BABEL. Arabic Babil. Mentioned once in the Qur'an, Surah ii. 96: "Sorcery did they teach to men and what had been revealed to the two angels Harut and Marut at Babil." Babel is regarded by the Muslims as the fountain-head of the science of magic. They suppose Harut and Marut to be two angels who, in consequence of their want of compassion for the frailties of mankind, were sent down to earth to be tempted. They both sinned, and, being permitted to choose whether they would be punished now or here after, chose the former, and are still suspended by the feet at Babel in a rocky pit, and are the great teacher's of magic. (Lane's Thousand and One Nights, ch. iii. note 14.) Vide Tafsir-I-'Azizi in loco
BABU 'L-ABWAB Lit. "The door of doors." A term used by the Sufis for repentance. ('Abdu 'r-Razzaq's Dictionary of Sufi Terms.)
BABU 'S-SALAM "The Gate of Peace." The gateway in the sacred mosque at Makkah through which Muhammad entered when he was elected by the Quraish to decide the question as to which section of the tribe should lift the Black stone into its place. It was originally called the Bab Bani Shaibah, "the Gate of the Bani Shaibah," the family of Shaibah ibn 'Usman, to whom Muhammad gave the key of the Ka'bah. Burkhardt says that there are now two gateways called by this name. Burton says, "The Babu s-Salim resembles in its isolation a triumphal arch, and is built of cut stone." (Burton's Pilgrimage, vol. ii. p. 174. See Muir's Life of Mahomet, pp. 28, 29.)
BABU 'N-NISA "The Women's Gate." In later years, as Muhammad added to the number of his wives, he provided for each a room or house on the same side of the mosque at al-Madinah. From these he had a private entrance into the mosque used only by himself, and the eastern gate still bears in its name, Babu 'n-Nisa', the memory of the arrangement. (Muir's Life of Mahomet, iii. p.20.)
BACKBITING. Anything secretly whispered of an absent person which is calculated to injure him, and which is true, is called Ghibah a false accusation being expressed by Buhtan. Abu Hurairah says, "The question was put to the Prophet, 'Do you know what backbiting is?'" and he replied, "It is saying anything bad of a Muslim." It was then said, 'But what if it is true?'
And he said: "If it is true it is Ghibah, and if it is a false accusation, it is Buhtan (i.e, 'slander'" (Mishkat, xxii. c. x.)
The following are sayings of Muhammad on the subject: - "The best of God's servants are those who when you meet them speak of God. The worst of God's servants are those who carry tales about, to do mischief and separate friends, and seek out the defects of good people." "He who wears two faces in this world shall have two tongues of fire in the day of the resurrection." "It is unworthy of a believer to injure people's reputations, or to curse anyone, or to abuse anyone, or to talk vainly." "The best atonement you can make for backbiting is to say, 'O God pardon me and him (whom I have injured).'" Mishkat, xxii. c.x.
BADAWI A name given to the Bedouin Arabs, or the Arabs, or the desert. Bedouin is only a corruption of the plural of this word, which is derived from Badu-Badiyah "a desert."
AL-BADI' is one of the ninety-nine special names of God. It means "He who originates." It occurs in the Qur'an Surah ii. 111, "He is the wonderful originator of the heavens and the earth; when HE decreeth a matter, He doth but say to it 'Be,' and it is."
BADR, The battle of. Arabic, Ghazwatu 'I-Badr The first battle of Badr was fought in the month of Ramazan, A.H. 2 (Mar. A.D. 624), between Muhammad and the Quraish. Many of the principal men of the Quraish were slain including Abu Jahl, whose, head was brought to the Prophet, and when it was cast to his feet, he exclaimed, "It is more acceptable to me than the choicest camel of Arabia." After the battle was over, some of the prisoners were cruelly murdered. Husain says that the losses of the Quraish at Badr were seventy killed and seventy prisoners. The victory at Badr consolidated the power of Muhammad and it is regarded by Muslim historians as one of the most important events in history. An account of this celebrated battle will be found in the article on Muhammad.
The second battle of Badr was a bloodless victory, and took place in the month of Zu 'l Qaidah, A.H. 4 (April A.D. 626).
BAHIRA A Nestorian monk whom Muhammad met when he was journeying back from Syria to Makkah, and who is said to have perceived by various signs that he was a prophet. His Christian name is supposed to have been Sergius (or Georgius).
Sprenger thinks that Bahira remained with Muhammad, and it has been suggested that there is an allusion to this monk in the Qur'an. Surah xvi. 105: "We know that they say, 'it is only a man who teacheth him'". Husain the commentator says on this passage that the Prophet was in the habit of going every evening to a Christian to hear the Taurat and Injil. Tafsir-I-Husaini; Sale, p. 228; Muir's Life of Mahomet, p 72).
