Early Church Fathers
2 This creed is plainly given by Cassian as the baptismal formula of the Church of Antioch; and with almost verbally a fragment of the Creed preserved in a Contestatio comparing Nestorius to Paul of Samosata (a.d.. 429, or 430) which is said by Leontius to have been the work of Eusebius afterward Bishop of Dorylaeum. The form is especially interesting as showing that the Creed of Antioch, in common with several other Eastern Creeds, underwent revision, probably about the middle of the fourth century, from the desire to enrich the local creed with Nicene phraseology. The insertions which are obviously due to the Creed of Nicaea are: non factum, Deum verum ex Deo vero, homoousion petri, or as they would run in the original ou0 poihqe/nta, Qeo\n a0lhqino\n e0k Qeou= a0liqinou=, o9moou/sion tw[ Patri, and it has been suggested that they were probably introduced at the Synod held at Antioch under Meletius in 363. Similar forms of local creeds thus enlarged by the adoption of Nicene phraseology are (1) that of Jenusalem as given by Cyril in his Catechetical Lectures, (a) the Creed of Cappadocia, (3) that of Mesopotamia, and (4) the "Creed of Charisius" preserved in the Acts of the Council of Ephesus (Mansi. IV. 1348). On all of these see Dr. Hort's "Two Dissertations." p. 110 sq. Another interesting feature in the Creed as given by Cassian is that it was in the singular "Credo," I believe; whereas the Eastern Creeds are almost all in the plural pisteu/omen. That however which is found in the Apostolical Constitutions (VII. xli.) has the singular pisteu/w kai\ bapti/zomai, and therefore it is possible that Cassian may have preserved the original form here. It is however more probable that the singular Credo is due to a reminiscence of the form current in the Western church, which has influenced the translation. See further Hahn's Bibliothek des Symbole p. 64 sq.
3 Cassian nowhere quotes the last section of the Creed of Antioch, as it did not concern the question at issue. A few clauses of it may however be recovered from S. Chrysostom's Homilies (In 1 Cor. Hom. xl. § 2); viz, kai ei0j a9martiw=n a@fesin kai\ ei0j nekrw=n a0na/stasin kai\ ei0j zwh\n ai0w/nion.
4 Symbolus, or more commonly and correctly Symbolum (= su/mbolon) is the general name for the creed in the ancient church, met with from the days of Cyprian (who uses it more than once, e.g., Ep. lxix.) onwards. In the account which Cassian gives in the text of the origin, of the name he is certainly copying Rufinus (whose exposition of the Apostles' Creed is directly quoted by him below in Book VII. c. xxvii.). The passage which Cassian evidently has in his mind is the following: "Moreover for many and excellent reasons they determined that it should be called Symbolum. For `Symbolum0' in Greek may mean both Indicium (a token) and collatio (a collection), that is, that which several bring together into one; for the apostles effected this in these sentences by bringing together into one what each thought good.... Therefore being about to depart to preach, the apostles appointed that token of their unanamity and faith" (Ruf. De Symb. § 2). Cf. also § 1. "In these words there is truly discovered the prophecy which says: `Completing His work and cutting it short in righteousness, because a short work will the Lord make upon the earth.0'" This explanation, however, of the origin of the term labours under the fatal mistake of confusing two distinct Greek words sumbolh/ a "collection," and su/mbolon on a "watchword:" and the true explanation of the word is probably that which Rufinus gives as an alternative, which gives it the meaning of "watchword." It was the watchword of the Christian soldier, carefully and jealously guarded by him, as that by which he could himself be distinguished from heretics, and that for which he could challenge others of whose orthodoxy he might be in doubt.
5 Rom. ix. 28.
6 Viz., Constantinople, where Nestorius was Bishop and where Cassian himself had been ordained deacon by S. Chrysostom, as he tells us below in Book VII. c. xxxi., where he returns to the subject of his love for the city of his ordination, and interest in it.
7 Gal. iv. 4.
8 Ps. xliv. (xlv.) 17.
9 S. John viii. 58.
10 Persius Sat. iii. l. 116. . . "quod ipse non sani esse hominis non sanus juret Orestes."
11 Petschenig's text is as follows: Ut quid doceas Christianos ? Christum non credere, cum ipsum in cujus Dei templo sint Deum negare. Gazaeus edits: Ut quid doces Christianos, Christum non credens ? Cum ipsum, in cujus Dei templo sunt, Deum neges.
12 Cicero in Verr. Act. II. Book l. xv. 40.
13 Ut, quia tu esse nolis quod omnes sint omnes sins, quod tu velis (Petschenig). Gazaeus has: Et quia tu esse nolis quod omnes sunt quod tu velis: a text which he confesses must be corrupt.
14 The reference is the ceremony known as the Traditio Symboli, which is thus described by Professor Lumby . "The practice of the early church in the admission of converts to baptism seems to have been of this nature. For some period previous to their baptism (the usual seasons for which were Easter and Pentecost) the candidates for admission thereto were trained in the doctrines of the faith by the presbyters. A few days before they were to be baptized ( the number of days varying at different periods) the Creed was delivered to them accompanied with a sermon. The ceremony was known as Traditio Symboli, the delivery of the Creed. At the time of Baptism each candidate was interrogated upon the articles of the Creed which he had received, and was to return an answer in the words which had been given to him. This was known as Redditio Symboli, the repetition of the Creed, and Baptism was the only occasion on which the Creed was introduced into any public service of the Church." History of the Creeds, pp. 11, 12.
15 1 Cor. i. 23, 24.
18 Homoousios parienti debet esse nativitas.
19 St. John iii. 6.
20 S. Matt. i. 20.
21 Phil. ii. 7, 8; S. John i. 14; 2 Cor. viii. 9.
22 Cf. Augustine, Tr. 78 in Joan.
23 1 John ii. 23.
24 ab inferis.
25 Eph. iv. 10.
27 S. John xi. 27.
28 S. Matt. xvi. 16.
29 S. John xx. 28.
30 Phil. ii. 7, 8.
31 Heb. xiii. 8.