Early Church Fathers
1 Gal. iii. 27.
2 Eph. i. 5.
3 Phil. iii. 21.
4 Heb. iii. 14.
5 Ps. cv. 15.
6 a'nti/tupon. Cat. xx. 6; xxiii. 20. Twice in this section as in Heb. ix. 24 (a'nti/tupa tw=n a'lhqinw=n), a'nti/tupon is the copy or figure representing the original pattern (tu/poj, cf. Acts vii. 44). Otherwise (as in Cat. x. 11; xiii. 19; xxii. 3) tu/poj is the figure to be subsequently realised in the antitype.
7 ei'konikw=j. . . . ei/ko/nej tou= Xristou=.
8 Xrw/twn, literally "tinctures." The Ben. Ed. writes: "For fw/twn we have written xsw/twn with Codd. Coisl. Ottob. Roe, Casaub., &c. . . But we must write xrw/twn from xrw=ta, not xrw=twn from xrw=tej. Authors use the word xrw=ta to signify the effluence of an odour. So Gregory of Nyssa takes it in his 3rd Homily on the Song of Songs, p. 512; and S. Maximus in Question 37 on Scripture: `xrw=ta we say is the godliness (euqsebeian) whereby S. Paul was to theone a savour of life unto life0'. . . In the Procatechesis, § 15, Cyril calls the waters of Baptism u 9da/twn xristofo/rwn e'xo/ntwn eu'wdi/an. If however any one prefers the reading fw/twn, he may defend himself by the authority of Epiphanius, who in the Exposition of the Faith, c. 15, says that Christ descending into the water gave rather than received,. . . . illuminating them, and empowering them for a type of what was to be accomplished in Him." According to the Ebionite Gospel of St. Matthew in Epiphanius (hoer. xxx. Ebionitoe. c. 13), when Jesus came up out of the water a great light shone around the place: a tradition to which the Benedictine Editor thinks the reading fw/twn may refer. Justin M. (Dialog. c. lxxxviii.): "When Jesus had stepped into the water, a fire was kindled in the Jordan." Otto quotes the legend, as found in Orac. Sibyll. vii. 81-83:-
!Oj se Lo/gon ye/nnhse Path/r Pneu=m0 o!rnin a!fhken,
0Ocu\n a'paggelth=ra lo/gwn, Lo/gon u#dasin a 9goi=j
0Rai/nwn, so\n Ba/ptisma di0 ou[ puro\j e'cefaa/nqhj.
9 ou'siw/dhj e'pifoi/hsij e'ge/neto. The Benedictine Editor understands this phrase as an allusion to the descent of the Holy Ghost on Jesus in a substantial bodily form. So Gregory Nazianzen (Orat. xliv. 17), says that the Holy Ghost descended on the Apostles ou'siwdw=j kai\ swmatikw=j. But Anastasius Sinaita interprets ou'siwdw=j in this latter passage as meaning "in the essence and reality of His (Divine ) Person:" and this latter sense agreeing with the frequent use of ou'siwdhj by Athanasius is well rendered by Canon Mason (The Relation of Confirmation to baptism, p. 343, "in the fulness of His being."
10 Cf. Greg. Naz. Orat. xxxix: "The Sprit also bears witness to His Godhead, for he comes to that which is like Himself."
11 Cf. Tertullian, De Baptismo, c. 7: "Exinde egressi de lavacro perungimur benedictâ unetione." It is clear that the Unction mentioned in these passages was conferred at the same time and place as Baptism. Whether it formed part of that Sacrament, or was regarded by Cyril as a separate and independent rite, has been made a matter of controversy. See Index, "Chrism."
12 Is. lxi. 1.
13 Acts. x. 38.
14 Ps. xlv. 6, 7.
15 nohtw= cannot here be translated "spiritual" because of pneumati/kh=j immediately following. Cf. i. 4, note.
16 Compare xix. 7; xxiii. 7, 19: and the section on "Eucharist" in the Introduction.
17 Xristou= xa/pisma kai\ Pneu/matoj a'gi/ou parousi/a th=j au'tou= Qeo/htoj e'nerghtiko\n gino/menon. The meaning of this passage seems to have been obscured by divergent views of the order and construction of the words. In the Oxford translation, followed by Dr. Pusey (Real Presence, p. 357), the Chrism is "the gift of Christ, and by the presence of His godhead it caused in us the Holy Ghost."" The order of the operations proper to the two Divine Persons seems thus to be inverted.
According to the Benedictine Editor, and Canon Mason (Relation of Confirmation to Baptism, p. 344), it is "Christ's gracious gift, and is made effectual to convey the Holy Ghost by the presence of His own Godhead," - i.e. apparently, the Godhead of the Holy Ghost conveys the Holy Ghost.