BAHIRAH (1.) A she-camel, she-goat or ewe, which had given birth to a tenth young one. (2.) A she-camel, the mother of which had brought forth ten females consecutively before her.
In these and similar cases, the pagan Arabs observed certain religious ceremonies, such as slitting the animal's ear &C, all which are forbidden in the Qur'an: "God hath not ordained any Bahirah" (Surah v. 102.)
BAI' A sale; commercial dealing; barter. Bai', or "sale", in the language of the law, signifies an exchange of property wtih the mutual consent of parties. For the rules concerning sales and barter, see Hamilton's Hidayah, vol. ii 360; Baillie's Muhammadan Law of Sale; The Fatawa 'Alamgiri.
Sale, in its ordinary acceptation, is a transfer of property in consideration of a price in money. The word has a more comprehensive meaning in the Muhammadan law, and is applied to every exchange of property for property with mutual consent. It, therefore, includes barter as well as sale, and also loan, when the articles lent are intended to be consumed, and replaced to the lender by a similar quantity of the same kind. This transaction, which is tru1y an exchange of property for property, is termed qarz in the Muhammadan law.
Between barter and sale there is no essential distinction in most systems of law, and the joint subject may in general be considerably simplified by being treated of solely as a sale. A course has been adopted in the Muhammadan law, which obliges the reader to fix his attention on both sides of the contract. This may at first appear to him to be an unnecessary complication of the subject but when he becomes acquainted with the definition of price, and the rules for the prohibition of excess in the exchange of a large class of commodities, which apply to every form of the contract, he will probably be of opinion that to treat of the subject in any other way would be attended with at least equal difficulties.
The first point which seems to require his attention is the meaning of the word "property" as it occurs in the definition of sale. The original term (mal), which has been thus translated, as defined by Muhammadan lawyers; "to that which can be taken possession of and secured." This definition seems to imply that it is tangible or corporeal, and things or substances are accordingly the proper subjects of sale. Mere rights are not mal, and cannot therefore be lawfully sold apart from the corporeal things which they may happen to be connected. Of such rights one of the most important is the right
of a creditor to exact payment of a debt, which is not a proper subject of sale. In other words, debts cannot, by the Muhammadan law, any more than by the common laws of England and Scotland, be lawfully sold.
Things are commonly divided into moveable and immoveable, the latter comprehending land and things permanently attached to it. But the distinction is not of much importance in the Muhammad law, as the transfer of land is in nowise distinguished from that of other kinds of property.
A more important division of things is that into misli and kamni. The former are things which, when they happen to perish are to be replaced by an equal quantity of something similar to them; and the latter are things which, in the same circumstances are to be replaced by their value. These two classes have been aptly styled "similars" and "dissimilars", by Mr. Hamilton, in his translation of theHidayah. Similars are things which are usually sold or exchanged by weight or by measurement of capacity, that is, by dry or liquid measure; and dissimilars are things which are not sold or exchanged in either of these ways. Articles which are nearly alike, and are commonly sold or exchanged by number or tale, are classed with the first division of things, and may be termed "similars of tale" while articles which differ materially from each other, yet are still unusually sold or exchanged by number, belong to the second division, and may be called "dissimiliars of tale." Dirhams and dinars, the only coined money known to the old Arabs, are included among similars of weight.
Similars of weight and capacity are distinguished in the Muhammadan law from all other descriptions of property in a very remarkable way. When one article of weight is sold or exchanged for another article of weight, or one of measure in sold or exchanged for another of measure, the delivery of both must be immediate from hand to hand, and any delay of delivery in one of them it unlawful and prohibited. Where, again, the articles exchanged are also of the same kind, as when wheat in sold for wheat, or silver for silver, there must not only be reciprocal and immediate delivery of both before the separation of the parties, but also absolute equality of weight or measure, according as the articles are weighable or measurable, and any excess on either side is also unlawful and prohibited. These two prohibitions constitute in brief the doctrine of reba or "usury," which is a marked characteristic of the Muhammadan law of sale. The word reba properly signifies "excess" and there are no terms in the Muhammadan law which corresponds to the words "interest", or "usury", in the sense attached to them in the English language; but it was expressly prohibited by Muhammad to his followers to derive any advantage from loans, and that particular kind of advantage which in called by us interest, and consists in the receiving back from the borrower a larger quantity than was actually lent to him, was effectually prevented by the two rules above-mentioned. Those like some other principles of Muhammadan law, are applied with a rigour and minuteness that may to us seem incommensurate with their importance, but are easily accounted for when we know that they are believed to be of divine origin.
