen vessel," etc.-The modern text: "And having said Skeuoj, so as to show that the evil in him (h kakia autou) is not physical, He adds, ekloghj, to declare that he is also approved; for," etc.-Oecumen. deiknusin oti ouk esti fusikh h kakia autw, "The Lord shows that vice is not natural to him."
9 dia touto tauta legei: i.e. Ananias' objection, (v. 13) in fact comes to this: this was the feeling' which prompted his words. The innovator substitutes, dia touto nun hmeroj, oti . . "therefore is he now gentle, because he is blind:" E. Edd.-The meaning is; "In saying, `I will show him how much he shall suffer,0' etc. the Lord rebukes Ananias' reluctance to baptize him, and restore his sight: his answer, `Lord, I have heard,0' etc. was in fact as good as saying, Let him reemain blind, it is better so." The parenthetic, proj to #Ina anableyh, tauta eirhtai, looks like a marginal note of one who did not perceive the connection.-E. makes it, "To that saying, `That he may receive his sight,0' let this be added."
10 Kai to dh qaumaston oti proteron peisetai, kai tote. So all our mss. (Cat. to pr.) We conjecture the true reading to be, oti proteron eisetai: "he shall first know," viz. "how many things he must suffer," etc. v. 16.
11 In the mss. and Edd. the portions here marked b, a, c, occur in the order a, b, c. The clause h wste pisteusai ekeinon being thus thrown out of its connection, perplexed the scribes: Cat. omits h, "until he obtained the mighty gifts, so that he (ekeinon, Ananias?) believed." A. E. F. D. reject the clause altogether. N. wste kai p. e.
12 It is noticeable that in chap. xxii. 17, Paul is reported as connecting his going to Jerusalem directly with the narrative of his conversion, while in Gal. i. 16, Gal. i. 17 he states that it was not until three years after his conversion that he went up to Jerusalem. The various notices can only be matched together on the view that the coming to Jerusalem mentioned in ix. 26 was the same as that of Gal. i. 18, and that this occurred about three years after his conversion. The hmerai ikanai of v. 23 must therefore include the time spent in Arabia (Gal. i. 17)., after which Paul must have returned to Damascus, before going up to Jerusalem. In this way the narratives can be harmonized without admitting a contradiction [as Baur, Zeller, De Wette); it is probable, however, that Luke did not know of the visit to Arabia, but connected Paul's going to Jerusalem closely with his conversion.-G. B. S.
13 The best textual authorities (A. b.c. )e
) and critics (Tisch. W. and H., Lechler, Meyer, Gloag) here read: "his (Saul's) disciples," So R. V. ...The reference is to the band of converts whom he had been successful in winning at Damascus. In Paul's own narrative of his escape from Damascus (2 Cor. xi. 33) he states more specifically that he was let down "through a window, through the wall." This may have been either through the window of a house overhanging the wall. or through a window in the face of some portion of the wall (Cf. Josh. ii. 15; 1 Sam. xix. 12).-G. B. S.