Early Church Fathers
6 Ps. xxvi. 6. In the Liturgy of Constantinople this Psalm was changed by the Priest and Deacon while washing their hands at the Prothesis or Credence.
8 These two directions by the Deacon are separated in the Liturgy of St. James: after the dismissal of the Catechumens, the Deacon says, "Take note one of another;" and after the Incense, Cherubic hymn, Oblation, Creed, and a short prayer "that we may be united one to another in the bond of peace and charity," the Deacon says, "Let us salute (a'gapw=men) one another with a holy kiss." In the Apostolic Constitutions, VIII. 11, there is but one such direction, and this comes before the washing of hands and the dismissal of the Catechumens, "Salute (a'spa/sasqe) ye one another with a holy kiss."
9 Matt. v. 23. from Cyril's reference to this passage "it may be inferred that the kiss of peace had been given before the gifts were brought to the altar, according to ancient custom attested by Justin M. Apolog. i. c. 65 `Having ended the prayers0' (for the newly baptized) `we salute one another with a kiss. Then there is brought to the President of the brethren bread, and a cup of wine mixed with water0'" (Ben. Ed.). There is the same order in the Apost. Const. VIII. 12,, and in the 19th Canon, of the Synod of Laodicea; but in the Liturgy of S. James the gifts are offered before the kiss of peace.
10 1 Cor. xvi. 20
11 1 Pet. iii. 15.
12 The words are slightly varied in the Liturgies: thus in the Liturgy of St. James, "Let us lift up our mind and hearts;" in the Apost. Const. viii. 12, "Lift up your mind."
13 Compare the noble Eucharistic Preface in the Liturgy of St. James: "It is verily meet, right, becoming, and our bounded duty to praise Thee, to sing of Thee, to bless Thee, to worship Thee, to glorify Thee, to give thanks to Thee the Maker of every creature, visible and invisible, the Treasure of eternal blessings; the Fount of life and immortality, the God and Lord of all, whom the heavens of heavens do praise, and all the powers thereof, sun and moon and all the choir of the stars, earth, sea, and all that in them is, Jerusalem the heavenly assembly, Church of the firstborn that are written in the heavens, spirits of righteous men and prophets, souls of martyrs and Apostles. Angels, Archangels, Thrones, Dominions, Principalities, Authorities, and Powers dread, also the many -eyed Cherubim, and the six-winged Seraphim, which with twain of their wings cover their faces, and with twain their feet, and with twain do fly, crying one to another with unresting lips, in unceasing praises, singing with loud voice the triumphant hymn of Thy majestic glory, shouting, and glorifying, and crying aloud, and saying, -Holy, Holy, Holy, O Lord of Hosts, heaven and earth are full of Thy glory. Hosanna in the highest; blessed is He that cometh in the mane of the Lord; Hosanna in the highest."
14 Ps. xxxiv. 3.
15 Is. vi. 2, 3.
16 qeologi/an, "the doctrine of the Godhead," either of the Son in particular, or, ads here, of the whole Trinity: cf. Athanas. Contra Arianos, Or. I. § 18: nu=n e'n tri/adi h 9 qeologi/a telei/a e'sti/n .
17 In the Liturgy of St. James the Triumphal Hymn is followed by the `Recital of the work of Redemption.0' and of `the Institution.0' by the `Great Olbation,0' and then by the `Invocation,0' as follows: "Have mercy upon us, O God, after Thy great mercy, and send forth on us, and on these gifts here set before Thee, Thine all-holy Spirit,. . . . that He may come, and by His holy, good, and glorious advent (parousi/a) may sanctify this Bread and make it the holy Body of Thy Christ (Amen). and this Cup the precious Blood of Thy Christ" (Amen). In Cat. xix. 7, Cyril calls this prayer "the holy Invocation of the Adorable Trinity," and in xxi. 3, "the Invocation of the Holy Ghost."
18 See Index, "Sacrifice," and the reference there to the Introduction. Compare Athenagoras (Apol. c. xiii.): "What have I to do with burnt-offerings, of which God has no need? Though indeed it behoves us to bring a bloodless sacrifice, and the reasonable service."
