Early Church Fathers
15 Sozomen (VIII. 2) also says that Chrysostom went from the school of Libanius to a private life instead of the legal profession as was expected of him, but from some utterances of Libanius, as well as from Chrysostom's own representation, de Sacerdot. I. 1. 4, it appears that he had spent some time in the practice of the law.
16 It is not certain who this Evagrius was. Valesius thinks he was the presbyter of that name mentioned by Jerome, de Scriptor. Eccl.
17 It has been supposed by some that this was the Theodore addressed in II. 1, VI. Int. and VII. 47; but not with good reason. Cf. note 4, p. xii. of Int. On Theodore of Mopsuestia, the great `Exegete0' and theologian, see Smith & Wace; also Sieffert, Theodor. Mopsuestenus Vet. Test. Sobrie Interpret. Vindex and H. B. Swete, Theodori Episc. Mopsuestiae in Epp. B. Pauli. Commentarii.
18 Sozomen also attests the simplicity of Diodorus' interpretations of the Old Testament. The principle which he adopted, of seeking for a literal and historical meaning in preference to the allegorical and mystical interpretations attached to the Old Testament by Origen and the Alexandrians, became the corner-stone of the Antiochian system of interpretation as elaborated by his pupils Theodore of Mopsuestia and Theodoret.
19 qewriaj lit. `speculations0' by which are evidently meant the allegorical and subjective or contemplative explanations of the Alexandrians.
20 `Socrates and Kurtz (in the tenth edition of his Kirchengeschichte, I, 223) confound this Basil with Basil the Great of Cappadocia, who was eighteen years older than Chrysostom, and died in 379. Chrysostom's friend was probably (as Baronius and Montfaucon conjecture) identical with Basil, bishop of Raphanea in Syria, near Antioch, who attended the Council of Constantinople in 381.0' Comp. Venables in Smith and Wace; Schaff in Prolegomena to Vol. IX. of The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, p. 6, note 2. The conjecture of Baronius is assented to also by Valesius.
21 According to Baronius, this Zeno was bishop of Tyre, but Valesius makes an ingenious objection to this view, and asserts that some other city must have been the real see of Zeno.
22 This treatise, commonly termed de Sacerdotio, and the Homilies are the most famous of Chrysostom's works; for a full account, as well as translation, of these works, see Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Vol. IX.
23 These were women who lived in the houses of the clergy as sisters, and exercised themselves in works of piety and charity. At a very early period, however, scandal seems to have arisen from. this practice, and strong measures were repeatedly adopted by the Church for their suppression. Paul of Samosata was, according to Eusebius (H. E. VII. 30), deposed partly for keeping these sisters in his house. They were called Syneisactae (Suneisaktoi). Cf. Bingham, Christ. Antiq. XVII. 5. 20, and Council of Nicaea, Can. 3. Hefele, Hist. of Ch. Councils, Vol. I. p. 379.
24 These reasons are given by Palladius as follows: `He was accustomed to eat alone, as I partially know, for these reasons: first, he drank no wine ...secondly, his stomach was, on account of certain infirmities, irregular, so that often the food prepared for him was repugnant, and other food not put before him was desired. Again he at times neglected to eat, lengthening out his meal until evening, sometimes being absorbed in ecclesiastical cares and sometimes in contemplation; ...but it is a custom with table companions if we do not relish the same articles of food which they do, or laugh at insignificant witticisms...to make this an occasion of ill-speech.0' Palladius, de Vita S. Foannis, 12.
25 Sozomen (VIII. 7) says that this law was rescinded very soon afterwards.
26 See also Chrysostom, Orat. in Eutropium, 1. 3 (Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Vol. IX. p. 251). From these statements it appears that Zosimus is in error when he says (V. 18) that Eutropius was seized in violation of the law of sanctuary and taken out of the church. Chrysostom assigns his seizure to a time when he had left the church for some purpose or other.
27 ambwn, high reading-desk from which the Scriptures were recited, situated toward the middle of the church and distinguished from the altar, where the main service of worship was chanted. Bishops were accustomed to preach from the steps of the altar (cf. Bingham Christ. Antiq. VIII. 4. 5); but Chrysostom, on account of his little stature, as some say, used the `ambôn0' as a pulpit.