Similars of weight and capacity have a common feature of resemblance, which distinguishes them in their own nature from other commodities, and marks with further peculiarity their treatment in the Muhammadan law. They are aggregates of minute parts, which are either exactly alike, or so nearly resemble each other, that the difference between them may be safely disregarded. For this reason they are usually dealt with in bulk regard being had only to the whole of a stipulated quantity, and not to the individual parts of which it is composed. When sold in this manner they are said to be indeterminate. They may, however, be rendered specific in several ways. Actual delivery or production with distinct reference at the time of contract, seems to be sufficient for that purpose in all cases. But something short of this would suffice for all similars but money. Thus, flour, or any kind of grain, may be rendered specific by being enclosed in a sack; or oil, or any liquid, by being put into casks or jars; and though the vessels are not actually produced at the time of contract, their contents may be sufficiently particularised by description of the vessels and their locality. Money is not susceptible of being thus particularised and dirhams and dinars are frequently referred to in the following pages as things which cannot be rendered specific by description, or specification, as it is more literally termed. Hence, money is said to be always indeterminate. Other similars, including similars of tale, are sometimes specific and sometimes indeterminate Dissimilars, including those of tales are always specific.
When similars are sold indeterminately, the purchaser has no right to any specific portion of them until it be separated from a general mass, and marked or identified as the subject of the contract. From the moment of offer till actual delivery, he has nothing to rely upon but the seller's obligation, which may, therefore, be considered the direct subject of the contract. Similars taken indeterminately are accordingly termed dayn, or "obligations," in the Muhammadan law. When taken specifically, they are classed with dissimilars, under the general name of dayn The literal meaning of this term is "substance or thing"; but when opposed to dayn it means something determinate or specific. The subject of traffic may thus be divided into two classes, specific and indeterminate or, if we substitute for the latter the word "obligation," and omit the word "specific" as unnecessary when not opposed to "indeterminate," these classes may, according to the view of Muhammadan lawyers, be described as things and obligations.
There is some degree of presumption in using
a word in any other than its ordinary acceptation, and it is not without hesitation that (Mr. Baillie says) I have ventured to employ the word "obligation" to signify indeterminate things. My reasons for doing so are these: first it expresses the exact meaning of the Arabic word dayn, and yet distinguishes this use of it from another sense, in which it is also employed in the Muhammadan law, second, it preserves consistency in the law. Thus, it will be found hereafter that the effect of sale is said to be to induce a right in the buyer to the thing sold, and in the seller to the price, and that this effect follows the contract immediately before reciprocal possession by the contracting parties. Now, it is obvious that this is impossible with regard to things that are indeterminate, if the things themselves are considered the subject of the contract, and cases are mentioned where it is expressly stated that there is no transfer of property to the purchaser, when similars of weight of capacity are sold without being distinctly specified, until actual possession take place. The difficulty disappears if we consider not the thing itself but the obligation to render it to be the subject of contract; for a right to the obligation passes immediately to the purchaser, and the seller may be compelled to perform it. If we flow resort to the division of things into similars and dissimiliars, money - which, it has been remarked, is always indeterminate - is therefore an obligation; dissimilars, which are always specific, are never obligations: and other similars, except money, being sometimes specific and sometimes indeterminate, are at one time obligations, and at anther time things or substances.
Before proceeding farther it is necessary to advert more particularly to the other sense in which the word dayn is frequently employed in the Muhammadan law. It means strictly "obligation" as already observed; but the obligation may be either that of the contracting party himself, or of another. In the former sense dayn is not only a proper subject of traffic, but forms the sole subject of one important kind of sale, hereafter to be noticed. But when dayn is used to signify the obligation of another than the contracting party, it is not a proper subject of traffic and, as already observed, cannot be lawfully sold. In the following pages, dayn has been always translated by the word "debt" when it signifies the obligation of a third party, and generally by the word "obligation", when it signifies the engagement of the contracting party himself, though when the things represented by the obligation are more prominently brought forward, it has sometimes been found necessary to substitute the expression, "indeterminate things."
Though barter and sale for a price are considered under one general name in the Muhammadan law, it is sometimes necessary to consider one of the things exchanged as more strictly the subject of sale, or thing sold, and the other as the price. In this view the former is termed mabi' and the latter Saman. Saman of "price," is defined to be dayn fi zimmah, or, literally, an "obligation in responsibility." From which, unless the expression is a mere pleonasm, it would appear that the word dayn is sometimes used abstractly, and in a sense distinct from the idea of liability. That idea, however, is necessary to constitute price; for though cloth, when properly described, may, by reason of its divisibility and the similarity of its parts, be sometimes assumed to perform the function of price in a contract of sale, it is only when it is not immediately delivered, but is to remain for some time on the responsibility of the contracting party, that it can be adopted for that purpose.
