Early Church Fathers
67 Matt. x. 37.
68 Ex. xxi. 17; Lev. xx. 9; Matt. xv. 4.
69 Compare for the thought Euripides, Medea, 1029-1035.
70 a'ntigennh=sai. Jeremy Taylor (Ductor Dubitantium, Book III. cap. ii. §17) mentions several stories in which a parent is nourished from a daughter's breast, who thus 'saves the life she cannot give.'
71 On the change of Moods, see Jelf, Greek Grammar, § 809. The second verb (kataciw/seien) wish be realized, as it probably may be. Cf. Herod. ix. 51.
72 Matt. xiii. 43.
1 The text is translated from the Septuagint, in which S. Cyril found the title ALMIGHTY (Pantokra/twr), one of the usual equivalents in the Septuagint for Lord of Hosts (Sabaoth). In the English A. V. and R. V. the passage stands thus: Jer. xxxii. 18, 19: The Great, the Mighty God, the LORD of Hosts, is His name, Great in counsel, and mighty in work.
2 "For even the Jewish nation had wicked heresies: for of them were. . . the Pharisees, who ascribe the practice of sinners to fortune and fate; and the Basmotheans, who deny providence and say that the world is made by spontaneous motion" (Apost. Const. VI. 6). Compare Euseb. (E. H. IV. 22.)
3 Cicero, De Natura Deorum, Lib. I. 27: "Pythagoras thought that God was the soul pervading all nature." The doctrine was accepted both by Stoics and Platonists, and became very general. Cf. Virg. Georg. iv. 221:
Deum namque ire per omnis
Terrasque, tractusque maris, caelumque profundum.
and Aen. vi. 726:
Spiritus intus alit, totamque infusa per artus
Meus agitat molem, et magno se corpore miscet.
4 Ps. xxxvi. 5. Cyril appears to have borrowed this statement form Clement of Alexandria, who states (Stromat. V. xiv. § 91) that from this Psalm the thought occurred to Aristotle to let Providence come down as far as to the Moon.
5 Ps. cxxxix. 8.
6 See note on Lect. IV. 4.
7 Matt. x. 28.
8 Ib. xii. 29.
9 Job xl. 14, tou=t0 e!stin a'rxh\ pla/smatoj Kuri/ou, pepoihmme/non e'gkatapai/zesqai u 9po\ tw=n a'gge/lwn au'tou=. In this description of Behemoth the Septuagint differs much from the Hebrew, which is thus rendered in our English Versions, xl. 19: He is the chief of the ways of God: he (only, R. V.) that made him can make his sword to approach unto him. Compare Job xli. 5: Wilt thou play with him as with a bird? and Ps. civ. 26: There is that Leviathan whom thou hast formed to play therein (Sept. to take thy pastime with him). See Baruch iii. 17, with the note in the Speaker's Commentary.
10 Ps. cxix. 91.
11 Dan. iv. 34.
12 On this doctrine of the Manicheans see Archelaus (Disputatio, cap. 42), Epiphanius (Haeres. lxvi. § 81). Compare Clement. Hom. xv. cap. 9: "To all of us possessions are sins." Plato (Laws, V. 743) : "I can never agree with them that the rich man will be really happy, unless he is also good: but for one who is eminently good to be also extremely rich is impossible."
13 Prov. xvii. 6, according to the Septuagint. See note on Cat. V. 2, where the same passage is quoted. Clement of Alexandria (Stromat. II. 5) refers to it in connexion with the passage of Plato quoted in the preceding note. S. Augustine also quotes and explains it in Eipst. 153, § 26.
14 The former clause is from Haggai ii. 8; the latter, taken from the words of the Tempter in Luke iv. 6, is quoted both by Cyril and by other Fathers as if from Haggai. Chrysostom (Hom. xxxiv. § 5 in 1 Cor. xiii.) treats the use which some made of the misquotation as ridiculous.
15 Matt. xxv. 35, 36.
16 Ib. xix. 21.
17 The connexion of sw/mata with money and possessions suggests the not uncommon meaning "slaves." See Polyb. xviii. 18 § 6: kai\ th\n e'ndouxi/an a'pe/donto kai\ ta\ sw/mata, kai\ su\n toutoise!ti tina\j tw=n kth/sewn, "household furniture, and slaves, and besides these some also of their lands." See Dictionary of Christian Antiquities, "Slavery," where it is shewn that Christians generally and even Bishops still possessed slaves throughout the 4th Century.
