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From Constantine the Great to Gregory the Great, a.d. 314-590.


Comp. the lists in vol. ii. 166 sqq., and vol. iv. 205 Sqq.


This list is based upon Jaffé's Regesta, Potthast's Biblioth. Hist. Medii Aevi, and Cardinal Hergenröther's list, in his Kirchengesch., third ed. (1886), vol. iii. 1057 sqq.








Constantine I, or The Great

306 (323)-337


Silvester I





Constantine II (in Gaul)



Julius I

Constantius II (In the East)




Constans (In Italy)







Filix II, Antipope

Constantius Alone












Valentinian I







Ursicinus, Antipope





Valentinian II (in the West)








Arcadius (in the East)



Innocent I

Honorius (in the West)




Theodosius II (E.)






 (418 Dec. 27)

(Eulalius, Antipope)




Coelestinus I

Valentinian III (W.)



Sixtus III




Leo I the Great

Marcian (E.)




Maximus Avitus (W.)




Majorian (W.)




Leo I. (E.)




Severus (W.)




Vacancy (W.)




Anthemius (W.)




Olybrius (W.)




Glycerius (W.)




Julius Nepos (W.)




Conciliengeschichte, Freiburg i. B. 1855 sqq.; second revised ed. 1873 sqq., 7 vols., down to the Council of Florence (1447).


Page 353. Add to footnote:

The reign of Pope Pius IX. has added another Council to the Latin list of oecumenical Councils, that of the Vatican, 1870, which is counted as the twentieth (by Bishop Hefele, in the revised edition of his Conciliengesch., i. 60), and which decreed the infallibility of the Pope in all his official utterances, thereby superseding the necessity of future oecumencal Councils. It has given rise to the Old Catholic secession, headed by eminent scholars such as Döllinger, Reinkens, Reusch, Langen. See the author's Creeds of Christendom, vol. i. 134 sqq.


Page 518. Add to Lit.


C. A. Hammond: Antient Liturgies (with introduction, notes, and liturgical glossary). Oxford, 1878. Ch. A. Swainson: Greek Liturgies, chiefly from Original Sources. Cambridge, 1884.


Page 541. § 103. Church Architecture:

On the history of Architecture in general, see the works of KuglerGeschichte der Baukunst (1859, 3 vols.); Schnaase: Gesch. der Kunst (1843-66, 8 vols.); Lübke History of Art (Eng. transl. New York, 1877, 2 vols.); Viollet Le Duc: Lectures an Architecture (London, 1877), and his numerous works in French, including Dictionnaire De l'architecture Française  (Paris, 1853-69, 10 vols.); James Fergusson: History of Architecture of all Countries from the earliest Times to the present (Lond., 1865; 2d ed., 1874, 4 vols.). On church architecture in particular: Richard Brown: Sacred Architecture; its Rise, Progress, and Present State (Lond., 1845); Kreuser: Der christl. Kirchenbau (Bonn, 1851); Hübsch: Altchristl. Kirchen (Karlsruhe, 1858-61); De Vogüé: Architecture civile et relig. du Ie au VIIe siècle (Paris, 1877, 2 vols.); Ch. E. Norton: Studies of Church Buildings in the Middle Ages (Now York, 1880). There are also special works on the basilicas in Rome, Constantinople, and Ravenna. See §§ 106 and 107.


Page 560. § 109. Crosses and Crucifixes.

Comp. the Lit. in vol. ii. §§ 75 and 77.


Page 563. Add to Lit.

Mrs. Jameson and Lady Eastlake: The History of Our Lord as exemplified in Works of Art (with illustrations). London, 1864; second ed. 1865. 2 vols. Also the works on Christian Art, and on the Catacombs quoted in vol. ii. §§ 75 and 82.