It is a general principle of the Muhammadan law of sale, founded on a declaration of the Prophet, that credit cannot be opposed to credit, that is, that both the things exchanged cannot be allowed to remain on the responsibility of the parties. Hence, it is only with regard to one of them that any stipulation for delay in its delivery is lawful. Price, from its definition above given, admits of being left on responsibility, and accordingly a stipulation for delay in the payment of the price is quite lawful and valid. It follows that a stipulation for delay in the delivery of the things sold cannot be lawful. And this is the case, with the exception of one particular kind of sale, hereafter to be noticed, in which the thing sold is always indeterminate, and the price is paid in advance. It may, therefore, be said of all specific things when the subject of sale, that a stipulation for delay in their delivery is illegal, and would invalidate a sale. The object of this rule may have been to prevent any change of the thing sold before delivery, and the disputes which might in consequence arise between the parties. But if they were allowed to select whichever they pleased of the articles exchanged to stand for the price, and the other for the thing sold, without any regard to their qualities, the object of the last-mentioned rule, whatever it may have been, might be defeated. This seems to have led to another arrangement of things into different classes, according to their capacities for supporting the functions of price or of the thing sold in a contract of sale. The first class comprehends dirhams and dinars, which are always price. The second class comprises the whole division of dissimilars (with the single exception of cloth) which are always the thing sold, or subject of sale, in a contract. The third class comprises, first, all similars of capacity; second, all similars, of weight except, dirhams and dinars; and, third all similars of tale. The whole of this class is capable of supporting both functions, and is sometimes the thing sold, and sometimes the price. The fourth class comprises cloth and the copper coin called fulus.
Sale implies a reciprocal vesting of the price in the seller and of the thing and in the purchaser. This, as already remarked, is called its legal effect, and sale may be divided into different stages or degrees of completeness, according as this effect is immediate,
suspended, invalid, or obligatory. Thus, sale must first of all be duly constituted or contracted. After that, there may still be some bar to its operation, which occasions a suspension of its effect. This generally arises from a defect of power in the seller, who may not be fully competent to act for himself, or may have insufficient authority, or no authority whatever, over the subject of sale. In this class of sales the effect is dependent on the assent or ratification of some other person than the party actually contracting, But whether the effect of a sale be immediate or suspended there may be some taint of illegality in the mode of constituting it, or in its subject, or there may be other circumstances connected with it, which render it invalid. The causes of illegality are many and various. But even though a sale should be unimpeachable on the previous grounds, that is, though it should be duly constituted, operative or immediate in its effect, and free from any ground of illegality, still it may not be absolutely binding on the parties. This brings us to another remarkable peculiarity of the Muhammadan law, viz. the doctrine of option, or right of cancellation. The Prophet himself recommended one of his followers to reserve a locus paritentioe, or option, for three days in all his purchases. This has led to the option by stipulation, which may be reserved by either of the parties. But besides this, the purchaser has an option without any stipulation, with regard to things which he has purchased without seeing, and also on account of defects in the thing sold. The greatest of all defects is a want of title or right in the seller. The two last options to the purchase constitute a complete warranty of title and against all defects en the part of the seller, in which respect the Muhammadan more nearly resembles the Scotch than the English law of sale.
There are many different kinds of sale. Twenty or more have been enumerated in th Nihayah, of which eight are mentioned and explained. Four of these, which have reference to the thing sold, may require some notice in this place. The first, called Muqayazah, is described as a sale of things for things, and corresponds nearly with barter; but the word "thing" ('ayn) is here opposed to obligations, and muqayazrah is therefore properly an exchange of specific for specific things, so that if the goods exchanged were on both sides or on either side indeterminate, the transaction would not, I think, be a muqayazah, though still barter. The second sale is called sarf, and is defined to be an exchange of obligations for obligations. The objects of this contract are dirhams and dinars which being obligations, the definition is generally correct. But an exchange of money for bullion, or bullion for bullion, is also a sarf, and every sale of an obligation for an obligation is not a sarf, so that the definition is redundant as well as defective. It is essential to the legality of this kind of sale, that both the things exchanged should be delivered and taken possession of before the separation of the parties and that when they are of the same kind, as silver for silver, or gold for gold, they should also be exactly equal by weight. These rules are necessary for the avoidance of reba, or "usury," as already explained; and the whole of sarf which is treated of at a length quite disproportionate to its importance, may be considered as a continued illustration of the doctrine of reba. The third kind of sale is salam. It has been already observed that there can be no lawful stipulation for a postponement of the delivery of the thing sold, except under one particular form or sale. The form alluded to is salam. This word means, literally, "an advance"; and in salam sale the price is immediately advanced for the goods to be delivered at a future fixed time. It is only things of the class of similars that can be sold in this way and as they must necessarily be indeterminate, the proper subject of sale is an obligation; while, on the other hand, as the price must be actually paid or delivered at the time of the contract, before the separation of the parties, and must, therefore, even in the case of its being money, be produced, and in consequence be particularised or specific, a salam sale is strictly and properly the sale of an obligation for a thing, as defined above. Until actual payment or delivery of the price, however, it retains its character of an obligation, and for this reason the price and the goods are both termed "debts," and are adduced in the same chapter as examples of the principle that the sale of a debt, that is, of the money or goods which a person is under engagement to pay or deliver, before possession, is invalid. The last of the sales referred to is the ordinary exchange of goods for money, which being an obligation, the transaction is defined to be the sale of things for obligations.
