understanding, later a body of law, Islamic jurisprudence.
Islamic law as interpreted by
scholars (furqaha, jurists), the science of elaborating on the
Shar'ia. The main
developments took place in the second century A.H., and since then
has developed into many different schools or systems, some of them
conflicting. Four main schools (madhab, pl. madahib)
developed around the four cities of Mecca, Medina, Basra and Kufa.
- usul al Fiqh, set of techniques used for this purpose. Used
``to determine precisely which source materials the founders of the
local Fiqh had consulted in deriving each clause, hukm (pl.
ahkam) of the Law. The work was to involve the indentification
of materials, their authentication as either Qur'an or Sunna and
finally the definition of the relative primacy that the founders of
the madhab had accorded in their derivation of the Law to
each of the two primary sources.''
(John Burton, The Collection of the Qur'an,
It consists of :
- qiyas, analogical deduction.
- ra'y, subjective opinion.
- istehsan, moral or social preference.
- istidlal, inference.
- maslaha al-mursaleh, public interest.
- ijma', consensus of opinion
- several other methods of deductive reasoning
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