Page 622. Add to Lit., line 3 from below:

Eugene Revillout: Le Concile de Nicée d'après les textes coptes et les diverses collections canoniques. Paris, 1881. The works on Arianism and on Athanasius include accounts of the Council of Nicaea. On the Nicene Creed and its literature, see Schaff: Creeds of Christendom, vol. i. 12 sqq. and 24 sqq.; and the article of Ad. Harnack, in Herzog,2 vol. viii. (1881) 212-230, abridged in Schaff-Herzog (1886), ii. 1648 sqq.


Page 651. Add to Lit., line 13:

Theod. Zahn: Marcellus Von Ancyra. Gotha, 1867. (Zahn represents Marcellus as essentially orthodox and agreed with Irenaeus, but as seeking to gain a more simple and satisfactory conception of the truth from the Bible than the theology of the age presented. Neander, Dogmengesch., i. 275, had suggested a similar view.)  W. Möller: Art. Marcellus in Herzog2 vol. ix. (1881), 279-282. (Partly in opposition to Zahn.) E. S. Ffoulkes, in Smith and Wace, iii. 808-813. (Ignores the works of Zahn and other German writers.)


Page 689. § 132. The Athanasian Creed. Add to Lit.:

A. P. Stanley: The Athanasian Creed. Lond., 1871. E. S. Ffoulkes: The Athanasian Creed. Lond., 1872. Ch. A. Heurtley: The Athanasian Creed. Oxf., 1872. (Against Ffoulkes.) J. R. Lumby: History of the Creeds. Cambridge, 1873; second ed. 1880. The Utrecht Psalter, a facsimile ed., published in London, 1875. This contains the oldest MS. of the Athan. Creed, which by Ussher and Waterland was assigned to the sixth century, but by recent scholars to the ninth century. C. A. Swainson: The Nicene and Apostles' Creeds, together with an Account o f the Growth and Reception of the Creed of St. Athanasius. Lond., 1875. (Comp. his art. Creed in Smith and Wace, i. 711.) G. D. W. Ommaney: Early History of the Athan. Creed. An Examination of Recent Theories. Lond., 1875; 2d ed. 1880. Schaff: Creeds of Christendom, i. 34 sqq. and ii. 66-72, 555 sq. (With a facsimile of the oldest MS. from the Utrecht Psalter.)


Page 696.

The statements concerning the origin and age of the Athanasian Creed should be conformed to the authors views as expressed in his work on Creeds, i. 36. The latest investigations do not warrant us to trace it higher than the eighth or seventh century. The first commentary on it ascribed to Venantius Fortunatus, 570, is of doubtful genuineness, and denied to him by Gieseler, Ffoulkes, and others. The majority of recent Anglican writers, including Stanley, Swainson, and Lumby, assign the Creed to an unknown author in Gaul between a.d. 750 and 850, probably during the reign of Charlemagne (d. 814). Hardy and Ommaney plead for an earlier date. The question is not yet fully settled. The Creed consists of two parts, one on the Trinity and one on the Incarnation, which were afterward welded together by a third hand. The second part was found separately as a fragment of a sermon on the Incarnation, at Treves, in a MS. from the middle of the eighth century, and was first published by Prof. Swainson, 1871, and again in 1875.


Page 872. Add to Lit. on Eusebius:

Fr. Ad. Heinichen: Eusebii Pamphili Scripta Historica. New ed. Lips., 1868-70. 3 Tom. The third vol. (804 pages) contains Commentarii et Meletemata. The ample indexes and critical and explanatory notes make this the most useful edition of the Church History and other historical works of Eusebius. Dindorf's ed., Lips., 1867 sqq., 4 vols., includes the two apologetic works. Best ed. of the Chronicle by Alfred Schöne: Eusebii Chronicorum libri II.  Berol. 1866 and 1875. 2 Tom., 4°. Schöne was assisted by Petermann in the Armenian Version, and by Rödiger in the Syriac Epitome. He gives also the cronografei'on suvntomon  of the year 853, the first part of which professes to be derived from the labors of Eusebius. Stein: Eusebius nach s. Leben, s. Schriften, und s. dogmatischen Charakter. Würzburg, 1859. Bishop Lightfoot: art. Eusebius of Caes. in Smith and Wace, vol. ii. (full and fair). Semisch: art. Eus. v. Caes. in Herzog,2  vol. iv. 390-398. A new translation of Eusebius, with commentary, by A. C. McGiffert, will appear, N. York, 1890.