28 399 a.d.
29 Cf. Vergil, Georg. I. 488, `Nec diri toties arsere cometae0'; and Am. X. 272-274.
30 Cf. an account of Gaïnas and his rebellion in Zosimus, V. 18-22.
31 On the surname of `Scholasticus,0' see Introd. p. ix. note 20, also Macar. Homil. 15, §24. On Eusebius Scholasticus, see Smith and Wace, Eusebius (134) Scholasticus.
32 438 a.d.
33 400 a.d.
34 401 a.d.
35 By Audius or Audaeus, the founder of the Audian heresy. Cf. Epiphan. Haer. LXX.; Walch, Histor. der Ketzereien, Vol. III. p. 300; also Iselin, Audios und die Audianer, in Fahrbücher für Protestant. Theologie, April, 1890; p. 298 seq.
36 On the dispute concerning Origen's views, see below, chap. 13.
37 There were two cities named Hermopolis in Egypt; the most important of these in the Thebaid was known as Hermopolis proper, whereas the other (the one here alluded to) was situated in lower Egypt and designated Hermopolis parva.
38 2 Cor. xi. 6.
39 Qeoforoj = `borne by God,0' used in the sense of being `possessed by a god,0' `inspired,0' by aesch. Agam. 1150; but here `borne in the arms of God0' or `carried by God,0' and applied to Ignatius because tradition made him the very child whom the Saviour `took up in his arms,0' and set in the midst of his disciples. Cf. Mark ix. 36; to be distinguished therefore from Qeoforoj, `bearing0' or `carrying a god.0'
40 The ancient Christians observed the Lord's day as the greatest day of the week, and also in the second place the Jewish Sabbath or Saturday. See Bingham, Christ. Antiq. XX. 2, on the Lord's day, and 3, on the Sabbath.
41 There has been some difference of opinion as to whether Socrates is correct in here ascribing the institution of responsive chants to Ignatius. Valesius doubts Socrates' accuracy, but other authorities are inclined to the view that Ignatius did introduce these chants, and Flavian and Diodorus, during the reign of Constantine, to whom Valesius ascribes their origin, simply developed them. Cf. Bingham, Christ. Antiq. XIV. 1.
42 For an account of Theophilus' outrageous treatment of Isidore, see Palladius, Vita S. Foannis Chrysost. chap. 6.
43 See Bingham, Christ. Antiq. II. 19-18, for a statement of the functions of this office.
44 See above, V. 15.
45 Cf. Athan. de Decr. Nic. 27.
46 There were thirty-five bishops, besides several presbyters and laymen of some distinction in the ancient church, who bore the name of Epiphanius. The bishop here mentioned is the most illustrious of them all, being the author of the well-known treatise de Haeres. His see-that of Constantia in Cyprus-was the old `Salamis0' of Acts xiii. 5.
47 It seems strange that Epiphanius should be classed with the Anthropomorphitae as Epiphanius himself repudiates their views according to the testimony of Jerome. Cf. Jerome, ad Pammachium, 2 et seq. Socrates must have been imposed upon by some Origenist, as the Origenists were accustomed to call all who condemned their views Anthropomorphitae. Cf. above, chap. 7.
48 The offerings of the congregations seem to have been divided usually among the officiating clergymen. Cf. Bingham, Christ. Antiq. V. 4. 1.