There is another transaction which comes within the definition of sale, and has been already noticed, but may be further adverted to in this place. It is that which is called Qarz in the Arabic, and "loan" in the English language. The borrower acquires an absolute right of property in the things lent, and comes under an engagement to return an equal quantity of things of the same kind. The transaction is therefore necessarily limited to similars, whether of weight, capacity, or tale, and the things lent and repaid being of the same kind, the two rules already mentioned for the prevention of reba, or "usury," must be strictly observed. Hence it follows that any stipulation on the part of the borrower for delay or forbearance by the lender, or any stipulation by the lender for interest to be paid by the borrower are alike unlawful.
Notwithstanding the stringency of the rules for preventing usury, or the taking any interest on the loan of money, methods were found for evading them and still keeping within the letter of the law. It had always been considered lawful to take a pledge to secure the repayment bf a debt. Pledges were
ordinarily of movable property; when given as security for a debt, and the pledge happened to perish in the hands of the pawnee, the debt was held to be released to the extent of the value of the pledge. Land, though scarcely liable to this incident, was sometimes made the subject of pledge, and devices were adopted for enabling the lender to derive some advantage from its possession while in the state or pledge. But the moderate advantage to be derived in this way does not seem to have contented the money-lenders, who in all ages and countries have been of a grasping disposition, and the expedient of a sale with a condition for redemption was adopted, which very closely resembles an English mortgage. In the latter, the condition is usually expressed in one of two ways, viz. either that the sale shall become void, or that the lender shall resell to the seller, on payment of principal and interest at an assigned term. The first of these forms would be inconsistent with the nature of sale under the Muhammadan law, but a sale with a covenant by the lender to reconvey to the seller on repayment of the loan seems to have been in use probably long before the norm was adopted in Europe. It is probable that a term was fixed within which the repayment should be made. If repayment were made at the assigned term, the lender was obliged to reconvey; but if not, the property would remain his own, and the difference between its value and the price or sum lent might have been made an ample compensation for the loss of interest. This form of sale, which was called Bai'u 'l-wafa; seems to have been strictly legal according to the most approved authorities, though held to be what the law calls abominable, as a device for obtaining what it prohibits.
In constituting sale there is no material difference between the Muhammadan and other systems of law. The offer and acceptance, which are expressed or implied in all cases, must he so connected as to obviate any doubt of the one being intended to apply to the other. For this purpose the Muhammadan law requires that both shall he interchanged at the same meeting of the parties, and that no other business shall be suffered to intervene between an offer and its acceptance. A very slight interruption is sufficient to break the continuity of a negotiation, and to terminate the meeting in a technical sense, though the parties should still remain in personal communication. An acceptance after the interruption of an offer made before it would be insufficient to constitute a sale. This has led to distinctions of the meeting which may appear unnecessarily minute to a reader unacquainted with the manners of Eastern countries, where the people are often very dilatory in their bargains, interspersing them with conversation on indifferent topics. It is only when a meeting has reference to the set of contracting that its meaning is thus liable to be restricted; for when the word occurs in either parts of the law, as, for instance, when it is said of a sarf contract that the things exchanged must be taken possession of at the meeting, the whole period that the parties may remain together is to be understood. As personal communication may be inconvenient in some cases, and impossible in others, the integrity of the meeting is held to be sufficiently preserved when a party who receives an offer by message or letter declares his acceptance of it on receiving the communication and apprehending its contents.
