Early Church Fathers
177 Cf. ii. 65, n. 3.
178 qeoforoumenouj. ii. 70, n. 1.
179 §19. n. 3.
180 sundesmon thj agaphj, 21. circ. fin.
181 Ez. xxviii. 2; Prov. xxiii. 4, LXX.
182 1 John iv. 13.
183 Cf. 22, n. 6.
184 [i.e. not by grace] Vid. the end of this section and 25 init. supr. Or. i. 15. also Cyril Hier. Cat. xvi. 24. Epiph. Ancor. 67 init. Cyril in Joan. pp. 929, 930.
185 1 John iv. 15.
186 beltiwsei pracewj, and so ad Afros. tropwn beltiwsij. 8. Supr. Or. i. 37, 43. it is rather some external advance.
187 §8, note 11.
189 Cf. ii. 63, n. 8.
190 kata fusin, supr. de Decr. 31, n. 5.
191 Rom. viii. 35; vid. xi. 29.
192 qeoi, Or. ii. 70, n. 1.
193 Cf. ii. 59, n. 5.
194 Cf. Or. i. 37, end.
195 1 Sam. xvi. 11.
196 Prov. xxix. 7. noei, Ath. sunhsei.
197 This Oration alone, and this entirely, treats of texts from the Gospels; hitherto from the Gospel according to St. John, and now chiefly from the first three. Hence they lead Athan. to treat more distinctly of the doctrine of the Incarnation, and to anticipate a refutation of both Nestorius and Eutyches.
198 §1, n. 13.
199 Matt. xxviii. 18; John v. 22; John iii. 35, John iii. 36; Matt. xi. 27; John vi. 37; infr. §§35-41.
200 John xii. 27, John xii. 28.
201 Matt. xxvi. 39; John xiii. 21; infr. §§53-58.
202 Luke ii. 52; infr. §§50-53.
203 Matt. xvi. 13; John xi. 34; Mark vi. 38; infr. §27.
204 Matt. xxvii. 46; John xii. 28; John xvii. 5; Matt. xxvi. 41; Mark xiii. 32; infr. §§42-50.
205 dianoian, ii. 44, a. 53, c.; iv. 17, d. &c.
206 De Decr. 1; Or. i. 4.
207 John vi. 42; John viii. 58.
208 epakouousin. Montfaucon (Onomasticon in t. 2 fin.) so interprets this word. vid. Apol. contr. Ar. 88. note 7.
209 Or. i. 38.
210 Apol. Fug. 27, n. 10.
211 De Decr. 2, n. 9, c. Sab. Greg. 6 fin.
212 Cf. de Decr. 25, n. 4. The peculiarity of the Catholic doctrine, as contrasted with the heresies on the subject of the Trinity, is that it professes a mystery. It involves, not merely a contradiction in the terms used, which would be little, for we might solve it by assigning different senses to the same word, or by adding some limitation (e.g. if it were said that Satan was an Angel and not an Angel, or man was mortal and immortal), but an incongruity in the ideas which it introduces. To say that the Father is wholly and absolutely the one infinitely-simple God, and then that the Son is also, and yet that the Father is eternally distinct from the Son, is to propose ideas which we cannot harmonize together; and our reason is reconciled to this state of the case only by the consideration (though fully by means of it) that no idea of ours can embrace the simple truth, so that we are obliged to separate it into portions, and view it in aspects, and adumbrate it under many ideas, if we are to make any approximation towards it at all; as in mathematics we approximate to a circle by means of a polygon, great as is the dissimilarity between the two figures. [Cf. Prolegg. ch. ii. §3 (2) b.]
213 oux aplwj aidioj, i.e. aidioj is not one of our Lord's highest titles, for things have it which the Son Himself has created, and whom of course He precedes. Instead of two aidia then, as the Arians say, there are many aidia; and our Lord's high title is not this, but that He is `the Son,' and thereby `eternal in the Father's eternity,' or there was not ever when He was not, and `Image' and `Radiance.' The same line of thought is implied throughout his proof of our Lord's eternity in Orat. i. ch. 4 6. This is worth remarking, as constituting a special distinction between ancient and modern Scripture proofs of the doctrine, and as coinciding with what was said supr. Or. ii. 1, n. 13, 44, n. 1. His mode of proof is still more brought out by what he proceeds to say about the skopoj, or general bearing or drift of the Christian faith, and its availableness as a kanwn or rule of interpretation.
