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55 Lit. In the sun hath he placed his tabernacle, and there is none who can hide himself from the heat thereof. Ps. xix. 6.

56 Ps. ix. 6. Sept. Vulg. Syr.

57 The allusion is doubtful. It probably refers to some province of Spain (perhaps that of the Ibera or Ebro), in which the views of Lucifer prevailed and which his followers considered almost the sole land of the faithful. The expression, however, is used in a more general sense by Jerome, Letter VI.

58 Luke xviii. 8.

59 Matt. ix. 22.

60 Matt. viii. 10.

61 Matt. viii. 26.

62 Matt. xvii. 20.

63 Matt. ix. 21.

64 Matt. ix. 29.

65 For an account of the "Dated Creed" here referred to, and of the Councils of Seleucia and Ariminum, a.d. 359, see Bright's History of the Church, a.d. 313-451, fourth edition, pp. 93-100.

66 Principium, the equivalent of the Greek 'Arxh, which means beginning, or principle, or power.

67 These two propositions constituted the essence of the teaching of Arius.

68 Usia (ousia) is defined by Cyril of Alexandria as that which has existence in itself, independent of everything else to constitute it. A discussion of both it and its companion term hypostasis may be found in Newman's Arians, Appendix p. 432. Around ousia, or some compound of the word, the great Arian controversy always raged. In asserting that the son was homoousios with the Father, i.e., consubstantial or co-essential, the Church affirmed the Godhead of the Son. But the formula experienced varying fortunes. It was disowned as savouring of heterodoxy by the Council of Antioch (264-269) which was held to decide upon the views of Paulus: was imposed at Nicaea (325): considered inexpedient by the great body of the epis-copate in the next generation: was most cautiously put forward by Athanasius himself (see Stanley's Hist. of Eastern Church, 1883, p. 240): does not occur in the catecheses of S. Cyril of Jerusalem (347): was momentarily abandoned by 400 bishops at Ariminum who were "tricked and worried" into the act. "They had not," says Newman, "yet got it deeply fixed in their minds as a sort of first principle, that to abandon the formula was to betray the faith."

69 The distinguishing principle of the doctrine of Acacius was adherence to Scriptural phraseology. See Bright's Hist., p. 69.

70 The teaching of Aetius and Eunomius, the Anomoeans, who were the extremists of the Arians. See Robertson's Hist. of Chris. Ch., fourth edition, pp. 236-237, etc. The other tenets anathematized are Arian or Semi-Arian.

71 Bishop of Singedunum (Belgrade). "He and Valens, bishop of Mursa (in Pannonia) appear at every Synod and Council from 330 till about 370, as leaders of the Arian party, both in the East and West ...They are described by Athanasius as the disciples of Arius." Dict. of Chris. Biog.

72 Constantius.

73 Julian.

74 In August 362, "All Egypt seemed to assemble in the city (Alexandria), which blazed with lights and rang with acclamations; the air was fragrant with incense burnt in token of joy; men formed a choir to precede the Archbishop; to hear his voice, to catch a glimpse of his face, even to see his shadow, was deemed happiness." Bright, p. 115.

75 Bishop of Poictiers (a.d. 350). Died a.d. 368.

76 Bishop of Vercellae in N. Italy. Died about a.d. 270. Both he and Hilary had been sent into exile by Constantius for their opposition to Arianism.

77 That is, the creed of Ariminum.

78 Said to have been the "most prominent and most distinguished man of the entire movement." Athanasius suggested that he was the teacher rather than the disciple of Arius. He died a.d. 342.

79 Regarded as one of the chief opponents of Athanasius. He and others it is said saved themselves from exile by secretly substituting omoiousioj for omoousioj in the sentence of the Council.

80 Born probably, about a.d. 260. He was made bishop of Caesarea about 313 and lived to be eighty. At the time of the Council he was the most learned man and most famous living writer. He had great influence with Constantine, and was among the most moderate Arians.

81 Eudoxius was deposed from the bishopric of Antioch by the Council of Seleucia, a.d. 359; but the immediate predecessor of Euzoius was Meletius, deposed a.d. 361. Baronius describes him as the worst of all the Arians. Euzoius had been the companion and intimate friend of Arius from an early age. Athanasius (Hist. Arian. p. 858) calls him the "Canaanite."

82 Saints Athanasius, Hilary of Poictiers, and Eusebius of Vercellae.

83 a.d. 328, when Athanasius was consecrated bishop.

84 See introduction.

85 This Hilary was a deacon of Rome, sent by Liberius the bishop with Lucifer and Pancratius to the Emperor Constantius. He joined the Luciferians, and wrote in their interest on the re-baptism of heretics. He appears, however, to have been reconciled before his death.

86 1 Pet. iii. 20.

87 2 Tim. ii. 20.

88 Ecc. xi. 2.

89 Vulg. for tyIgyI#$%#$; l(a

Pss. vi. xii. and 1 Chron. xv. 21. The meaning is probably "in a lower octave," or, "in the bass." According to others, an air, or key in which the psalm was to be sung, or a musical instrument with eight strings.