Page 885. Add to Lit. on Athanasius:

G. R. Sievers: Athanasii Vita acephala (written before 412, first publ. by Maffei, 1738). Ein Beitrag zur Gesch. des Athan. In the "Zeitschr. für Hist. Theol." (ed. by Kahnis). Gotha, 1868, pp. 89-162. Böhringer: Athanasius und Arius, in his Kirchengesch. in Biogr. Bd. vi., new ed. Leipz., 1874. Hergenröther (R.C.): Der heil. Athanas. der Gr. Cologne, 1877 (an essay, pages 24). L. AtzbergerDie Logoslehre des heil. Athanas. München, 1880. W. Möller: Art. Athan. in Herzog,2  i. 740-747. Lüdtke: in Wetzer and Welte, 2 i. (1882), 1534-1543. Gwatkin: Studies in Arianism. Cambr. 1882.


Page 890. Add to footnote at the bottom:

Villemain considers Athanasius the greatest man between the Apostles and Gregory VII., and says of him: "Sa vie, ses combats, son génie servirent plus à l'agrandissement du christianisme que toute la puissance de Constantin .... Athanase cherche le triomphe, et non le martyre. Tel qu'un chef de parti, tel qu'un général experimenté qui se sent nécessaire aux siens, Athan. ne s'expose que pour le succès, ne combat que pour vaincre, se retire quelque fois pour reparaître avec l'éclat d'un triomphe populaire." (Tableau de l'éloquence chrétienne au IVe siècle, p. 92.)


Page 894 line 11. Add to Lit. on St. Basil:

Dörgens: Der heil. Basilius und die class. Studien. Leipz., 1857. Eug. Fialon. Étude historique et literaire sur S. Basile, suivie de l'hexaemeron. Paris, 1861. G. B. Sievers: Leben des Libanios. Berl., 1868 (p294 sqq.). Böhringer: Die drei Kappadozier oder die trinitarischen Epigonen (Basil, Gregory of Nyssa, and Gregory of Naz.), in Kirchengesch. in Biograph., new ed. Bd. vii. and viii. 1875. Weiss: Die drei grossen Kappadozier als Exegeten. Braunsberg, 1872. R. Travers Smith: St. Basil the Great. London, 1879. (Soc. for Promoting Christian Knowledge), 232 pages. Scholl: Des heil. Basil Lehre von der Gnade. Freib., 1881. W. Möller, in Herzog,2 ii. 116-121. E. Venables, in Smith and Wace, i. 282-297. Farrar: "Lives of the Fathers," 1889. vol. ii. 1-55.


Page 904 line 7. Add to Lit. on Gregory of Nyssa:

Böhringer: Kirchengesch. in Biogr., new ed., vol. viii. 1876. G Herrmann: Greg. Nyss. Sententiae de salute adipiscenda. Halle, 1875. . T. Bergades: De universo et de anima hominis doctrina Gregor. Nyss. Leipz., 1876. W. Möller, in Herzog,2 v. 396-404. E. Venables, in Smith and Wace, ii. 761-768. A. Paumier, in Lichtenberger, 723-725. On his doctrine of the Trinity and the Person of Christ, see especially Baur and Dorner. On his doctrine of the apokatastasis and relation to Origen, see Möller, G. Herrmann, and Bergades. l.c.  Farrar: "Lives of the Fathers," (1889), ii. 56-83.