But according to the context "the presence" must be that of the Divine Person who has been invoked, namely the Holy Ghost: and this is clearly expressed in the order of the words Pneu/matoj a 9gi/ou parousi/a th=j au'tou= qeo/thtoj e'nerghtiko/n. The connexion of the words Pn. a 9g. parousi/a is put beyond doubt by the Invocation in the Liturgy of S. James quoted in Myst. V. 7, note 8. The true meaning thus seems to be that the Chrism is Christ's gift of grace, and imparts His Divine nature by the presence of the Holy Ghost after the Invocation. This meaning is confirmed by the formula given in Apost. Const. vii. 44, for the consecration of the Chrism: "Grant also now that this ointment may be made effectual in the baptized, that the sweet savour of Thy Christ may remain firm and stable in him, and that, having died with Him, he may rise again and live with Him." The Chrism is thus regarded as "the Seal" which confirms the proper benefits of Baptism.
18 e'pi/ metw/pon kai\ tw=n a!llwn sou ai'sqhthri/wn. The forehead may be regarded as representing the sense of touch; or we may translate, according to the idiomatic use of a!lloj, "thy forehead and thine organs of sense besides." See Winer, Grammar of N. T. Greek, P. III. Sect. lix. 7: Riddell, Digest of Platonic Idioms, § 46.
19 2 Cor. iii. 18.
20 Is. l. 4.
21 Matt. xi. 15.
22 2 Cor. ii. 15.
23 Eph. vi. 14, and 11.
24 Phil. iv. 13.
25 1 Kings i. 39.
26 Rom . xi. 16.
27 1 John ii. 20: But ye have an unction (xpi=sma) from the Holy One.
28 Is. ii. 2.
29 Ib. xxv. 6. The Septuagint differs much from the Hebrew, both here and in the following verse. R.C. "And in this mountain shall the Lord of host make unto all people a feast of fat things, a feast of wines on the lees, of fat things full of marrow, of wines on the lees well refined."
30 Ib. v. 7. R.V. "And He will destroy in this mountain the face of the covering that is cast over all peoples, and the veil that is spread over all nations."
1 au'th= found in all Mss. is changed for the worse into au!th by the Benedictine Editor.
2 Introduction, "Eucharist." The word su/sswmoi has a different sense in Eph. iii. 6, where it is applied to the Gentiles as having been made members of Christ's body the Church.
3 1 Cor. xi. 23. The clause "and gave to His disciples" is an addition taken form Matt. xxvi. 26. The part relating to the cup does not correspond exactly either with St. Paul's language or with the Evangelist'.
4 oi'kei=on ai!mati. Cod. Scirlet. (Grodecq), Mesm. (Morel), Vindob.; Ben. Ed. oi'kei/w neu/mati, Codd. Monac. 1, 2, Genovef Vatt. (Prevot.). Rupp. The whole passage is omitted in Codd. Coisl. R. Casaub. owing to the repetition of ai\ma
The reading oi'kei/w neu/mati, "by His own will," introduces a superfluous thought, and destroys the very point of Cyril's argument, in which the previous change of water into an element so different as wine is regarded as giving an a fortiori probability t the change of that which is already "akin to blood" into blood itself.
If Cyril thus seems to teach a physical change of the wine, it must be remembered that we are not bound to accept his view, but only to state it accurately. See however the section of the introduction on his Eucharistic doctrine.
5 e 9qanmatou/rghse th\n paradocopoii/an. Cf. Chryost. Epist I. ad Olympiad. de Deo, § 1, c.: to/te qaumatourgei= kai\ paradocopoiei=.
6 Matt. ix. 15.
7 Ben. Ed.: "That the force of Cyril's argument may be the better understood, we must observe that in Baptism is celebrated the marriage of Christ with the Christian soul; and that the consummation of this marriage is perfected through the union of bodies in the mystery of the Eucharist. Read Chrysostom's Hom. xx. in Ephes." Chrysostom's words are: "In like manner therefore we become one flesh with Christ by participation (metousi/aj)." But the participation expressed by metonsi/a does not necessarily refer to the Eucharist. From the use of the word in Cat. xxiii. 11, and in Athanasius (Contra Arianos, Or. i.;; de Synodis. 19, 22, 25) the meaning rather seems to be that we are one flesh with Christ not by nature but by His gift.
