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21 Sozemen (VI. 10) says the same. There were two Valentin ians in the second generation; one a son of Valens, and another the son of Valentinian the Elder. According to Idatius' Fasti, it was the former that was born during the consulate of Gratian and Dagalaifus; so that Socrates was in error here, confusing perhaps the two younger Valentinians. Valesius adduces other reasons proving the same, which it is unnecessary to repeat here.

22 367 a.d.

23 See II. 43.

24 368 a.d.

25 If Socrates means to speak with precision here of the offices occupied by these men during the year which his narrative has reached he is mistaken, for Basil became bishop of Caesarea in Cappadocia the year following, and Gregory was made bishop, not of Nazianzus at this time, but of Sisima. He did not, however, enter on the duties of this bishopric as he says in his letters.

26 Chap. 26.

27 See II. 35, and Hefele, Hist. of the Ch. Councils, Vol. II. p. 218 seq.

28 See I. 5, and note.

29 The Patripassians were a sect of the early Church (end of second century), who asserted the identity of the Son with the Father. And, as on being confronted with the question whether it was the Father that suffered on the cross they answered in the affirmative, they were called Patripassians. Their lender was Praxeas. See Tertull. Adv. Praxeam (the whole treatise is meant to be a refutation of this heresy).

30 Followers of the well-known Gnostic leader of the second century. For his peculiar views, see Tertull. Adv. Marcionem; Epiphan. Haeres. XLII.; also Smith and Wace, Dict. of Christ. Biog., under Marcion, and ecclesiastical histories.

31 Cf. II. 18 and 29.

32 Cf. I. 36; II. 20.

33 See note, I. 36.

34 See II. 37.

35 See II. 37. As it appears from V. 4, Liberius was actually deceived by the artifice.

36 Gen. xiv. 14.

37 Eunomius adopted the standpoint and also the views of Aëtius and gave them his own name. Briefly his fundamental principle was that the Son is absolutely unlike the Father in substance, and hence a creature among other creatures, a mere man.

38 See II. 35.

39 Cf. chap. 21.

40 Epiphanius Scholasticus reads dekaena for dekaennea; if he be followed, the incumbency of the bishopric of Constantinople by Eudoxius lasted seven years.

41 370 a.d.

42 Cf. Herodot. VII. 147.

43 The kind of church here meant was a memorial structure to a martyr, erected where his relics were deposited, and was called Marturion. See Bingham, Christ. Antiq. VIII. 1.

44 The same church which above was called a marturion from its origin, is here called eukthrioj topoj, from its use (`a place of prayer 0').

45 Gibbon, in his Decline and Fall, chap. 16, quotes a number of extracts from Sulpicius Severus and Ignatius, showing the honor in which martyrdom was held in the early church, and the eagerness with which it was sought. To check the excess of zeal which was thus manifested, the Council of Elvira, in 306 a.d., passed a canon (its sixtieth) to the following intent: `that if any one should overthrow idols, and should therefore be put to death, inasmuch as this is not written in the Gospel nor found done among the apostles at any time, such a one should not be received among the martyrs. 0'

46 Amm. Marcellinus, Rerum Gertarum, XXIX. I. 29 seq.

47 Sozomen, VI. 19; Theodoret, H. E. IV. 20.

48 371 a.d. But Jerome Chronic. II. (ninth year of Valens), makes the consecration of Athanasius' successor in 373 a.d., and hence also the death of Athanasius himself in the same year. The later date is now universally accepted.

49 On the growth of the monastic system, see Bingham, Eccl. Antiq. VII.; on its philosophy, briefly, Bennett, Christian Archaeol. p. 468. Socrates uses Palladius' Historia Lausiaca copiously in this chapter.

50 biblion apostolkon. The books of the New Testament came to be divided into the two classes of `gospels 0' and `apostolic epistles, 0' the first being called euaggelion or euaggeia and the second, apostoloj, apostoloi or biblion apostolikon. Cf. Epiph. Haer. XLII. 10. Euthal. Diacon. (Ed. Migné, Vol. LXXXV. col. 720, c.

51 1 Cor. vii. 10 seq.

52 Gal. iii. 28. What Socrates here says of Ammoun is attributed by Theodoret (H. E. IV. 12) to Pelagius, who afterwards became bishop of Laodicea.

53 Athanas. Vit. Anton. 60.

54 Cf. chap. 25.

55 According to the LXX.

56 Cf. Palladius, Hist. Lausiaca, chap. 86. But Palladius says that Evagrius was ordained by Gregory of Nyssa, not of Nazianzus. Cf. Sozomen, VI. 30.

57 Palladius calls this work 9Iera `Sacred [matter]. 0' Hist. Lausiaca, 86.

58 Cf. Coteler. Eccl. Gr. Mon. 3. 59, containing also other fragments of Evagrius.

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