But here it is perhaps more probable that Cyril refers, as before, Cat. iv. § 23, to the Manichean doctrine of the body as the root of sin.
18 Matt. iv. 9; Luke iv. 6.
19 For e'gkexeirh=sqai, the reading of all the printed Editions, which hardly yields a suitable sense, we should probably substitute e'gkexeiri/sqai. A similar confusion of the two verbs occurs in Polybius (Hist. VIII. xviii. 6); the proper use of the latter is seen in Joh. Damasc. (De Fide Orthod. II. 4, quoted by Cleopas), who speaks of Satan as being "of these Angelic powers the chief of the earthly order, and entrusted by God with the guardianship of the earth" (th=j gh=j th\n fulakh\n e'gxeirisqei\j para\ Qeou=).
20 On this point compare Irenaeus (Haer. V. xxi.-xxiv.), and Gregory of Nyssa (Orat. Catech. § 5).l
21 The reference is to Manes, of whom his disciple Turbo says (Archelai Disput. § 10), "the name Sabaoth which is honourable and mighty with you, he declares to be the nature of man, and the parent of lust: for which reason the simple, he says, worship lust, and think it to be a god."
22 Ps. lxxx. 1.
23 0Adwnai/, Heb. yndo)
, "the Lord," an old form of the Plural of majesty, used of God only.
24 pantokra/tora, Heb. yd@ #$ l)'
, El-Shaddai, "God Almighty."
25 Job v. 8, 9. Cyril's quotation agrees with the Codex Alexandrinus of the Septuagint, which has pantokra/tora, "Almighty," while the Vatican and other Mss. read to\n pa/ntwn despo/thn.
26 Job. xxxvii. 23: God hath upon Him terrible majesty (R. V.) The Vatican and Alexandrine Mss. of the Septuagint read e'pi\ tou/toij mega/lh h 9 do/ca kai\ timh\ pantokra/toroj. (For these things great is the glory and honour of the Almighty.) But Cyril's text is the same as the Aldine and Complutensian.
1 The Septuagint, from which Cyril quotes the text, differs much from the Hebrew, and from the Hebrew, and from the English Versions: Who is this that derkeneth counsel by words without knowledge? Gird up now thy loins like a man: for I will demand of thee, and answer thou Me.
2 John i. 18.
3 Ezekiel i. 28.
4 Exod. xxxiii. 20.
5 Is. lxiv. 1, Septuagint. R. V. Oh that Thou wouldest rend the heavens, that Thou wouldest come down, that the mountains might flow down..
6 Dan. x. 9, 16, 18.
7 Wisdom xiii. 5. Compare Theophilus of Antioch To Autolycus, I. 5, 6: "God cannot indeed be seen by human eyes, but is beheld and perceived thorough His providence and works. . . . He is not visible to eyes of flesh,since He is incomprehensible."
8 Song of the Three Children, 32.
9 In Ezekiel i. 6-11, the four living creatures have each four wings, as also in x. 21 according to the Hebrew. But in the latter passage, according to the Vatican text of the Septuagint, each has eight wings, as Codd. R. and Casuab. read here. Cyril seems to have confused the number in Ezekiel with that in Is. vi. 2: each one had six wings. By "a wheel of four sides" Cyril explains Ez. i. 16: a wheel in the midst of a wheel, as meaning two circles set at right angles to each other, like the equator and meridian on a globe.
10 Compare Cat. iv. 4. Irenaeus (I. x. 1): "The Church, though dispersed throughout the whole world, even to the ends of the earth, yet received from the Apostles and their disciples the Faith in One God the Father Almighty, Maker of heaven, and earth, and the sea and all that therein is." Tertullian (de Praescriptione Haeret. cap. xiii.) "The rule of faith is that whereby we believe that there is One God only, and none other than the Creator of the world, who brought forth all things out of nothing through His own Word first of all sent forth."
11 Compare Cat. vi. 13, 27.
12 Gen. i. 6.
13 Ps. xix. 5.
14 The common reading i!na mh\ tou= yu/xouj plei/wn ge/nhtai o 9 xro/noj a'll0 i$na ai 9 nu/ktej, k. t. l. gives a meaning contrary to the facts. The translation follows the Mss. Roe, Casaubon, which omit mh/ and for a'lla/ read kai/. Compare Whewell's Astromony , p. 22: "The length of the year is so determined as to be adapted to the constitution of most vegetables: or the construction of vegetables is so adjusted as to be suited to the length which the year really has, and unsuited to a duration longer or shorter by any considerable portion. The vegetable clock-work is so set as to go for a year." Ibid. p. 34: "The terrestrial day, and consequently the length of the cycle of light and darkness, being what it is, we find various parts of the constitution both of animals and vegetables, which have a periodical character in their functions, corresponding to the diurnal succession of external conditions, and we find that the length of the period, as it exists in their constitution, coincides with the length of the natural day."
