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180 This is a glaring instance of uncritical credulity on Eusebius' part, and yet even Crusè can say: "Perhaps some might smile at the supposed credulity of our author, but the miracle in this account was not greater than the malignity, and if man can perform miracles of vice, we can scarcely wonder if Providence should present, at least, miracles of admonition." Cureton more sensibly remarks: "This, which doubtless was produced by natural causes, seemed miraculous to Eusebius, more especially if he looked upon it as fulfilling a prophecy of our Lord-Luke xix. 40: `I tell you, that if these should hold their peace, the stones would immediately cry out. 0' See also Hab. ii. 11."

181 i.e. Dec. 14, 308 (see the tables on p. 403, below).

182 The majority of the codices read Promoj, but as Valesius remarks, such a proper name is quite unknown in Greek, and the form probably arose from a confusion of b and m, which in ancient mss. were written alike. Two of our existing codices read Proboj, and this has been adopted by Zimmermann and Heinichen, whom I have followed in the text.

183 i.e. Jan. 11, 309.

184 In the Syriac version "Absalom."

185 Of this village we know nothing, but Eleutheropolis (originally Bethozabris) was an important place lying some forty miles southwest of Jerusalem.

186 einai dokwn. Eusebius did not wish to admit that he was a bishop in a true sense.

187 Rom. x. 2.

188 On Pamphilus, see above, Bk. VII. chap. 32, note 40.

189 On Eusebius' Life of Pamphilus, see above, p. 28 sq.

190 i.e. Jerusalem.

191 thj 'Iamnitwn polewj. Jamna, or Jamnia, was a town of Judea, lying west of Jerusalem, near the sea.

192 i.e Feb. 19 (see the table on p. 403, below). We learn from chap. 7, §§3-5, that Pamphilus was thrown into prison in the fifth year of the persecution and as late as November of that year, i.e. between November, 307, and April, 308. Since he had lain two whole years in prison (according to §5, above), the date referred to in the present passage must be February of the year 310. The martyrdom of Pamphilus is commonly, for aught I know to the contrary, uniformly put in the year 309, as the seventh year of the persecution is nearly synchronous with that year. But that the common date is a mistake is plain enough from the present chapter.

193 prohgoroj, literally "advocate," or "defender."

194 Gal. iv. 26.

195 Heb. xii. 22. Upon Eusebius' view of the authorship of the Epistle to the Hebrews, see above, Bk. III. chap. 25, note 1.

196 The reference is still to the same slave of Pamphilus whose tortures Eusebius has just been describing, as we learn from the Syriac version, where the slave's name is given at the beginning of the account.

197 I read peri auton with Zimmermann, Heinichen, Burton, and Migne. The mss. all have peri autouj, which can hardly have stood in the original.

198 The common mode of punishment inflicted on slaves.

199 Of the so-called country of Magganaia I know nothing. The Syriac version reads Batanea, which was a district of country lying to the northeast of Palestine, and it may be that Manganea was another name for the same region.

200 i.e. March 5, 310.

201 It was the universal custom in ancient times for a city to have its special tutelary divinity, to which it looked for protection and to which it paid especial honor. The name of the Caesarean deity is unknown to us.

202 logikwn.

203 "It was a punishment among the Romans that freemen should be condemned to take care of the emperor's horses or camels, and to perform other personal offices of that kind" (Valesius). For fuller particulars, see Valesius' note ad locum. In the Acts of St. Marcellus (who was bishop of Rome) we are told that he was set by Maximian to groom his horses in a church which the emperor had turned into a stable.

204 alogou zwou.

205 Cf. Bk. VIII, chap. 2, §§2 and 3, and the note on that passage.

206 Phil. iv. 8.

207 On Peleus and Nilus, see above, 0Bk. VIII. chap. 13, note 8. Paleus is called Paul in the Syriac version.

208 The name of this man is given as Elias in the Syriac version; but both he and Patermuthius are called laymen.

209 On Silvanus, bishop of Gaza, see above, Bk. VIII. chap. 13, note 6.

210 2 Cor. iii. 3.

211 Ibid. 2 Cor. iii. 3.

212 The Syriac version says forty.

213 On the cessation of the persecution in the West at the accession of Maxentius, see Bk. VIII. chap. 14, note 1.

214 On the division of the empire to which Eusebius here refers; see above, Bk. VIII. chap. 13, note 17.

215 i.e. the toleration edict of Galerius, published in the spring of 311 See above, Bk. VIII. chap. 17, note 1.

216 It would seem that the edict was originally appended to this shorter recension of the martyrs (the longer recension is complete in its present form, and contains no hint of such an addition). Very likely it was dropped with the second half of the work (see above, p. 29) as unnecessary, when the first half was inserted in the History. The edict is given in full in Bk. VIII. chap. 17, above.

217 peri twn en Palaistinh marturhsantwn teloj. On the title of the work, see above, p. 342, note 1.

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