When a sale is lawfully contracted, the property in the things exchanged passes immediately from and to the parties respectively. In a legal sale, delivery and possession are not necessary for this purpose. Until possession is taken, however, the purchaser is not liable for accidental loss, and the seller has a lien for the price on the thing sold. Delivery by one party is in general tantamount to possession taken by the other. It is, therefore, sometimes of great importance to ascertain when there is a sufficient delivery; and many cases, real or imaginary, on the subject, are inserted in the Fatawa 'Alamqiru. It sometimes happens that a person purchases a thing of which he is already in possession, and it then becomes important to determine in what cases his previous possession is convertible into a possession under the purchase. Unless so converted, it would he held that there is no delivery under the sale, and the seller would of course retain his lien and remain liable for accidental loss.
Though possession is not necessary to complete the transfer of property under a legal sale, the case is different where the contract is illegal; for here property does not pass till possession is taken. The sale, however, though so far effected, is still invalid, and liable to be set aside by a judge, at the instance of either of the parties, without any reference to the fact of the person complaining being able to come before him with what in legal phraseology is termed clean hands. A Muhammadan judge is obliged by his law to interfere for the sake of the law itself, or, as it is more solemnly termed, for the right of God, which it is the duty of the judge to vindicate, though by so doing he may afford assistance to a party who personally may have no just claim to his interference. (The Muhammadan Law of Sale, according to Haneefe Code, from the Fatawa Alamgiri, by Neil B.E. Baille. Smith, Elder & Co., London)
BAIL Arabic kafalah Bail is of two descriptions Kafalah bi-'n-nafz, or "security for the person"; Kafalah bi 'I-mal, or "security for property." In the English courts in India, bail for the person is termed Hazir-zamani, and bail for property Zamanah, or "security." Bail for the person is lawful except in cases of punishment (Hudud) and retaliation (Qisas) (Hidayah, vol. ii p. 576.)
AL-BA'IS One of the ninety-nine special names of God. It means
"He who awakes: "The Awakener" (in the Day of Resurrection).
BAITU 'L-HAMD . "The House of Praise." An expression which occurs in the Traditions (Mishkat, v. 7). When the soul of a child is taken, God says, "Build a house for my servant in Paradise and call it a house of praise."
BAITU 'L-HARAM . "The Sacred House" A name given to the Meccan mosque. [MASJIDU 'L-HARAM.]
BAITU 'L-HIKMAH . Lit. "The house of Wisdom." A term used by Sufis for the heart of the sincere seekers after God. ('Abdu 'r-Razzaq's Dictionary of Sufi Terms.)
BAITU 'L-LAH . "The House of God." A name given to the Meccan mosque. [MASJIDU 'L-HARAM.]
BAITU 'L-MAL . Lit. "The House of Property." The public treasury of a Muslim state, which the ruler is not allowed to use for his personal expenses, but only for the public good.
The sources of income are: (1) Zakat, or the legal tax raised upon land, personal property, and merchandise, which, after deducting the expense of collecting, should be expended in the support of the poor and destitute. (2) The fifth of all spoils and booty taken in war. (3) The produce of mines and of treasure-trove (4) Property for which there is no owner. (5) The Jizyah, or tax levied on unbelievers. (Hidayah, Arabic ed. vol i. p. 452.)
AL-BAITU 'L-MA'MUR Lit. "The Inhabited House." A house in the seventh heaven; visited by Muhammad during the Mi'raj or night-journey. It is said to be immediately over the sacred temple at Makkah. [MI'RAJ.]
BAIT 'L-MIDRAS . "The House of Instruction." A term used in a tradition given by Abu Hurairah for a Jewish school. (Mishkat, xvii. c. xi.) In Heb.
AL-BAH'U 'L-MUQADDAS "The Holy House." A name given to the temple at Jerusalem. [AL-MASJIDU 'L-AQSA.]
BAITU 'L-QUDS . Lit. "The House of Holiness." A term used by the Sufis for the heart of the true seeker after God when it is absorbed in meditation. ('Abdu 'r-Razzaq's Dictionary of Sufi Terms.)
BAI'U 'L-WAFA . The word wafa means the performance of a promise, and the Bai'u l' Wafa is a sale with a promise to be performed. It is, in fact, a pledge in the hand of the pawnee, who is not its propritor, nor is he free to make use of it without the permission of the owner. There are different opinions about the legality of this form of sale, but it is now the common form of mortgage in use in India, where it is usually styled Bai' bi-'l-wafa. (See Baillie's Muhammadan Law of Sale, p 303.)
al-BAIYINAH Lit. "The Evidence." A title given to the xcviiith Surah of the Quran in which the word occurs.
BA'L , Heb. i.e. The chief deity worshipped by the Syro-Phoenician nations. It is known to the Muhammadans as an idol worshipped in the days of the Prophet Elisha. (See Ghiyuasu 'l-Lughah.)
BALAAM. There is said to be an allusion to Balaam in the Qur'an, Surah vii. 174: "Recite to them the story of him to whom we gave our signs, and he departed therefrom, and Satan followed him, and he was of these who were beguiled."