214 Ps. xxiv. 7.
215 Cf. 26, n. 9.
216 skopoj, vid. 58. fin.
217 Rom. ix. 32.
218 Or. i. 28, n. 5.
219 qeotokou. vid. supr. 14, n. 3. Vid. S. Cyril's quotations in his de Recta Fide, p. 49, &c.; and Cyril himself, Adv. Nest. i. p. 18. Procl. Hom. i. p. 60. Theodor. ap. Conc. Eph. (p. 1529. Labbe.) Cassian. Incarn. iv. 2. Hil Trin. ii. 25. Ambros. Virgin. i. n. 47. Chrysost. ap. Cassian. Incarn. vii. 30. Jerom. in Ezek. 44 init. Capreolus of Carthage, ap. Sirm. Opp. t. i. p. 216. August. Serm. 291, 6. Hippolytus, ap. Theod. Eran. i. p. 55, &c. Ignatius, Ep. ad Eph. 7.
220 John v. 39.
221 Ib. i. 1-3.
222 v. 14.
223 Phil. ii. 6-8.
224 Cf. 26, n. 9.
225 Gen. i. 3, Gen. i. 6, Gen i. 26; de Syn. 28 (14).
226 Matt. i. 23.
227 John i. 14.
228 toutw xrwmenoj organw infr. 42. and organon proj thn energeian kai thn eklamyin thj qeothtoj. 53. This was a word much used afterwards by the Apollinarians, who looked on our Lord's manhood as merely a manifestation of God. vid. Or. ii. 8, n. 3. vid. sxhma organikon in Apoll. i. 2, 15. vid. a parallel in Euseb. Laud. Const. p. 536. However, it is used freely by Athan. e.g. infr. 35, 53. Incarn. 8, 9, 41, 43, 44. This use of organon must not be confused with its heretical application to our Lord's Divine Nature, vid. Basil de Sp. S. n. 19 fin. of which de Syn. 27 (3). It may be added that fanerwsij is a Nestorian as well as Eutychian idea; Facund. Tr. Cap. ix. 2, 3. and the Syrian use of parsopa Asseman. B. O. t. 4. p. 219. Thus both parties really denied the Atonement. vid. supr. Or. i. 60, n. 5; ii. 8, n. 4.
229 Ad Epict. 11, ad Max. 2.
230 1 Cor. i. 24.
231 Infr. iv. 33 init.
232 Joel ii. 28; Bel and Dr. 5.
233 Or. i. 39, n. 4.
234 Gal. iv. 4; 1 Pet. iv. 1.
235 kata to boulhma. vid. Orat. i. 63. infr. §63, notes. Cf. supr. ii. 31, n. 7, for passages in which Ps. xxxiii. 9. is taken to shew the unity of Father and Son from the instantaneousness of the accomplishment upon the willing, as well as the Son's existence before creation. Hence the Son not only works kata to boulhma, but is the boulh of the Father. ibid. note 8. For the contrary Arian view, even when it is highest, vid Euseb. Eccl. Theol. iii. 3. quoted ii. 64, n. 5. In that passage the Father's neumata are spoken of, a word common with the Arians. Euseb. ibid. p. 75, a. de Laud. Const. p. 528, Eunom. Apol. 20 fin. The word is used of the Son's command given to the creation, in Athan. contr. Gent. e.g. 42, 44, 46. S Cyril. Hier. frequently as the Arians, uses it of the Father. Catech. x. 5, xi. passim, xv. 25, &c. The difference between the orthodox and Arian views on this point is clearly drawn out by S. Basil contr. Eunom. i. 21.
236 Col. ii. 9.
237 toutw xrwmenoj organw infr. 42. and organon proj thn energeian kai thn eklamyin thj qeothtoj. 53. This was a word much used afterwards by the Apollinarians, who looked on our Lord's manhood as merely a manifestation of God. vid. Or. ii. 8, n. 3. vid. sxhma organikon in Apoll. i. 2, 15. vid. a parallel in Euseb. Laud. Const. p. 536. However, it is used freely by Athan. e.g. infr. 35, 53. Incarn. 8, 9, 41, 43, 44. This use of organon must not be confused with its heretical application to our Lord's Divine Nature, vid. Basil de Sp. S. n. 19 fin. of which de Syn. 27 (3). It may be added that fanerwsij is a Nestorian as well as Eutychian idea; Facund. Tr. Cap. ix. 2, 3. and the Syrian use of parsopa Asseman. B. O. t. 4. p. 219. Thus both parties really denied the Atonement. vid. supr. Or. i. 60, n. 5; ii. 8, n. 4.