8 See Index, Tu/poj,m and the references there, and Waterland, On the Eucharist, c. vii.
9 Xristofo/roi gino/meqa. Procat. 15.
10 Ben. Ed.: "0Anadidome/nou. The Codices Coisl. Roe, Casaub. Scirlet. Ottob. 2. Genovef. have a'nadedegme/noi, which does not agree well with the Genitives tou= sw/matoj and tou= ai!matoj. It is evident that it was an ill-contrived emendation of a'nadidome/non, the transcribers being offended at the distribution of Christ's Body among our members. But Cyril uses even the same word in Cat. xxiii. 9: Ou[toj o 9 a!rtoj. . . . ei'j pa=sa/n sou th\n su/stasin a'nadi/dotai, ei=j w'fe/leian sw/matoj kai\ yuxh=j, `This Bread is distributed into thy whole system, to the benefit of body and soul.0'" 0Anadidome/non is the reading of Milles and Rupp. For similar language see Justin M. Apol. i. 66; Iren. V. ii. 2.
11 2 Pet. i. 4.
12 John vi. 53.
13 Ben. Ed.: "Here we are to understand (by o 9 Lo/goj) the Divine Word, not the bare discourse of God, but the second Person of the Holy Trinity, Christ Himself, the Bread of Heaven, as He testifies of Himself, John, vi. 51: Him Cyril contrasts with the earthly shew-bread in the O.T.; otherwise he could not rightly from this sentence infer, by the particle ou\n, "therefore, "that the Eucharist is truly the Body and Blood of Christ. And since he says, in Cat. xxiii. 15, that the Eucharistic food is "appointed for the substance of the soul," for its benefit, that cannot be said of Christ's body or of His soul, but only of the Word which is conjoined with both. Moreover that the Divine Word is the food of Angels and of the soul, is a common mode of speaking with all the Fathers. They often play on the ambiguity of this word (lo/goj), saying sometimes that the Divine Word, sometimes the word and oracles of God, are the food of our souls: both statements are true. For the whole life-giving power of the Eucharist is derived from the Word of God untied to the flesh which He assumed: and the whole benefit of Eucharistic eating consists in the union of our soul with the Word, in meditation on His mysteries and sayings, and conformity thereto."
14 Ps. xxiii. 5.
15 h'lisghme/nhn, a good restoration by Milles, with Codd. Roe, Casaub, Coislin. The earlier printed texts had h'lugismi/hn, "overshadowed." Cf. Mal. i. 7: a!rtouj h'lisghme/nouj, . . . . Tra/peza Kupi/ou h'lisghme/nh e'sti/n.
16 Cyril refers to the idolatrous feasts, which St. Paul calls "the table of devils," 1 Cor. x. 21.
17 Ps. xxiii. 5.
18 Ex. xxviii. 36: Ecclus. xlv. 12. The plate of pure gold on the forefront of Aaron's mitre was engraved with the motto, Holy unto the Lord. This symbolism Cyril transfers to the sacramental Chism, in which the forehead is signed with ointment, and the soul with the seal of God.
19 Ps. xxiii. 5: My cup runneth over. Eusebius (Dem. Evang. I. c. 10, § 28) applies the Psalm, as Cyril does, to the Eucharist.
20 Matt. xxvi. 28.
21 Eccles. ix. 7, 8.
22 For prose/lqhj (Bened.) we must read prosh=lqej, or with Monac. 1, proselqei=n.
23 Is. lxi. 10.
24 On this passage see the section of the Introduction referred to in the Index, "Eucharist."
25 Ps. civ. 15.
26 2 Cor. iii. 18.
1 This title is added by the Benedictine Editor. There is nothing corresponding to it in the Greed.
2 The text is made up from memory of James i. 21: dio\ a'poqe/menoi pa=san r 9upari/an, and 1 Pet. ii. 1: a'poqe/menoi ou\n pa=san kaki/an kai= pa/nta do/lon kai= u 9pokri/seij kai\ pa/saj katalali/aj.
3 In the Apostolic Constitutions, VIII. xi this duty is assigned to a sub-deacon: "Let one of the sub-deacons bring water to wash the hands of the priests, which is a symbol of the purity of those souls that e are devoted to God." See Dictionary of Christian Antiquities,, "Lavabo." The Priest who celebrates the Eucharist is here distinguished by the title i 9ereu/j from the other Presbyters who stood round the altar.
4 Cyril evidently refers to the custom of placing vessels of water outside the entrance of the Church. Bingham, Antiquities, VIII. iii. 6. Chrysost. In Johannem Hom. lxxiii. 3: ""Do we then wash our hands when going into Church, and shall we not wash our hearts also?" That the same custom was observed in heathen Temples appears form Herod. I. 51: perir'r 9anth/ria du/o a'ne/qhke (See Bähr's note). compare also Joseph. Ant. Jud. III. vi. 2.
5 [tw=] /iyasqai. Rupp: "Tw= ex conjectura addidi." Possibly the original reading was niya/menoi which would easily become altered through the presence of niyasqai in the preceding line. This washing is not mentioned in the Liturgy of St. James.