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214 Cf. §§3 and 5.

215 S. Matt. xviii. 20.

216 The Council of Ariminum (Rimini on the Adriatic coast of Italy) was held in 359 a.d., Constantius being Emperor. "The Bishops who attended the Council of Ariminum," observes Hurter, "to the number of more than 400, informed the Emperor that they had resolved to allow no change in what had been determined upon at Nicaea. This is the `first confession. 0' That great confession, however, was not maintained for long. Partly overawed by the Emperor partly deceived by the Arians, the Bishops agreed to strike out the words `substance 0' and `consubstantial. 0' After this came the `correction, 0' which Ambrose calls the `second, 0' being made either by those Bishops who, recognizing their error, withdrew the decrees of the Council held at riminum, or by the Councils that followed-namely, the Councils of Alexandria (presided over by Athanasius), of Paris (362 a.d.), and of Rome (held under Pope Damasus, in a.d. 369)."

217 S. John i. 1-3.

218 Acts i. 18. Arius seems to have been carried off by a terrible attack of cholera or some kindred malady. See Newman, Arians of the Fourth Century, Ch. 3. §2, and Robertson, History of the Christian Church, vol 1. pp. 301-2, ed. 1875.

219 (1) "the word spoken," etc.-Ps. xlv. 1. Eructavit cor meum verbum bonum.-Vulg. echreucato h kardia mou logon agaqon.-LXX. (2) "sons by adoption."-Gal. iv. 4, 5.

220 S. John viii. 14.

221 St. Ambrose' version differs in expression from the Vulg.-Ego enim Dominus et non mutor (Mal. iii. 6)-but not in substance, for Ego sum Dominus and "I am the Lord" both mean "I am He who is"-(o wn)-which is very well represented by Ego sum, Ego sum-"I am, I am."-Cf. Ex. iii. 14.

222 Is. vi. 5. Contrast the Vulgate-Vae mihi, quia tacui, quia vir pollutus labiis ego sum, et in media papuli polluta labia habentis ego habito, et regem, Dominum exercituum vidi oculis meis; and the LXX.-w talaz egw oti katanenugmai (compuncto corde sum) oti anqrwpoz wn kai akaqarta xeilh exwn ...k. t. l. . ...kai ton basilea kurion sabawq cido/ toiz ofqalmoiz mou." A.V. 1611-"Woe is me, for I am undone. ...and mine eyes have seen the King, the Lord of Hosts.

223 Ps. xxxix. 1, Ps. xxxix. 2; Ps. cxli. 3, Ps. cxli. 4.

224 St. Ambrose contrasts the appearance of the Seraph to Isaiah in a vision with our Lord's appearance to men in everyday life, in the flesh, see Is. vi. 6, 7, and 1 Tim. iii. I6.

225 Ps. lxxi. 22, Ps. lxxi. 23.

226 Is i. 18.

227 i.e., not of the old Dispensation-not provided for in the Mosaic ritual; also, not belonging to the old Creation, but a pledge and premonition of the new (Rev. xxi. 5).

228 Cf. S. John vi. 32, John vi. 50-51.

229 Judg. ix. 13.

230 St. Ambrose seems to refer to the phenomena of narcosis rather than those of alcoholic inebriation.

231 Cf. 1 Tim. v. 22: mhde koinwnei amartiaiz allotriaij.

232 S. Matt. xix. 21.

1 or "that God's Son is true God." "very God."

2 S. John i. 14, John i. 18; Heb. i. 5; Rom. ix. 5; Rom. i. 3-4; S. John i. 1-3, John i. 14.

3 Heb. i. 3; S. John xiv. 9; Col. i. 15.

4 1 Cor. i. 24; S. John xiv. 6; John xi. 25.

5 i.e., o wn. Ex. iii. 14 (LXX.)-kai eipen o eoj proz Mwushn, legwn Egw eimi o Wn. Cf. S. John viii. 58; John xviii. 6; Rev. i. 4 and 8; Rev. iv. 8.

6 S. John viii. 42; John xvi. 27-8.

7 Heb i. 3. apangasma thj dochj kai xarakthr thj urostasewj auton. 'ipostasij is rendered "person" in the A.V. The R.V. 1881 has "effulgence of His glory and very image of His substance," and in the margin "the impress of His substance." The Son does not reproduce the person of the Father-otherwise there would be no distinction, but confusion, of Persons, but He does reproduce or represent the substance, or essence, of the Father-i.e., the logoj thj ousiaj is the same for both Persons.

8 "speculum Dei"-lit. "mirror of God."

