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56 422 a.d.

57 Endokia, `Benevolence. 0'

58 The Chronicon Paschale gives a different account of Eudocia. It says that her father's name was Heraclitus. When he died her brothers Gesius and Valerian refused to give her her share of the inheritance. She came to Constantinople to plead for her rights through Pulcheria, the sister of Theodosius, and impressed the latter so favorably that Pulcheria persuaded Theodosius to make her his wife (cf. Chronic. Pasch. year 420). Her brothers on hearing of her elevation to the throne fled to Greece, but she sent for them and persuaded Theodosius to appoint them to high offices, on the ground that she was indebted to them for her good fortune (cf. Chronic. Pasch. year 421). Besides her ode commemorating the victory of the imperial forces over the Persians, several other works of hers are mentioned, viz. paraphrases of the Pentateuch, Joshua, and Judges into Greek hexameters, a version of the prophecies of Zachariah and Daniel, and a poem in three books on St. Cyprian and St. Justina; to these Zonaras adds that she completed the Centones Homerici of Patricius. Her later years were clouded by a misunderstanding between her husband and herself, which is variously given by the contemporaneous historians and altogether passed over by Socrates. Cf. Evagrius, H. E. I. 20, 22, and Zonaras Ann. XIII.

59 On the observance of these two days of the week as fast days in the early Church see Bingham, Christ. Antiq. XXI. 3.

60 filadelfoj = `lover of his brothers, 0' but applied to him by the rhetorical figure of antiphrasis because he killed his brothers. This Ptolemy Philadelphus reigned in Egypt from 285 to 247 b.c. and is famous for having the Old Testament translated from Hebrew into Greek, according to the common tradition, by seventy learned men, whence the translation has been known as the Septuagint.

61 Cf. III. 19.

62 Persons who fought with wild beasts in the games of the circus. They were of two classes: (1) professionals, those who fought for pay, and (2) criminals, allowed to use arms in defending themselves against the wild beasts to which they had been condemned. It is one of the first class that is here meant.

63 An altogether unknown and doubtful diocese.

64 423 a.d.

65 So also Zosimus, V. 40.

66 See above, chap. 18.

67 Cf. I. 39, and II. 1.

68 The adherents of Chrysostom. See VI. 3.

69 He effected this restoration by having the name John enrolled in the diptychs or registers of those whose names should be included in the prayers of the liturgy.

70 xrusinouj, with stathraj probably to be supplied; if so the value of these gold pieces was about $5.00, or ¢1 0s. 9d.

71 See above, chaps. 5 and 12.

72 farmakea = `poisoner. 0'

73 qerapeiaj: the word occurs in three senses, viz. (1) healing, (2) service, (3) worship. Probably, and as the sentence following seems to indicate, the last of these was the one meant to be emphasized; this is also borne out by the plural number used. If the first sense were the one for which the word was chosen, it must have been because of its being in complete contrast to the previous name. The place retains the name thus given it to this day and constitutes one of the suburbs of Constantinople.

74 Silver City.

75 Golden City.

76 Cf. Xenophon, Anab. VI. 6. 38.

77 Cf. Xenophon, Hellenica, I. 1, 22. The event mentioned took place in 411 b.c.

78 Cf. IV. 1-6.

79 1 Tim. iii. 1.

80 1 John v. 17.

81 The Catholic Church was more severe in its discipline regarding the clergy than the laity, but it does not appear that excommunication was in any case absolute and reinstatement impossible. See on this point the liberal views of Chrysostom, VI. 21. Cf. also Bennett, Christ. Archaeology, p. 383.

82 425 a.d.

83 This was Valentinian III. See chap. 24 above for his relationship to the reigning Theodosius.

84 2 Cor. viii. 3.

85 426 a.d.

86 See Introd. p. 12. Photius, Biblioth. chap. 35, mentions Philip's attack on Sisinnius and assigns the reason for it as jealousy, because Philip and Sisinnius both being of the same rank in the clergy, the latter was made archbishop of Constantinople.

87 This was a heavy, redundant, and turgid style deprecated by rhetoricians of the better class from the time of Cicero onwards. Cf. Cicero, Brut. XIII. 51; Quinctilian, Instit. Orat. XII. 10, and Jerome, ad Rustic. (125. 6).

88 upoqesij = lit. `subject 0' or `substance 0'; the contents, or as later, called the argument, or summary of contents.

89 The Council in its 6th Canon declared that no one should be ordained bishop without the consent of his metropolitan; but that the bishop of Constantinople was the metropolitan of the Cyzicenes does not appear unless the decree of the (Canon 3d) Council of Constantinople making the latter a patriarchate is to be understood as rendering the see of Cyzicus subordinate to that of Constantinople, as an individual church is to the metropolitan. Cf. Bingham, Christ. Antiq. II. 16. 12.

90 427 a.d.

91 ephluda, perhaps in a contemptuous sense = `an imported fellow. 0'

92 Founder of Nestorianism (Nestorian church and heresy). For details on Nestorianism, see Assemani, Bibliotheca Oriental. tom. IV., said to be the most exhaustive work on the subject, ancient and modern alike, being a volume of 950 pp. and occupied with Nestorianism alone. `It collects information from all quarters, especially from the Oriental writers, concerning the history, ritual, organization, schools, and missions. 0' (Stokes, in Smith and Wace.) The peculiar characteristic of the Nestorian Christology will appear in the sequel of Socrates' account. Other accessible sources of information on Nestorianism and Nestorius will be found in the standard ecclesiastical histories. Cf. Neander, Hist. of the Christ. Church, Vol. II. p. 446-524; Schaff, Hist. of the Christ. Church, Vol. III. p. 714-734; Kurtz, Church Hist. Vol. I. p. 334; also Gibbon, Decline and Fall of the Rom. Empire, chap. 47.

93 A city in Cilicia, on the western border of Syria.

94 428 a.d.

95 `What the bishops and especially the prelates of the greater churches said in their first sermon to the people was very carefully observed among the early Christians. For from that sermon a conjecture was made as to the faith, doctrine, and temper of every bishop. Hence the people were wont to take particular notice, and remember their sayings. A remark of this nature occurs above, Bk. II. chap. 43, concerning the first sermon of Eudoxius, bishop of Constantinople. And Theodoret and Epiphanius declare the same concerning the first sermon of Melitius to the people. 0'-Valesius.

96 Below, chap. 36.

97 Octar, mentioned as an uncle (father's brother) of Attila by Jornandes, Historia Getarum, chap. 35.

98 430 a.d.

99 By a slight change in the Greek text Valesius renders this phrase `but caused others also to imitate him, 0' alleging that the conduct of Anthony of Germa was in imitation of Nestorius; but the emendation seems unnecessary. Socrates means that Nestorius made himself odious in other ways, perhaps through other persons such as Anthony, &c.

100 Qeotokon, i.e. `Mother of God. 0' See Neander, Hist. of Christ. Church, Vol. II. p. 449.

101 anqrwpoj, `human being. 0'

102 2 Cor. v. 16.

103 Heb. vi. 1.

104 mormolukion, `hobgoblin, 0' `bugbear. 0'

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