15 Ps. xix. 2. Compare a beautiful passage of Theophilus of Antioch (To Autolycus, vi.).
16 See note 3 on Cat. iii. 33.
17 Is. xiv. 7. Compare the Homily of Chrysostom on this text.
18 Whewell, Astromomy. p. 38: "Animals also have a period in their functions and habits; as in the habits of walking, sleeping, eating, &c., and their well-being appears to depend on the coincidence of this period with the length of the natural day."
19 Chrysostom, VI. p. 171: "As the day brings man out to his work, so the night succeeding releases him from his countless toils and thoughts, and lulling His weary eyes to sleep, and closing their lids, prepares him to welcome the sunbeam again with his force in full vigour."
20 Clement of Alexandria (Stromat. IV. 22, E. Tr.): "And in this way they seem to have called the night Euphrone, since then the soul released from the perceptions of sense turns in on itself, and has a truer hold of intelligence (fro/nmrij)."
21 Chrysostom (Tom. II. p. 792): "We usually take the reckoning of our money early in the morning, but of our actions, of all that we have said and done by day, let us demand of ourselves the account after supper, and even after nightfall, as we lie upon our bed, with none to trouble, none to disturb us. And if we see anything done amiss, let us chastise our conscience, let us rebuke our mind, let us so vehemently impugn our account, that we may no more dare to rise up and bring ourselves to the same pit of sin, being mindful of the scourging at night."
22 Clem Alex. (Stromat. VI. 11): "The same is true also of Astronomy, for being engaged in the investigation of the heavenly bodies, as to the form of the universe, and the revolution of the heaven, and the motion of the stars, it brings the soul nearer to the Creative Power, and teaches it to be quick in perceiving the seasons of the year, the changes of the atmosphere, and the risings of the stars; since navigation also and husbandry are full of benefit from this science." Compare Lactantius (De Irâ Dei, cap. xiii.).
23 Gen. i. 14.
24 Job xxxviii. 28.
25 Whewell, Astronomy, p 88: "Clouds are produced by aqueous vapour when it returns to the state of water." p. 89: "Clouds produce rain. In the formation of a cloud the precipitation of moisture probably forms a fine watery powder, which remains suspended in the air in consequence of the minuteness of its particles: but if from any cause the precipitation is collected in larger portions, and becomes drops, these descend by their weight and produce a shower." Compare Aristotle, Meterologica, I. ix. 3: Ansted, Physical Geography, p. 210.
26 Job xxxvii. 22 "Out of the north cometh golden splendour" (R. V.).
27 Job xxxviii. 37.
28 Job xxxvii. 16: "Dost thou know the balancings of the clouds?" In the Septuagint dia/kpisin nefw=n may mean "the separate path of the clouds" (Vulg. "semitas nubium,") or "the dissolving," as in Aristotle (MeterolI. vii. 10: diakri/nesqai kai\ dialu/esqai to\ dia/tmi/zon u 9gro\n u 9po\ tou= plh/qouj th=j qermh=j a'naqumia/sewj, w!ste mh suni/stasqai r 9adi/wj ei/j u!dwr. "The moist vapour is separated and dissolved by the great heat of the evaporation, so that it does not easily condense into water." Cf. Plato, Sophistes 243 B: diakri/seij kai\ sugkri/seij.
29 Job xxxviii. 37 (according to the Septuagint): "And who is he that numbereth the clouds by wisdom, and bent down the heaven to the earth?" A. V., R. V. "Or who can pour out the bottles of heaven?"
30 Job xxvi. 8: "He bindeth up the waters in His thick clouds; and the cloud is not rent under them."
31 Ps. cxxxv. 7.
32 Job xxxviii. 28.
33 Ps. cxlvii. 16: "He scattereth the hoar frost like ashes." The Hebrew dwPp%
is rendered by pa/xnh, "hoar frost," in Job xxxviii. 29, but here by o'mi/xlh, "mist."r
34 Job xxxvii. 10: "the breadth of the waters is straitened" (Marg. R. V. "congealed"). The word oi\aki/zei in the Septuagint means to "steer," Lat. "gubernare" to "turn as by a helm."
35 Ps. civ. 15.