Early Church Fathers
43 Matt. xx. 16.
44 Below, chap. 15.
45 Cf. Zosimus, IV. 35 seq.
46 Cf. IV. 30.
47 The account of Gratian's death given by Zosimus, though not inconsistent with that of Socrates, does not contain the details given by Socrates. Andragathius is simply said to have pursued Gratian, and overtaking him near the bridge to have slain him. Cf. Zosimus, IV. 35 end.
48 383 a.d.
49 384 a.d. Honorius afterwards shared the empire with Arcadius, reigning in the West from 398 to 423 a.d. But although the whole of this period comes within the time of Socrates' history, he does not mention Honorius but once again before his death.
50 Having been bishop of the Novatians for forty years; see chap. 21.
51 385 a.d.
52 Chap. 23.
53 Being in the ninety-eighth year of his age as appears from VII. 6.
54 Zosimus, however, says (IV. 37) that the embassy of Maximus was received by Theodosius.
55 Rather Aquileja as appears from Zosimus and other historians.
56 388 a.d.
57 The same account is given in substance by Zosimus, IV. 46, who also confirms the statements of Socrates concerning the end of Andragathius. Valesius, however, relying on Idatius' Fasti, asserts that Maximus was put to death on the 28th of July, not on the 27th of August.
58 The churches were considered recognized places of asylum. Cf. Bingham, Christ. Antiq. VIII. 10 and 11.
59 Theodoret (H. E. V. 23) says that there was a double violation of order in the ordination of Evagrius; first in that he was ordained by his predecessor, and secondly in that he was ordained by one bishop, whereas the canon required that not less than three should take part in an episcopal ordination.
60 Cf. VI. 9; also chaps. 5 and 2 of this book.
61 In 386 a.d.
62 See III. 2.
63 Cf Introd. p. 8.
64 piqhkou, `the ape-god.0'
65 There are several cruciform signs among the Egyptian hieroglyphics, as e.g. the simple determinative X, meaning `to cross,0' `to multiply,0' `to mix0' (see Birch, Egyptian Texts, p. 99); or the syllabic , phonetically equivalent to am (see Birch, ibid. p. 101); or the cross with a ring at the head : or the still more elaborate (see Brugsh, Thesaurus Inscript. Egyptiacarum, p. 20; also Champollion, Grammaire Egyptienne, XII. p. 365, 440). To which of these Socrates refers it is impossible to say from their mere form. They occur commonly and we must infer that the discovery described in this passage is not the first bringing into light of the sign mentioned, but its occurrence in the Serapeum. The third of the above signs is usually interpreted as `life0' either `happy0' or `immortal,0' which agrees with the meaning given to the cruciform sign here mentioned.
66 I Cor. ii. 7, 1 Cor. ii. 8; Eph. iii. 5, Eph. iii. 6;; Col. i. 26.
67 Acts xvii. 23.
68 Num. xxiv.
69 John xi. 51.
70 In the earlier periods of Roman history the government undertook to regulate the price of corn, so as to protect the poorer classes; in time of scarcity the government was to purchase the grain and sell it at a moderate price. This provision was gradually changed into a dispensation of public charity, at first by the sale of the grain below cost, and afterwards by the gratuitous distribution of the same. Some time before the reign of Aurelian, 270-275 a.d., the distribution of grain seems to have given place to the distribution of bread. Such distribution was made after the reign of Constantine at Constantinople as well as at Rome. See Smith, Dict. of the Greek and Rom. Antiq., art. Leges Frumentariae.
71 Originally this name was applied to all farmers-general of the public revenues. See Smith, Dict. of Greek and Rom. Antiq., art. Manceps.
72 Lit. = `bells.0' Cf. Smith, Dict. of Greek and Rom. Antiq., art. Sistrum.
73 From a law of Constantine's (Cod. 9. 30) whose genuineness is, however, disputed, the punishment of adultery was death. The same punishment appears to have been inflicted in specific cases mentioned by Am. Marcellinus. Rerum Gestarum, XXVII. 1. 28. Whence it appears that Socrates must have been misinformed concerning the facts mentioned here.
74 391 a.d.
75 On account of which he was called the Penitentiary. Cf. Bingham, Christ. Antiq. XVIII. 3.
76 `The sacerdotal catalogue or order, clerical order, the clergy in general.0' See Sophocles, Greek Lex. of the Rom. and Byzant. Periods.
77 On the discipline of the ancient church, see Bennett, Christ. Archael. p. 380 seq.
78 See Euseb. H. R. VI. 43.
79 The regulation of the earliest church was expressed as follows: `If any bishop, presbyter, or deacon be found guilty of fornication ...let him be deposed.0' Apostol. Can. 25.
80 Although the plural is used here, the reference is, no doubt, to the sacrament of the Lord's supper only. The mysteries recognized by Theodorus Studites, Epist. II. 165, are six; i.e. baptism, eucharist, unction, orders, monastic tonsure, and the mystery of death or funeral ceremonies. The Greek Church of modern times enumerates seven: baptism, unction, eucharist, orders, penitence, marriage, and extreme unction.
81 Cf. I. I; II. I.
82 Eph. v. 11. Valesius rightly infers from this answer of Socrates to Eudaemon that the former was not a Novatian. For he disapproves of the abolition of the penitentiary bishop's office, whereas as a Novatian he would have been against its institution before it was established, and in favor of its abolition afterwards. The Novatians never admitted either of penitence or of the penitentiary bishop.
83 See chap. 23 of this book.
84 See chap. 10, above.
85 The main reason adduced for considering Socrates a Novatian is his peculiarly detailed account of the Novatian heresy, and the nearness in which he puts it to the orthodox faith. See Introd. p. ix and chap. 19 of this book, note 8; also II. 38 and VI. 21.
86 See above, chap. 12, note 2. This was in 384 a.d.
87 IV. 9 and 12 of this book.
88 On he irregularity of this action, see chap. 15 above, note 1. Sisinnius is again mentioned in VI. 1. 31; VII. 6 and 12.
89 Cf. IV. 28.
90 Probably the modern Angora. Valesius however, had conjecturally substituted the word Sangarum in this place, supposing that the place named was a town on the banks of the river Sangarius.
91 Cf. VII. 5 and 12.
92 Gal. iv. 21.
93 Gal. v. 13.
94 Gal. iv. 10.