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8 Easter, a.d. 340. The condemnation was confirmed at the Council of Antioch, a.d. 341.

9 They were met by a deputation of Athanasians, bringing the encyclical of the Egyptian Bishops in favour of the accused. Apol. Cont. Ar. §3.

10 On the bearing of these communications with Rome on the question of Papal jurisdiction, vide Salmon, Infallibility of the Church, p. 405. Cf. Wladimir Guettee, Histoire de l'Eglise, III. p. 112.

11 The innocence of Athanasius was vindicated at the Council held at Rome in Nov. a.d. 341.

12 For the violent resentment of the Alexandrian Church at the obtrusion of Gregorius, an Ultra-Arian, and apparently an illustration of the old proverb of the three bad Kappas, "Kappadokej, Krhtej, Kilikej, tria kappa kakista," for he was a Cappadocian-vide Ath. Encyc. 3, 4, Hist. Ar. 10. The sequence of events is not without difficulty, and our author gives here little help. Athanasius was in Alexandria in the spring of 340, when Gregorius made his entry, and started for Rome at or about Easter. Constantine II. was defeated and slain by the troops of his brother Constans, in the neighbourhood of Aquileia, and his corpse found in the river Alsa, in April, 340. Athanasius remained at Rome till the summer of 343, when he was summoned to Milan by Constans (Ap. ad Const. 3, 4).

Results of his visit to Rome were the adherence of Latin Christianity to the orthodox opinion (Cf. Milman, Hist. of Lat. Christianity, vol. i. p. 78), and the introduction of Monachism into the West. Vide Robertson's Ch. Hist. ii. 6.

13 Now Sophia, in Bulgaria. The centre of Moesia was called Dacia Cis-Danubiana, when the tract conquered by Trajan was abandoned.

14 A native of Thessalonica; he had been secretary to his predecessor Alexander.

15 Ath. de fug. §3. Cf. Hist. Ar. ad Mon. 7.

16 Flavius Philippus, praetorian praefect of the East, is described by Socrates (II. 16), as deutepoj meta basilea. Paulus was removed from Constantinople in 342, and not slain till 350. Philippus died in disappointment and misery. Dict. Christ. Biog. iv. 356.

17 On the vicissitudes of the see of Constantinople, after the death of Alexander, in a.d. 336, vide Soc. ii. 6 and Soz. iii. 3. Paulus was murdered in 350 or 351, and the "shortly after" of the text means nine years, Macedonius being replaced by Eudoxius of Antioch, in 360. On how far the heresy of the "Pneumatomachi," called Macedonianism, was really due to the teaching of Macedonius, vide Robertson's Church Hist. II. iv. for reff.

18 The Council met in 343, according to Hefele; 344, according to Mansi, on the authority of the Festal Letters of Athanasius. Summoned by both Emperors, it was presided over by Hosius. The accounts of the numbers present vary. Some authorities adhere to the traditional date, 347. Soc. ii. 20; Soz. iii. 11.

19 Vide I. xxvii.

20 Perhaps present at the Synod of Ancyra (Angora), in a.d. 315. Died, a.d. 374. Marcellus played the man at Nicaea, and was accused by the Arians of Sabellianism, and deposed. He was distrusted as a trimmer, but could boast "se communione Julii et Athanasii, Romanae et Alexandrinae urbis pontifficum, esse munitum" (Fer. de vir. ill. c. 86). Cardinal Newman thinks Athanasius attacked him in the IVth Oration against the Arians. Vide Dict. Christ. Biog. iii. 808.

21 Probably Lucius, Bishop of Hadrianople, who had been deposed by the Arians, and appealed to Julius, who wished to right him. Still kept out by the Arians, he appealed to the Council of Sardica, and, in accordance with its decree, Constantius ordered his restoration (Soc. ii. 26). Cf. Chap. XII.

22 Bishop of Trajanopolis (Ath. Hist. Ar. 19).

23 The strange story of Ischyras is gathered from notices in the Apol. c. Arian. Without ordination, he started a small conventicle of some half-dozen people, and the Alexandrian Synod of 324 condemned his pretensions. The incident of the text may be assigned to 329. He afterwards faced both ways, to Athanasius and the Eusebians, and was recognised by them as a bishop. Dict. Christ. biog. iii. 302.

24 Georgius succeeded the Arian Theodotus, of whom mention has already been made (p. 42), in the see of the Syrian Laodicea (Latakia). Athanasius (de fug. §26), speaks of his "dissolute life, condemned even by his own friends."

25 Known as o monofqalmoj, "The one-eyed." He succeeded the Historian Eusebius in the see of Caesarea in 340, and the Nicomedian Eusebius as a leader of the Arian Court party in 342.

26 Now Belgrade.

27 Now Esseg on the Drave. Here Constantius defeated Magnentius, a.d. 351.

28 Bishop of Petra in Palestine. (Tomus ad Antioch. 10.) There is some confusion in the names of the sees, and a doubt whether there were really two Petras. Cf. Reland, Palestine, p. 298, Le Quien, East. Christ. iii. 665, 666.