238 Orat. iv. 6. and fragm. ex Euthym. p. 1275. ed. Ben. This interchange [of language] is called theologically the antidosij or communicatio idiwmatwn. Nyssen. in Apoll. t. 2. pp. 697, 8. Leon. Ep. 28, 51. Ambros. de fid. ii. 58. Nyssen. de Beat. p. 767. Cassian. Incarn. vi. 22. Aug. contr. Serm. Ar. c. 8 init. Plain and easy as such statements seem, they are of the utmost importance in the Nestorian and Eutychian controversies.
239 qeou hn swma. also ad Adelph. 3. ad Max. 2. and so thn ptwxeusasan fusin qeou olhn genomenhn. c. Apoll. ii. 11. to paqoj tou logou. ibid. 16, c. sarc tou logou. infr. 34. swma sofiaj infr. 53. also Or. ii. 10, n. 7. paqoj Xristou tou qeou mou. Ignat. Rom. 6. o qeoj peponqen. Melit. ap. Anast. Hodeg. 12. Dei passiones. Tertull. de Carn. Christ. 5. Dei interemptores. ibid. caro Deitatis. Leon. Serm. 65 fin. Deus mortuus et sepultus. Vigil. c. Eut. ii. p. 502. vid. supr. Or. i. 45, n. 3. Yet Athan. objects to the phrase, `God suffered in the flesh,' i.e. as used by the Apollinarians. vid. contr. Apoll. ii. 13 fin. [Cf. Harnack, Dogmg. ed. 1. vol. i. pp. 131, 628. notes.]
240 Is. liii. 4.
241 ouden eblapteto. (1 Pet. ii. 24.) Cf. de Incarn. 17, 54, 34.; Euseb. de Laud. Const. p. 536. and 538. also Dem. Evang. vii. p. 348. Vigil. contr. Eutych. ii. p. 503. (B. P. ed. 1624.) Anast. Hodeg. c. 12. p. 220 (ed. 1606.) also p. 222. Vid also the beautiful passage in Pseudo. Basil: Hom. in Sanct. Christ. Gen. (t. 2. p. 596. ed. Ben.) also Rufin. in Symb. 12. Cyril. Quod unus est Christus. p. 776. Damasc. F. O. iii. 6 fin. August. Serm. 7. p. 26 init. ed. 1842. Suppl. 1.
242 paqwn, vid. §33, n. 2.
243 Orat. i. 51.
244 John x. 37, John x. 38. vid. Incarn. 18. Cf. Leo, Serm. 54, 2. `Suscepit nos in suam proprietatem illa natura, quae nec nostris sua, nec suis nostra consmeret, &c.' Serm. 72, p. 286, vid. also Ep. 165, 6. Serm. 30, 5. Cyril Cat. iv. 9. Amphiloch. ap. Theod. Eran. i. p. 66. also pp. 30, 87, 8. ed. 1614.
245 Cf. Leo's Tome (Ep. 28.) 4. `When He touched the leper, it was the man that was seen; but something beyond man, when He cleansed him, &c.' Ambros, Epist. i. 46, n. 7. Hil. Trin. x. 23 fin. vid. infr. 56 note, and S. Leo's extracts in his Ep. 165. Chrysol. Serm. 34 and 35. Paul. ap. Conc. Eph. (p. 1620. Labbe.) These are instances of what is theologically called the qeandrikh energeia [a condemned formula], i.e. the union of the energies of both Natures in one act.
246 mh fantasia all' alhqwj. vid. Incarn. 18, d. ad Epict. 7, c. The passage is quoted by S. Cyril. Apol. adv. Orient p. 194.
247 ouk allou, alla tou kuriou: and so ouk eterou tinoj, Incarn. 18; also Orat. i. 45. supr. p. 244. and Orat. iv. 35. Cyril Thes. p. 197. and Anathem. 11. who defends the phrase against the Orientals.