Page 909, line 4. Add to Lit. on Gregory of Nazianzus:

A. Grenier: La vie et les poésies de saint Grégoire de Nazianze. Paris, 1858. Böhringer: K. G. in Biogr., new ed., vol. viii. 1876. Abbé A. Benoît: Vie de saint Grégoire de Nazianze. Paris, 1877. J. R. Newman: Church of the Fathers, pp. 116-145, 551. Dabas: La femme au quatrième siècle dans les poésies de Grég. de Naz. Bordeaux, 1868. H. W. Watkins, in Smith and Wace, ii. 741-761. W. Gass, in Herzog,2 v. 392-396. A. Paumier, in Lichtenberger, v., 716-722. On his christology, see Neander, Baur and especially Dorner. His views on future punishment have been discussed by Farrar, and Pusey (see vol. ii. 612). Farrar:: "Lives of the Fathers," i. 491-582.


Page 920, line 22. Add:

In one of his plaintive songs from his religious retreat, after lamenting the factions of the church, the loss of youth, health, strength, parents, and friends, and his gloomy and homeless condition, Gregory thus gives touching expression to his faith in Christ as the last and only comforter:


"Thy will be done, O Lord!  That day shall spring,
When at thy word, this clay shall reappear.

No death I dread, but that which sin will bring;
No fire or flood without thy wrath I fear;

For Thou, O Christ, my King, art fatherland to me.
My wealth, and might, and rest; my all I find in Thee." 1


1 Pro;" eJauton, in Daniel's Thesaurus Hymnol., iii., 11:

Criste; a[nax, su; dev moi pavtrh, sqevno", o[lbo", a{panta,

Soi; d j a[r j ajnayuvxaimi bivon kai; khvde j ajmeivya".


Page 924. After line 2, add to Lit. on Cyril of Jerusalem:

J. H. Newman: Preface to the Oxford transl. of Cyril in the "Library of the Fathers"(1839). E. Venables, in Smith and Wace, i. 760-763. C. Burk, in Herzog,2 iii. 416-418.


Page 933, line 4 from below. Add to Lit. on Chrysostom:

Villemain: L'éloquence chrétienne dans le quatrième siècle. Paris 1849; new ed. 1857. P. Albert: St. Jean Chrysostôme considéré comme orateur populaire. Paris, 1858. Abbé Rochet: Histoire de S. Jean Chrysostôme. Paris, 1866. 2 vols. Th. Förster: Chrysostomus in seinem Verhältniss zur antiochenischen Schule. Gotha, 1869. W. Maggilvray: John of the Golden Mouth. Lond., 1871. Am. Thierry: S. J. Chrysostôme et l' imperatrice Eudoxie. 2d ed. Paris, 1874. Böhringer: Johann Chrysostomus und Olympias, in his K. G. in Biogr., vol. ix., new ed., 1876. W. R. W. Stephens: St. Chrysostom: his Life and Times. London, 1872; 3d ed., 1883. F. W. Farrar, in "Lives of the Fathers," Lond., 1889, ii. 460-540.

Engl. translation of works of St. Chrys., edited by Schaff, N. York, 1889, 6 vols. (with biographical sketch and literature by Schaff).


Page 942, line 14. Add to Lit. on Cyril of Alex.:

A new ed. of Cyril's works, including his Com. on the Minor Prophets, the Gospel of John, the Five Books against Nestorius, the Scholia on the Incarnation, etc., was prepared with great pains by Philip Pusey (son of Dr. Pusey). Oxf., 1868-81. In 5 vols  Engl. trans. in the Oxford "Library of the Fathers." 1874 sqq. See an interesting sketch of Ph. Pusey (d. 1880) and his ed. in the "Church Quarterly Review" (London), Jan., 1883, pp. 257-291.


Page 942, line 24. Add:

Hefele: Conciliengesch., vol. ii., revised ed. (1875), where Cyril figures very prominently, pp. 135, 157, 167 sqq., 247 sqq., 266 sqq., etc. C. Burk, in Herzog,2 iii. 418 sq. W. Bright: St. Cyrillus of Al., in Smith and Wace, i. 763-773.