90 Virg, Georg. i. 154.

91 S. Matt. xiii. 24 sq.

92 Rom. ix. 22, Rom. ix. 23: 2 Tim. ii. 20, 2 Tim. ii. 21.

93 1 John ii. 19.

94 Prov. xiv. 12.

95 Stephen was willing to admit all heretical baptism even that by Marcionites and Ophites; Cyprian would admit none. The Council was held at Carthage a.d. 255, and was followed by two in the next year.

96 Bishop of Rome from May 12, a.d. 254, to Aug. 2, a.d. 257. See note on ch. 25.

97 The words of 1 John iv. 3 would appear to support Jerome's remark.

98 Acts viii. 10. In the Clementine Homilies and Recognitions Simon is the constant opponent of St. Peter.

99 Commonly regarded as the chief among the Egyptian Gnostics. The Basilidian system is described by Irenaeus (101f).

100 Acts vi. 5, Rev. ii. 6, Rev. ii. 15. As to how far Jerome's estimate of the character of Nicolas is correct, the article Nicolas in Smith's Dict. of Bible may be consulted.

101 Jerome here reproduces almost exactly the remark of Pseudo-Tertullian. The Dositheans were probably a Jewish or Samaritan ascetic sect, something akin to the Essenes.

102 The name Pharisee implies separation, but in the sense of dedication to God.

103 Of Antioch. One of the earliest of the Gnostics (second century).

104 The Ophites, whose name is derived from ofij, a serpent, were a sect which lasted from the second century to the sixth. Some of them believed that the serpent of Gen. iii. was either the Divine Wisdom, or the Christ himself, come to enlighten mankind. Their errors may in great measure, like those of the Cainites, be traced to the belief, common to all systems of Gnosticism, that the Creator of the world, who was the God of the Jews, was not the same as the Supreme Being, but was in antagonism to Him. They supposed that the Scriptures were written in the interest of the Demiurge or Creator, and that a false colouring being given to the story, the real worthies were those who are reprobated in the sacred writings.

105 The Cainites regarded as saints, Cain, Korah, Dathan, the Sodomites, and even the traitor Judas.

106 The Sethites are said to have looked upon Seth as the same person as Christ.

107 Carpocrates, another Gnostic, held that our Lord was the son of Joseph and Mary, and was distinguished from other men by nothing except moral superiority. He also taught the indifference of actions in themselves, and maintained that they take their quality from opinion or from legislation; he advocated community of goods and of wives, basing his views on the doctrine of natural rights. See Mosheim, Cent. ii.

108 Cerinthus was a nativ of Judaea, and after having studied at Alexandria established himself as a teacher in his own country. He afterwards removed to Ephesus, and there became prominent. He held that Jesus and the Christ were not the same person; Jesus was, he said, a real man, the son of Joseph and Mary; the Christ was an emanation which descended upon Jesus at his baptism to reveal the Most High, but which forsook him before the Passion. S. John in his Gospel and Epistles combats this error. See Westcott's Introduction to 1 John, p. xxxiv. (second ed.) etc. Cerinthus is said to have been the heretic with whom S. John refused to be under the same roof at the bath. To him as author is also referred the doctrine of the Millennium.

109 The Ebionites were mere humanitarians. Whether Ebion ever existed, or whether the sect took its name from the beggarliness of their doctrine, or their vow of poverty, or the poorness of spirit which they professed, is disputed.

110 Rev. ii. 16.

111 Cyprian's opinion as stated in his reply to the Numidian and Mauritanian bishops (Ep. 71) was that converts must be baptized, unless they had received the regular baptism of the Church before falling into heresy or schism, in which case imposition of hands would suffice. The question was afterwards decided against Cyprian's views by the Council of Aries (a.d. 314), which ordered that if the baptism had been administered in the name of the Trinity, converts should be admitted to the Church by imposition of hands.

112 For Novatus and an account of the dispute between Cyprian and Stephen, see Robertson's "Hist. of Christian Church," fourth ed., vol. i. pp. 120-127.

113 1 Cor. xi. 16.

114 As Deucalion was left alone after the flood, so, Jerome implies, Hilary imagined himself the sole survivor after the flood of Arianism.

115 The advocates on each side could plead immemorial local usage. If imposition of hands was the rule at Rome, synods held at Iconium and at Synnada had established the rule of re-baptism nearly throughout Asia Minor. In Africa the same practice had been sanctioned early in the third century, but it seems to have fallen into disuse long before Cyprian's time.

116 Bishops of Rome-Julius 337-352; Mark Jan. 18-Oct. 7, 336; Sylvester 314-335.

117 Canon 19.

118 Canon 8. The bishop might give him the nominal honour of a bishop.

119 By the "men of the mountain or the plain," Jerome appears to contemptuously designate the Circumcellions who were an extreme section of the Donatists. They roamed about the country in bands of both sexes, and struck terror into the peaceable inhabitants. They were guilty of the grossest excesses, and no Catholic was safe except in the towns. Robertson's "Hist. of the Church," vol. i. fourth ed. pp. 200, 419, and the original authorities there referred to.

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