248 Cf. Procl. ad Armen. p. 615, ed. 1630.
249 koinon opposed to idion. vid. infr. §51, Cyril Epp. p. 23, e. communem, Ambros. de Fid. i. 94.
250 Or. i. 5 n. 5, ii. 56 n. 5, 68, n. 1, infr. note 6.
251 Vid. Jer. i. 5. And so S. Jerom e, S. Leo, &c., as mentioned in Corn. a Lap. in loc. S. Jerome implies a similar gift in the case of Asella, ad Marcell. (Ep. xxiv. 2.) And so S. John Baptist, Maldon. in Luc. i. 16. It is remarkable that no ancient writer (unless indeed we except S. Austin), [Patrol. Lat. xlvii. 1144?] refers to the instance of S. Mary;-perhaps from the circumstance of its not being mentioned in Scripture.
252 qeotokou. For instances of this word vid. Alexandr. Ep. ad Alex. ap. Theodor. H. E. i. 4. p. 745. (al. 20). Athan. (supra); Cyril. Cat. x. 19. Julian Imper. ap. Cyril c. Jul. viii. p. 262. Amphiloch. Orat. 4. p. 41. (if Amphil.) ed. 1644. Nyssen. Ep. ad Eustath. p. 1093. Chrysost. apud. Suicer Symb. p. 240. Greg. Naz. Orat 29, 4 Ep. 181. p. 85. ed. Ben. Antiochus and Ammon. ap. Cyril. de Recta Fid. pp. 49, 50. Pseudo-Dion. contr. Samos. 5. Pseudo-Basil. Hom. t. 2. p. 600 ed. Ben.
253 Rom. v. 14.
254 idiopoioumenou. vid. also [Incar. 8.] infr. §38. ad Epict. 6, e. fragm. ex Euthym. (t. i. p. 1275. ed. Ben.) Cyril. in Joann. p. 151, a. For idion, which occurs so frequently here, vid. Cyril. Anathem. 11. And oikeiwtai. contr. Apoll. ii. 16, e. Cyril. Schol. de Incarn. p. 782, d. Concil. Eph. pp. 1644, d. 1697, b. (Hard.) Damasc. F. O. iii. 3. p. 208. ed. Ven. Vid. Petav. de Incarn. iv. 15.
255 Vid. Or. i. §§45, 46, ii. 65, note. Vid. also iv. 33. Incarn. c. Arian. 12. contr. Apoll. i. 17. ii. 6. `Since God the Word willed to annul the passions, whose end is death, and His deathless nature was not capable of them ...He is made flesh of the Virgin, in the way He knoweth, &c.' Procl. ad Armen. p. 616. also Leo. Serm. 22. pp. 69. 71. Serm. 26. p. 88. Nyssen contr. Apoll. t. 2 p. 696. Cyril. Epp. p. 138, 9. in Joan. p. 95. Chrysol. Serm. 148.
256 ii. 69, n. 3, &c.
257 qeotokou. supr. 14, n. 3. For `mater Dei' vid. before S. Leo, Ambros. de Virg. ii. 7. Cassian. Incarn. ii. 5. vii. 25. Vincent. Lir. Commonit. 21. It is obvious that qeotokoj, though framed as a test against Nestorians, was equally effective against Apollinarians [?] and Eutychians, who denied that our Lord had taken human flesh at all, as is observed by Facundus Def. Trium. Cap. i. 4. Cf. Cyril. Epp. pp. 106, 7. Yet these sects, as the Arians, maintained the term. vid. supr. Or. ii. 8, n. 5.
258 ii. 59 n. 5.
259 logwqeishj thj sarkoj. This strong term is here applied to human nature generally; Damascene speaks of the logwsij of the flesh, but he means especially our Lord's flesh. F. O. iv. 18. p. 286. (Ed. Ven.) for the words qeousqai, &c. vid. supr. ii. 70, n. 1.
260 1 Pet. iv. 1.
261 Cf. Chrysost. in Joann. Hom. 67. 1 and 2. Cyril de Rect. Fid. p. 18. `As a man He doubts, as a man He is troubled; it is not His Power (virtus) that is troubled, not His Godhead, but His soul, &c.' Ambros. de Fid. ii. n. 56. vid. a beautiful passage in S. Basil's Hom. iv. 5. in which he insists on our Lord's having wept to shew us how to weep neither too much nor too little.
262 Mat. xxvi. 39.