Page 950. Add to Lit. on Ephraem:

Evangelii Concordantis Expositio facta a S. Ephraemo Doctore Syro. Venet., 1876. (A Commentary on Tatian's Diatessaron, found in the Mechitarist Convent at Venice in an Armenian translation, translated into Latin, 1841, by Aucher, and published with an introduction by Prof. Mösinger of Salzburg.)  Comp. also the art. Ephraem, in Herzog,iv. 255-261 (by Radiger, revised by Spiegel). In Smith and Wace, ii. 137-145 (by E. Venables).


Page 955. Add to Lit. on Lactantius:

English translation by W. Fletcher, in Clark's "Ante-Nicene Library," vols. xxi. and xxii. Edinb., 1871. For an estimate of his literary merits, see Ebert: Gesch. der christl. lat. Lit. Leipz., 1874 sqq., vol. i. 70-86. Ebert, in Herzog,2 viii. 364-366. Ffoulkes, in Smith and Wace, iii. 613-617.


Page 959, line 9. Add to Lit. on Hilary of Poitiers:

Reinkens: Hilarius von Poitiers. Schaffhausen, 1864. Semisch, in Herzog,2 vi. 416-427. Cazenove, in Smith and Wace, ii. 54-66, and his St. Hilary of Poitiers. Lond., 1883. (Soc. for Promot. Christian Knowledge.)  Farrar: in "Lives of the Fathers" (1889), i. 426-467.


Page 961. Add to Lit on Ambrose,

Bannard: Histoire de S. Ambroise. Paris, 1871. Ebert: Gesch. der christl. lat. Lit., i. 135-176 (1874). Robinson Thornton: St. Ambrose: his Life, Times, and Teaching. Lond., 1879, 215 pages (Soc. for Promoting Christ. Knowledge). Plitt, in Herzog,2 i. 331-335. J. Ll. Davies, in Smith and Wace, i. 91-99. Cunitz, in Lichtenberger, i. 229-232. Farrar: "Lives of the Fathers "(1889), ii. 84-149. On the hymns of Ambrose, Comp. especially Ebert, l. c.


Page 967. Add to Lit. on Jerome:

Amédée Thierry: St. Jérôme, la société chrétienne à Rome et l'emigration romaine en terre sainte. Par., 1867. 2 vols. (He says at the close: "There is no continuation of Jerome's work; a few more letters of Augustine and Paulinus, and night falls on the West.")  Lübeck: Hieronymus quos noverit scriptores et ex quibus hauserit. Leipzig, 1872. Ebert: Gesch. der christl. lat. Lit. Leipz., 1874 sqq., i. 176-203 (especially on the Latinity of Jerome, in which he places him first among the fathers). Edward L. Cutts: St. Jerome. London, 1877 (Soc. for Promot. Chr. Knowledge), 230 pages. Zöckler, in Herzog,2 vi. 103-108. Cunitz, in Lichtenberger, vii. 243-250. Freemantle, in Smith and Wace, iii. 29-50. ("Jerome lived and reigned for a thousand years. His writings contain the whole spirit of the church of the middle ages, its monasticism, its contrast of sacred things with profane, its credulity and superstition, its subjection to hierarchical authority, its dread of heresy, its passion for pilgrimages. To the society which was thus in a great measure formed by him, his Bible was the greatest boon which could have been given. But he founded no school and had no inspiring power; there was no courage or width of view in his spiritual legacy which could break through the fatal circle of bondage to received authority which was closing round manki

On Jerome as a Bible translator, comp. F. Kaulen (R.C.): Geschichte der Vulgata. Mainz, 1869. Hermann Rönsch: Itala und Vulgata. Das Sprachidiom der urchristlichen Itala und der katholischen Vulgata. 2d ed., revised. Marburg, 1875. L. Ziegler: Die latein Bibelübersetzungen vor Hieronymus und die Itala des Augustinus. München, 1879. (He maintains the existence of several Latin versions or revisions before Jerome.) Westcott's art. "Vulgate," in Smith's Dict. of the Bible. O. F. Fritzsche: Latein. Bibelübersetzungen, in the new ed. of Herzog, vol. viii. (1881), pp. 433-472. Westcott and Hort's Greek Testament, vol. ii., lntrod., pp. 78-84.