19 Cyril here gives a brief summary of the "Great Intercession," in which, according to the common text of the Liturgy of St. James, there is a suffrage "for the peace and welfare (eu'sta/qeia) of the whole world, and of the holy Churches of God." Mr. Hammond thinks that it has been taken form the Deacon's Litany, and repeated by mistake in the Great Intercession. But from Chrysotom's language (In Ep. ad Phil. Hom. iii. p. 218; Guame, T. xi. p. 251), we must infer that the prayer u 9pe\r ei'ri/nhj kai\ eu'staqei/aj tou= ko/smon formed part of the `Great Intercession0'in his Liturgy, as it does in the Clementine (Apost. Constit. VIII. § 10).
20 In the Liturgies of St. James and St. Mark, and in the Clementine, there are similar commemorations of departed saints, especially "patriarchs, prophets, apostles, martyrs," but nothing corresponding to the words, "that at their prayers and intercessions God would receive our petition." See Index, Prayer and Intercession.
21 So Cyrysostom (In 1 Cor. Hom. 41, p. 457 A): "Not in vain was this rule ordained by the Apostles, that in the dread Mysteries remembrance should be made of the departed: for they know that it is a great gain to them, and a great benefit."
22 oi\ tou/toij diafe/rontej. "Hesychius, Diafe/rei, a'nh/kei. Ubi Kesterus ait, a'nh/kei, id est. "pertinet," vel "attinet" Routh, Scriptor. Eccles, Opuscula, p. 441). Dr. Routh's note refers to Nicoeni Conc. Can. xvi.: u 9farpa/sai to\n tw= e 9te/rw diafe/pouta. Cf. Synodi Nic. ad Alexandrinos Epist.: diafe/ronta th= Ai'gu/ptw kai= th\ a'giwta/th 0Alecandre/wn e'kklhoi/j.
23 According to the Ben. Ed. the meaning is not "We offer Christ, who was sacrificed for our sins," but "We offer for our sins Christ sacrificed." i.e. "Christ lying on the altar as a victim sacrificed," in allusion to Apoc. V. 6, 12. See Index, "Sacrifice."
24 1 Cor. xv. 49.
25 2 Cor. vi. 16.
26 Is. lii. 5; Rom. ii. 24.
27 Rom. vi. 12.
28 Ps. ciii. 20.
29 "It is manifest that the author derives the word e'piou/sioj form the tow words e'pi/ and ou'si/a, as do many others: although the explanation which derives it from e'piou/sh h 9me/ra is more probable. We render it "substantial" in accordance with Cyril's meaning, with which the word "super-substantial does to agree" (Ben. Ed.).
30 Matt. xv. 17.
31 Cat. xxii. § 3, note 1. Ben. Ed. "We are not to think that Cyril supposed the Body of Christ to be distributed and digested into our body; but in the usual way o speaking he attributes to the Holy Body that which belongs only to the species under which It is hidden. Nor does he deny that those species pass into the draught, but only the Body of Christ." Cf. Iren. V. ii. 2,3, and "Eucharistic Doctrine" in the Introduction.
32 Heb. iii. 15.
33 1 John i. 8. We deceive ourselves.
34 Tertull. De Bapt. c. 20: "For the word had gone before `that no one untempted should attain to the celestial kingdoms.0'" Apost. Conste. II. viii.: "The Scripture says, `A man that is a reprobate (a'do/kimoj) is not tried (a'pei/rastoj) by God.0'" Resch, Agrapha, Logion 26, p. 188, quotes allusions to the saying in Ja. i. 12, 13; 2 Cor. xiii. 5, 6, 7, and concludes that it was recorded as a saying of our Lord in one of the un-canonical gospels (Luke i. 1), where it occurred in the context of the incident narrated in Matt. xxvi. 41, Mark xiv. 38.
35 Jas. i. 2.
36 a'pepni/gh. Matt. xxvii. 5: a'ph/gcato.