49 In another version of this eleventh chapter of the sixth book, appended at the end of the sixth book in the Greek text of Bright, instead of the sentence beginning `And thus both parties,0' &c. is found the following more consistent statement: `Inasmuch, however, as on this account a tumult arose at Ephesus, on the ground that Heraclides was not worthy of the bishopric, it became necessary for John to remain in Ephesus for a long time.0'
50 The alternative version inserts here the following sentence: `And who was very much beloved by John and had been intrusted with the whole care of the episcopal administration, on account of his piety and faithfulness and watchfulness in respect to details of every sort, and diligence in matters pertaining to the interests of the bishop.0'
51 From this point to within one or two sentences of the end of the chapter the parallel version is so different at times that it will be well to insert it entire here for the purpose of comparison. It runs thus: `Not long afterward John came to Constantinople and assumed himself the churches which belonged to his jurisdiction. But between Serapion, the deacon, and Severian there had arisen a certain coolness; Serapion was opposed to Severian because the latter seemed desirous of excelling John in public speaking, and Severian was jealous of Serapion because the bishop John favored him, and the care of the bishopric had been intrusted to him. They being thus disposed toward one another, it happened that the evil of hatred was increased from the following cause. As Severian was passing by on one occasion Serapion did not render him the homage due to a bishop, but he continued sitting; whether because he had not noticed him, as he afterwards affirmed upon oath before a council, or because he cared little for him, being himself the vicegerent of a bishop, as Severian asserted, I am unable to say; God only knows. At the time, however, Severian did not tolerate the contempt; but immediately, and in anticipation of a public investigation before a council, he condemned Serapion upon oath, and not only declared him deposed from the dignity of the diaconate, but also put him out of the church. John upon learning this was very much grieved. As the matter afterwards was investigated by a council and Serapion defended himself declaring that he had not perceived [the approach of the bishop], and summoned witnesses to the fact, the common verdict of the assembled bishops was in favor of acquitting him and urging Severian to accept the apology of Serapion. The Bishop John, for his part, to satisfy Severian, suspended Serapion from the diaconate for a week; although he used him in all his affairs as his right hand, because he was very keen and diligent in ecclesiastical disputation. Severian however was not satisfied with these measures, but used all means to effect the permanent deposition of Serapion from the diaconate and his excommunication. John was extremely grieved at these words and arose from the council, leaving the adjudication of the case to the bishops present, saying to them, "Do you examine the matter in hand and render judgment according to your own conclusions; as for me I resign my part in the arbitration between them." These things having been said by John as he arose, the council likewise arose and left the case, as it stood, blaming Severian the more for not yielding to the request of the Bishop John. After this John never received Severian into a private interview; but advised him to return to his own country, communicating to him the following message: "It is not expedient, Severian," said he, "that the parish intrusted to you should remain for so long without care and bereft of a bishop; wherefore hasten and take charge of your churches, and do not neglect the gift which is in you." As he now prepared for his journey and started, the Empress Eudoxia, on being informed of the facts,0' &c. From this point the variations are few, verbal, and unimportant.
52 The ancients often swore by their children, especially when they wished to entreat others most earnestly. Cf. Vergil, aeneid, VI. 364, `Per caput hoc juro, per spem surgentis Fuli.0' The form of abjuration used by Eudoxia was probably this: `By this little child of mine, and your spiritual son, whom I brought forth and whom you received out of the sacred font, be reconciled to Severian.0' Valesius, however, doubts the reality of this affair.
53 It was contrary to the canons of the church for a bishop to ordain a presbyter or a deacon in another's diocese. Cf. Apostol. Can. 35. `Let not a bishop dare to ordain beyond his own limits in cities and places not subject to him. But if he be convicted of doing so without the consent of those persons who have authority over such cities and places, let him be deposed, and those also whom he has ordained.0' Also Can. 16 of the Council of Nicaea; `If any one should dare to steal, as it were, a person who belongs to another [bishop], and to ordain him for his own church, without permission of the bishop from whom he was withdrawn, the ordination shall be void.0'
54 The views of Origen met with opposition from the very outset. During his own lifetime he was condemned at Alexandria, and after his death repeatedly until 541 a.d., and perhaps also by the fifth general council held at Constantinople in 553. For a full account of the Origenistic Controversy, see Smith and Wace, Dict. of Christ. Biog. and Antiq., art. Origenistic Controversies.
55 `The house of entertainment for strangers.0' Methodius' works were in the literary form of the dialogue. Cf. his Convivum decent Virginum in Migne's Patrologia Graeca, Vol. XVIII.
56 Athan. de Decr. Nic. 27.
57 See above, chap. 12 and note 1.
58 Hence this is called the Synod at `the Oak0' (Synodus ad Quercum). See Hefele, History of the Chrch Councils, Vol. II. p. 430.