Early Church Fathers
117 ["The Holy Spirit is the divine `agent0' and faith is the subjective `source0' of our expectation."-Meyer.-G. A.]
118 ["Circumcision and uncircumsion are circumstances of no effect or avail in Christianity; and yet they were in Galatia the points on which the disturbance turned,"-Meyer,-G. A.]
119 ["How necessary it was for the Galatians that prominence should be given to the activity of faith `in love0' may be seen from verses 15, 20, 26. The passive view of e0nergoume/nh (wrought through love) as held by some Fathers and by Catholics is erroneous. In New Test. e0nergei=sqai is always middle: faith `which is operative through love.0' "-Meyer.-G. A.]
Lightfoot says: "The words di0 a0ga/phj energoume/nh bridge over the gulf which seems to separate the language of St. Paul and St. James. Both assert a principle of practical energy as opposed to a barren theory."-G. A.]
120 [The words a0lhqei/a mh\ pei/qesqa/i are wanting in Chrysostom's text.-G. A.]
121 ["The false teachers had spread the malicious report that Paul himself preached circumcision because he practiced it in the case of Timothy. But this was a measure of expediency and charity and not a surrender of principle."-Schaff.
"This calumny was sufficiently absurd to admit of his dismissing it, as he does here, with all brevity and with what a striking experimental proof!"-Meyer.-G. A.]
122 ["The vivid realization of the doings of his opponents, who were not ashamed to resort even to such falsehood, now wrings from his soul a strong and bitterly sarcastic wish of holy indignation."-Meyer.
Paul wishes that the circumcisers would not stop with circumcision but go beyond it to mutilation (make themselves eunuchs) like the priests of Cybele. A severe irony and similar to the one in Phil. iii:2, 3, where Paul calls the boasters of circumcision "the Concision." Self mutilation was a recognized form of heathen worship especially in Pessinus in Galatia and therefore quite familiar to the readers. Thus by their glorying in the flesh the Galatians relapsed into their former heathenism,-Schaff and Lightfoot. The Revised Version here has, "would even cut themselves off," the American Committee has, "would go beyond circumcision."-G. A.]
123 ['Apokoptein e0autou/j. Chrysostom here, as often, "goes off at a word" into a digression on a subject which is only remotely suggested by the passage in hand.-G. A.]
124 [This is not a digression. It is in strict continuity with the preceeding context and gives a reason for the indignant expression of the foregoing sentence.
"They are defeating the very purpose of your calling: ye were called for liberty and not for bondage."-Lightfoot.-G. A.]
125 [On the doctrine of the Manichees see Schaff Church History vol. ii. p. 498-508, where a full account of the literature is given also.-G. A.]
126 ["An ingenious juxtaposition of `freedom0' and brotherly `service0' in that freedom,"-Meyer.
"Ye were called for `freedom,0' but through love make yourselves willing `bond-servants0' to each other."-.G. A.]
127 [See Lightfoot, Introduction, p. 39. Note 3.-G. A.]
128 ["Paul returns to the warning in ver. 13, not to abuse their freedom for an occasion to the `flesh0' "-Schaff.
"In verse 13 he had warned them against using liberty for an occasion to the flesh; now, ver. 16, he shows them how they are to accomplish that end and this introduces the deadly and interminable antagonism between the spirit and the flesh."-Lightfoot.-G. A.]
129 [That is, the "psychical" man, from yuxh/, the soul.-G. A.]
130 ["If you adopt the rule of the Spirit, you thereby renounce your allegiance to the Law. In this passage the Spirit is doubly contrasted; first with the flesh, and secondly, with the Law, both of which are closely allied."-Lightfoot.-G. A ]
131 ["Would you ascertain whether you are walking by the Spirit or the flesh? Then apply the plain practical test."-Lightfoot.-G. A.]
132 ["The sins here mentioned seem to fall into four classes: (1) Sensual sins; fornication, uncleanness, lasciviousness; (2) Unlawful dealings in things spiritual; idolatry, sorcery; (3) Violations of brotherly love; enmities ... envyings; (4) Excesses, drunkenness and revellings."-Lightfoot.-G. A.]
133 ["Used apparently with a significant reference to the organic development, from their root, the Spirit."-Ellicott. So substantially Lightfoot and Schaff. But Meyer demurs and says no marked distinction is intended. He refers it to Paul's fondness for variety of expression.-G. A.]
134 [Having now enumerated the distinctive works of the flesh and fruit of the Spirit he says, Now if you are Christ's you have decided between these, the Spirit and the flesh, and have crucified the flesh, with its passions (passive) and lusts (active).-G. A.]
135 [Therefore if having crucified the flesh we are dead to it and live by the Spirit, let us conform our conduct to our new life, let us also walk by the Spirit.-Lightfoot, substantially.-G. A.]
136 ["Paul works round again to the subject of ver. 15 and repeats his warning. It is clear that something had occurred which alarmed him on this point."-Lightfoot.-G. A.]
137 [" `Provoking0' (prokalou/menoi) on the part of the strong, `envying,0' (fqonou=ntej) on the part of the weak. The strong vauntingly challenged their weaker brethren; the weak could only retaliate with envy,"-Ellicott.-G. A.].
138 ["I have just charged you to shun provocation and envy. I now ask you to do more-to be gentle even to those whose guilt is flagrant."-Lightfoot.-G. A.]
139 !En tini paraptw/mati, "in a false step or slip," ommitted, in the text yet commented on.
140 [Meyer holds the same view of this word (prolhmfqh|=) and says, "If he be overtaken," means if the sin has reached him more rapidly than he could flee from it. Ellicott, however, says this view of the pro/ would tend to excuse and qualify, whereas kai; seems to point to an aggravation of the offense. The meaning then is "be caught before he could escape."-So Lightfoot but not Schaff.-G. A.]
141 ["Paul leaves it with every reader to regard himself included or not."-Meyer-G. A.]
142 Viz., in a false step, en tini paraptw/mati.
143 Not plhrw/sate, but a/naplhrw/sate.
144 ["This explanation of Chrysostom is not satisfactory, The word in all cases appears to denote a complete filling up."-Ellicott.
"By lending a hand to bear your neighbor's burden, you will fulfil the most perfect of all laws-the law of Christ. But if (ver. 3) any one asserts his superiority, if any one exalts himself above others, he is nothing worth and is a vain self-deceiver. Nay (ver. 4) rather let each man test his own work (e@rgon being in an emphatic position) and then his boast will be his own and not depend on comparison with others."-Lightfoot.-G.A.]
145 ["If any one wishes to find matter for boasting, let it be truly searched for in his own actions and not derived from a contrast of his own fancied virtues with the faults of others."-Ellicott.-G.A.]
146 [Ellicott says, "The qualitative and humbling distinction of Chrysostom does not appear natural or probable, nor does it refer to that which will take place in every man after the examination (Meyer); but is apparently used ethically in reference to what according to the nature of things must be the case."-G. A.]
147 [Those philosopher among the Greeks who received pay from their pupils were looked down upon, and called Sophists, vid. Xen. Mem. 1. 6. §. 13.