9 Jer. x. 10; S. John xiv. 6; John xvii. 3; 1 John v. 20.

10 Deut. v. 26; Rom. xiv. 11; S. John xi. 25; John v. 26; 1 John i. 2; 1 John v. 20.

11 See Ex. xxviii. 15-21. The precious stones set in the breastplate are named as follows:

12 Aaron the type of Christ the Priest. See Heb. iv. 15; Heb. v. 1-5; Heb. vii. 28; Heb. viii. 7.

13 Acts xvii. 28.

14 sc. to the name and title of God.

15 See Heb. i. 3. "Splendor" is St. Ambrose's rendering of apaugasma. Theodoret says: "The radiance" (or "effulgence") "of a fire comes from it and accompanies it. The fire causes the radiance, but the radiance is inseparable from the fire. Also the radiance of the fire is of the same nature with it; so also is the Son of the same nature with the Father." Theophylact-"The sun is never seen without his radiance, and we cannot think of a father without his child." Delitzsch-"It is no nimbus around God that is here called His "glory." but God's own inconceivable. spiritual fire and brightness (die ubersinnliche geistige Feuer und Lichtnatur Gottes selber), which He, in order to reveal Himself to Himself, makes an object to Himself" (aus sich heraussetzt).

16 "The act of knowing and comprehending all things necessarily includes the expression of mind-work or wisdom, that is, the Word, and without this it cannot even be conceived of. Rightly, then, did the Fathers deduce the eternity of the Word from the eternity of the Father."-Hurter, ad loc.

17 St. Ambrose's rendering of this passage (Job xxxviii. 36) agrees with the LXX.-tij de edwke gunaicin ufasmotoj sofian, h poikiltikhn elisthmhn. The A.V. 1611 has: "Who hath put wisdom in the inward parts? or who hath given nnderstanding to the heart?" R.V. has "dark clouds" and "meteor" as marginal substitutes for "inward parts" and "heart." Vulgate-Quis posuit in visceribus hominis sapientiant? vel quis dedit gallo intelligentiam?

18 Ex. xxxv. 27. kai oi arxontej hnegkan touj liqouj thj smaragdou kai touj liqouj thj plhrwsewj eij thn epwmida kai to logeion.- LXX. Lapides onycninos et gemmas ad superhumerale et rationale.-Vulg. "Stones to be set."-A.V. & R.V. The LXX. gives the closest rendering of the Hebrew.

19 Proverbs xxxi. 21 (22). St Ambrose appears to follow the LXX., whose rendering of the passage is different from the Vulgate, with which our English versions agree. With what follows in the text, cf. Ex. xxviii. 33, 34, also Ex. xxviii. 5, 6.

20 Ps. xii. 6 (Ps. xi. 6 Vulg.), Ps. xii. 7 (Ps. xi. 7 Vulg.). Cf. Prov. xxx. 5.

21 These colours entered into the fashioning of the High Priest's Ephod (Ex. xxviii. 5, 6) and the Vail of the Tabernacle. Probably a little symbolism was attached to the ornaments of Ahasuerus' palace of Susa, "where were white, green, and blue" (or violet) "hangings fastened with cords of fine linen and purple to silver rings and pillars of marble: the beds were of gold and silver upon a pavement of red and blue and white and black marble." White and green might represent the earth, blue the air, purple the sea and water generally, in the curtains: whilst in the variegated marble pavement, red would naturally symbolize fire, blue the air, white water (as colourless when pure), black earth (the soil). Notice "the air we breathe," etc.-"Aëris quem spiramus et cujus carpimus flatum." Compare Virgil, Aeen. I. 387, 388.

22 This was supposed by some of the Ionic philosophers to be the explanation of perception. We perceived earth, they supposed, by reason of the earthly constituent of our organism.

23 S. James ii. 14-26.

24 i.e. if it is possible for Him to ascend to a higher plane of existence.

25 i.e. He is a son "by adoption," as one of ourselves.

26 i.e. He may not have as yet actually sinned, but it is within the range of possibility for Him-He is, as Hurter expresses it in his note, "auctor malitioe si non actu, saltem potentia."

27 S. Mark x. 18.

28 "Sensus in crimine." The "sense of a passage" is not something in the passage itself so much as our understanding of it. In other words, the genitive after "sense" is objective, not possessive.

29 Lat.-"non quod singularitatis, sed quod unitatis est, proedicatur." The Son is "in the nature of God" inasmuch as the eternal Fatherhood of God implies an Eternal Son-His eternal Love an eternal object of that Love.

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