The commentary of the Jalalain says that he was a learned man amongst the Israelites, who was requested by the Canaanites to curse Moses at the time when he was about to attack the Jabburun or "giants," a tribe of the Canaanites. Balaam at first refused to do so but at last yielded, when valuable presents were made to him. (See Tafsiru 'l-Ja1alain, p. 142.)
BALAD Lit. Any country, district, or town, regarded as an habitation. Al-Balad, the sacred territory of Makkah. A title given to the xcth Surah, in which the word occurs.
BALIGH "Of years of legal maturity; adult." [PUBERTY.]
BANISHMENT. Arabic Taqhrib. Expatriation for fornication is enjoined by Muhammadan law, according to the Imam ash-Shafi 'i, although it is not allowed by the other doctors of the law, and it is also a punishment inflicted upon highway robbers.
BANKRUPT. There is no provision in the Muhammadan law for declaring a person bankrupt, and so placing him beyond the reach of his creditors; but the Qazi can declare a debtor insolvent, and free him from the obligation of zakat and almsgiving.
BANU ISRA'IL "The Children of Israel." A title of the xviith Surah or chapter of the Qur'an, called also Suratu 'l-Mi'raf.
BANUN The plural of ibn (Heb. ) "Sons; posterity tribe." The word is more familiar to English readers in its inflected form Bani. The tribes whose names occur frequently in the early history of Islam and are mentioned in the Traditions, are the Banu-Quaish, Banu 'n-Najjar, Bani- Quraizah, Banu Kindnah, Banu 'n-Nazr, Banu-Khazaah, Banu-Bakr'
Banu-'Amir, Banu-Asad, Banu-Fazarah, Banu-Libyan, Banu-Tamin, Banu-Umaiyah, Banu-Zahrah, and Banu-Isr il.
BAPTISM The only allusion to Baptism in the Qur'an is found in Surah ii. 132: "(We have)the baptism of God, and who is better to baptise than God?" The word here translated baptism is sibghah, lit. "dye," which, the commentators al-Jalalain and al-Baizawi say, may, by comparison, refer to Christian baptism, "for" says al-Baizawi "the Nasra (Christians) were in the habit of dipping their offspring in a yellow water which they called al-Ma'mudiyah and said it purified and confirmed them as Christians" (See Tafsiru 'l-Jalalain and Tafsiru 'l-Baizawi in loco.)
AL-BAQI . One of the ninety-nine special names of God. It means "He who remains;" "The Everlasting One."
AL-BAQRAH "The Cow." The title of the second Surah of the Qur'an, occasioned by the story of the red heifer mentioned in verse 63 "When Moses said to his people, God commandeth you to sacrifice a cow."
BAQI'U 'L-GHARQAD or for shortness al-Baqi . The burying-ground at al-Medinah, which Muhammad used to frequent at night to pray for forgiveness of the dead. (Mishkat, iv. c. 28)
BARA'AH . "Immunity, or security." A title given to the ixth Chapter of the Qur'an called also Suratu 'l-Taubah, "The Chapter of repentance." It is remarkable as being the only Surah without the introductory form, "In the name of God, the Merciful, the Compassionate". Various reasons are assigned for this omission. Some commentators say that the prayer of mercy is not placed at the head of a Chapter which speaks chiefly of God's wrath.
BARAH-I-WAFAT . Barah (Urdu) "twelve," and Wafut. The twelfth day of the month Rabi'u 'l-Awwal, observed in commemoration of Muhammad's death.
It seems to be a day instituted by the Muhammadans of India, and is not observed universally amongst the Muslims of all countries. On this day Fatihahs are recited for Muhammad's soul, and both in private houses and mosques portions of the Traditions and other works in praise of the Prophet's excellence are read.
The Wahhabis do not observe this day, as it is believed to be an innovation, not having been kept by the early Muslims.
AL-BARA IBN 'AZIB . One of the companions who accompanied Muhammad at the battle of the Ditch and in most of his subsequent engagements He assisted in conquering the district of Rai, A.H. 32, and was with the Khalifah 'Ali at the battle of the Camel, A.H. 36.
AL-BARI' "The Maker." One of the ninety-nine special names of God. It occurs in the Qur'an Surah lix 24 "He is God the Creator, the Maker, the Fashioner. His are the excellent names."
BARIQAH Lit. "Refulgence, lighting." A term used by the Sufis for that enlightenment of the soul, which at first comes to the true Muslim as an earnest of greater enlightenment. ('Abdu'r-Razzaq's Dictionary of Sufi Terms.)