37 Compare the description of Peter's repentance in Cat. ii. 19.
38 Ps. lxvi. 10-12.
39 For e'mparh=nai the Ben. Ed. conjectures e'mpagh=nai "to have been stuck fast."
40 Cyril is here a clear witness for the reference of tou= ponhrou= to "the wicked one."
41 From § 14, eu'xo/menoj tou=to le/geij, it seems probable that the whole Prayer was said by the people as well as by the Priest. See Introduction, "Eucharistic Rites."
42 Compare Waterland on this passage, c. X. p 688.
43 Apost. Const. VIII. c. xiii: "Let the Bishop speak thus to the people: Holy things for holy persons. And let the people answer: There is One that is holy; there is one Lord, one Jesus Christ, blessed for ever, to the glory of God the Father." The Liturgies of St. James and of Constantinople have nearly the same words: in the Liturgy of St. Mark the answer of the people is: One Father holy, one Son holy, one Spirit holy, in the unity of the Holy Spirit.
44 Ps. xxxiv. 9. In the Apolstolic Constitutions the "Sacnat Sanctis" and its response are immediately followed by the "Gloria in excelsis," and the "Hosanna." Then the Clergy partake, and there follows a direction that this Psalm xxxiv. is to be said while all the rest are partaking. In the Liturgy of Constantinople there is the direction: "The Choir sings the communion antiphon (to\ koinwniko/n) of the day or the saint."
45 For mh\ e 9pitre/phte, probably an itacism, we should read mh\ e'pitre/petai, as a question, the propriety of the change being indicated by the answer ou/xi/. "Is the judgment of this entrusted to the bodily palate? No, but, &c."
46 a\ntitu/pou sw/matoj, "the antitypical Body," not "the antitype of the Body," which would require tou= sw/mato". Cf. Cat. xxi. § 1, note 6.
47 Cat. xviii. 32: "with what reverence and order you must go form Baptism to the Holy Altar of God."
48 Cyril appears to be the earliest authority for thus placing the hands in the form of a Cross. A similar direction is given in the 101st Canon of the Trullan Council (a692), and by Joh. Damasc. (De Fid. Orthod. iv. 14). Dict. Chr. Ant. "Communion." That the communicant was to receive the Bread in his own hands I clear from the language of Cyril and other Fathers. Cf. Clem. Alex. Strom. I. c. i. § 5: "Some after dividing the Eucharist according to custom allow each of the laity himself to take his part." See the passage of Origen quoted in the next note, and Tertull. Cor. Mil. c. iii. "The Sacrament of the Eucharist, which the Lord commanded both (to be taken) at meal-times and by all, we take even in assemblies before dawn, and form the hand of none but the presidents."
49 Origen. Hom. xiii. in Exod.§ 3: "I wish to admonish you by examples form your own religion: ye, who have been accustomed to attend the Sacred Mysteries, know how, when you receive the Body of the Lord, you guard it with all care and reverence, that no little part of it fall down, no portion of the consecrated gift slip away. For ;you believe yourselves guilty, and rightly so believe, if any part thereof fall through carelessness."
50 ku/ptwn, not kneeling, but standing in a bowing posture. Cf. Bingham, XV. c. 5, § 3.
51 Apost. Const. VIII. c. 13: "Let the Bishop give the Oblation (prosfora/n) saying, The Body of Christ. And let him that receiveth say, Amen. And let the Deacon hold the Cup, and when he delivers it say, The Blood of Christ, the Cup of Life. And let him that drinketh say, Amen."
52 Cat. xxi. 3, note 8.
53 In the Liturgy of St. James, after all have communicated, "The Deacons and the People say: Fill our mouths with Thy praise, O Lord, and fill our lips with joy, that we may sing of Thy glory, of Thy greatness, all the day. And again: We render thanks to Thee, Christ our God, that Thou hast accounted us worthy to partake of Thy Body and Blood, &c."
1 Isa. lxvi. 5.
2 Ex. iv. 10.
3 Jer. i. 6.
4 Ex. iv. 27.
5 Isa. I. 6.
6 Mystery, according to Nicetas, is frequently used by S. Gregory in the sense of Festival. He also explains the Anointing as meaning the Imposition of hands at Ordination.
7 Ex. xii. A fine piece of mystical interpretation.
8 1 Cor. v. 8.
9 2 Cor. viii. 9.