29 Bishop of Petra in Arabia, (Ath. Hist. Ar. 18, Apol. cont. Ar. 48).

30 Cf. Acts xx. 29.

31 Thrust on the see of Gaza by the Arians on the deposition of Asclepas (Soz. iii. 8, 12).

32 Gal. i. 8.

33 Here, according to the Version of Athanasius (Ap. cont. Ar. 49), the Synodical Epistle ends. An argument against the genuineness of the addition is the introduction of a new formula of faith, while from the letter of Athanasius "ex synodo Alexandrinâ ad legatos apostolicae sedis,"" it is plain that nothing was added to the Nicene Creed. (Labbe iii. 84.)

34 This passage is very corrupt: the translation follows the Greek of Valesius, gennhtoj estin ama kai genhtoj. It is not certain that the distinction between agennhoj "unbegotten," and agenhtoj, "uncreate," was in use quite so early as 344. If the passage is spurious and of later date, the distinction might be more naturally found.

35 upostaseij.

36 ousia.

37 John xiv. 10.

38 John x. 30.

39 Wisdom vii. 22.

40 John i. 3.

41 utostasij.

42 This translation follows the reading of the Allatian Codex, adopted by Valesius, th kainh ktisei. If we read koinh for kainh, we must render "excels or differs in relation to the common creation" which He shares with man.

43 utostasij.

44 John x. 30.

45 utostasij.

46 John xvii. 21.

47 oikonomia. In classical Greek oikonomia is simply the management (a) of a household, (b) of the state. In the N.T. we have it in Luke xvi. for "stewardship," and in five other places; (i) 1 Cor. ix. 17, A.V. "dispensation," R.V. "stewardship;" (ii)Eph. i. 10 A.V. and R.V. "dispensation;" (iii) Eph. iii. 2, A.V. and R.V. "dispensation;" (iv) Col. i. 25, A.V. and R.V. "dispensation;" (v) Tim. i. 4, where A.V. adopts the inferior reading oikodomhn, and R.V. renders the oikonomian of )

AFGKLP by "dispensation." Suicer gives as the meanings of the word (i) ministerium evangelii, (ii) providentia et numen quo Dei sapientia omnia moderatur, (iii) ipsa Christi naturae humanae assumptio, (iv) totius redemptionis mysterium et passionis Christi Sacramentum. Theodoret himself (Ed. Migne iv. 93) says thn enanqrwphsin de tou Qeou Logou kaloumen oikonomian, and quaintly distinguishes (Cant. Cant. p. 83) h smurna kai o libanoj toutestin h qeologia te kai oikonomia. On a phrase of St. Ignatius (Eph. xviii.), "o xristoj ekuoforhqh upo Mariaj kat' oikonomian," Bp. Lightfoot (Apostolic Fathers, II. p. 75 note) writes: "The word oikonomia came to be applied more especially to the Incarnation because this was par excellence the system or plan which God had ordained for the government of His household and the dispensation of His stores. Hence in the province of theology, oikonomia was distinguished by the Fathers from qeologia proper, the former being the teaching which was concerned with the Incarnation and its consequences, and the latter the teaching which related to the Eternal and Divine nature of Christ. The first step towards this special appropriation of oikonomia to the Incarnation is found in St. Paul; e.g. Ephes. i. 10, eij oikonomian tou plhrwmatoj twn kairwn.... In this passage of Ignatius it is moreover connected with the `reserve 0' of God (xix. en hsuxia qeou epraxqh). Thus `economy 0' has already reached its first stage on the way to the sense of `dissimulation, 0' which was afterwards connected wit it, and which led to disastrous consequences in the theology and practice of a later age." Cf. Newman's Arians, chap. i. sec. 3.

48 Onagroj = wild ass

49 fasi de kai nhessin aliplaneessi xereiouj taj ufalouj petraj twn fanerwn spiladwn.-Anth. Pal. xi. 390.

50 Leontius, Bishop of Antioch from a.d. 348 to 357, was one of the School of Lucianus. (Philost. iii. 15), cf. pp. 38 and 41, notes. Athanasius says hard things of him (de fug. §26), but Dr. Salmon (Dict. Christ. Biog. s.v.) is of opinion that "we may charitably think that the gentleness and love of peace which all attest were not mere hypocrisy, and may impute his toleration of heretics to no worse cause than insufficient appreciation of the importance of the issues involved." Vide infra. chap. xix.

51 Athanasius had gone from Sardica to Naissus (in upper Dacia), and thence to Aquileia, where he was received by Constans. Ap. ad Const. §4, §3.

52 Athanasius went from Aquileia to Rome, where he saw Julius again, thence to Treves to the Court of Constans, and back to the East to Antioch, where the conversation about the "one church" took place. Soc. ii. 23; Soz. iii. 20.

53 i.e. the friends of Eustathius.

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