Page 989, line 13. Add to Lit. on Augustine:

English translations of select works of Aug. by Dr. Pusey and others in the Oxford Library of the Fathers" : the Confessions, vol. i., 1839, 4th ed., 1853; Sermons, vol. xvi., 1844, and vol. xx., 1845; Short Treatises, vol. xxii., 1847; Expositions on the Psalms, vols. xxiv., xxv., xxx., xxxii., xxxvii., xxxix., 1847, 1849, 1850, 1853, 1854; Homilies on John, vols. xxvi. and xxix., 1848 and 1849. Another translation by Marcus Dods and others, Edinb. (T. and T. Clark), 1871-76, 15 vols., containing the City of God, the Anti-Donatist, the Anti-Pelagian, the Anti-Manichaean writings, Letters, On the Trinity, the Sermon on the Mount, and the Harmony of the Gospels, On Christian Doctrine, the Euchiridion, on Catechising, on Faith and the Creed, Lectures on John, and Confessions. The same revised with new translations and Prolegomena, edited by Philip Schaff, N. York, 1886-88, 8 vols. German translation of select writings of Aug. in the Kempten Bibliothek Der Kirchenväter, 1871-79, 8 vols.


On the same page, line 30. Substitute and add at the close of Lit.:


C. Bindemann: Der heil. Augustin. Berlin, 1844-55-69. 3 vols. Gangauf: Des heil. Aug. Lehre von Gott dem dreieinigen. Augsburg, 1866. Reinkens: Geschichtsphilosophie des heil. Augustin. Schaffhausen, 1866. Emil Feuerlein: Ueber die Stellung Augustin's in der Kirchen- und Kulturgeschichte. 1869. (In v. Sybel's "Hist. Zeitschrift" for 1869, vol. xi., 270-313. Ernst: Die Werke und Tugenden der Ungläubigen nach Augustin. Freib., 1872. Böhringer: Aurelius Augustinus, revised ed. Leipz., 1877-78. 2 parts. Aug. Dorner: Augustinus, sein Theol. System und seine religionsphilosophische Auschauung. Berlin, 1873. Ebert: Gesch. der christl. lat. Lit. Leipzig, 1874 sqq., vol. i. 203-243. Edward L. Cutts: St. Augustine. London (Soc. for Prom. Christian Knowledge), 1880. H. Reuter: Augustinische Studien, in Brieger's "Zeitschrift für Kirchengesch." for 1880-83 (four articles on Aug.'s doctrine of the church, predestination, the kingdom of God, etc.). Ch. H. Collett: St. Aug., a Sketch o f his Life and Writings as affecting the Controversy with Rome. Lond., 1883. W. Cunningham: S. Austin and his Place in Christian Thought (Hulsean Lectures for 1885), Cambridge, 1886 (283 pp.). James F. Spalding: The Teaching and Influence of Saint Augustine. N. York, 1886 (106 pp.). H. Reuter: Augustinische Studien, Gotha, 1887 (516 pp.; able, learned, and instructive). Ad. Harnack: Augustin's Confessionen. Giessen, 1888 (31 pp., brief, but suggestive). F. W. Farrar, in his "Lives of the Fathers," Lond. 1889, vol. ii. 298-460.


On the Philosophy of Aug., compare besides the works quoted on same page:


Erdmann: Grundriss der Gesch. der Philos., i. 231 sqq. Ueberweg: History of Philos. Engl. transl. by Morris, vol. i. 333-346. Ferraz: De la psychologie de S. Aug. 2d ed. Paris, 1869. Schütz: Augustinum non esse ontologum. Monast., 1867. G. Loesche: De Augustino Plotinizanto in doctrina de Deo disserenda. Jenae, 1880. (68 pages.)



* Schaff, Philip, History of the Christian Church, (Oak Harbor, WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc.) 1997. This material has been carefully compared, corrected¸ and emended (according to the 1910 edition of Charles Scribner's Sons) by The Electronic Bible Society, Dallas, TX, 1998.

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