BARNABAS the Gospel of. The Muhammadans assert that a gospel of Barnabas existed in Arabic, and it is believed by some that Muhammad obtained his account of Christianity from this spurious gospel.
"Of this gospel the Moriscoes in Africa have a translation in Spanish, and there is in the library of Prince Eugene of Savoy a manuscript of some antiquity, containing an Italian translation of the same gospel, made, it is supposed, for the use of renegades. This book appears to be no original forgery of the Muhammdans, though they have no doubt interpolated and altered it since, the better to serve their purpose; and in particular, instead of the Paraclete or Comforter (St. John xiv l6,26 xv. 26, xvi 7) they have in this apocryplal gospel inserted the word Periclyte, that is,"the famous or Illustrious," by which they pretend their prophet was foretold by name, that being the signification of Muhammad in Arabic; and this they say to justify that passage in the Qur'an (Surah 61) where Jesus is formerly asserted to have forto1d his coming, under his other name of Ahmad, which is derived from the same root as Muhammad, and of the same import. From these or some other forgeries of the same stamp, it is that Muhammadans quote several passages of which there are not the least footsteps in the New Testament." (Sale.)
After Mr. Sale had written the extract which we have quoted, he inspected a Spanish translation of the Italian copy of this apocryphal gospel, of which he gives the following account: -
"The book is a moderate quarto, in Spanish, written in a very legible hand, but a little damaged towards the latter end. It contains two hundred and twenty-two chapters of unequal length, and four hundred and twenty pages; and is said, in the front, to be translated from the Italian by an Aragonian Moslem named Mostafa de Aranda. There is a preface prefixed to it, wherein the discoverer of the original MS, who was a Christian monk called Fra Marino, tells us that, having accidentally met with a writing of Irenaeus (among others), wherein he speaks against St. Paul, alleging for his authority the gospel of St. Barnabas, he became exceedingly desirous to find this gospel; and that God, of his mercy, having made him very intimate with Pope Sixtus V., one day, as they were
together in that Pope's library, his Holiness fell asleep, and he, to employ himself, reaching down a book to read, the first be laid his hand on proved to be the very gospel he wanted; overjoyed at the discovery, he scrupled not to hide his prize in his sleeves, and on the Pope's awaking, took leave of him, carrying with him that celestial treasure, by reading of which he became a convert to Muhammadanism.
This Gospel of Barnabas contains a complete history of Jesus Christ, from His birth to His ascension, and most of the circumstances of the four real gospels are to be found therein, but many of them turned, and some artfully enough, to favour the Muhammadan system. From the design of the whole, and the frequent interpolations of stories and passages, wherein Muhammad is spoken of and foretold by name, as the messenger of God, and the great prophet who was to perfect the dispensation of Jesus, It appears to be a most bare-faced forgery. One particular I observe therein induces me to believe it to have been dressed up by a renegade Christian, slightly instructed in his new religion, and not educated as a Muhammadan (unless the fault be imputed to the Spanish, or, perhaps, the Italian translator, and to the original compiler). I mean the giving to Muhammad the title of Messiah, and that not once or twice only, but in several places whereas, the title of Messiah or as the Arabs write it, al-Masih, i.e. Christ, is appropriated to Jesus in the Qur'an, and is constantly applied by the Muhammadans to him, and never to their own Prophet. The passages produced from the Italian MS by M. de la Monnoye are to be seen in this Spanish version almost word for word.
The Rev. Joseph White, D.D., in his Bampton Lectures of 1784, gives a translation of those chapters in this spurious Gospel of Barnabas, which relate to the supposed crucifixion of Judas in the place of our Lord, and which we insert:-
"Judas came near to the people with whom Jesus was, and when He heard the noise He entered into the house where the disciples slept. And God, seeing the fear and danger of His servant, ordered Gabriel and Michael and Rafail and Azrail to carry Him out of the world.
"And they came in all haste, and bare Him out of the window which looks towards the south. And they placed Him in the third heaven, where He will remain blessing God, in the company of angels, till near the end of the world. (Chapter 216.)
"And Judas the traitor entered before the rest into the place from which Jesus had just been taken up. And the disciples were sleeping. And the Wonderful God acted wonderfully, changing Judas into the same figure and speech with Jesus.
We believing that it was He, said to him, Master, whom seekest thou? And he said to them, smiling, Ye have forgotten yourselves, Since ye do not know Judas Iscariot.
"At this time the soldiery entered; and seeing Judas so like in every respect to Jesus, laid hands upon him," &c (Chapter 217)
"In which (Chap. 2l8) is related the of Judas the traitor."
"The soldiers afterward,, took Judas and bound him, notwithstanding he said with truth to them that he was not Jesus. And Soldiers mocked him saying, Sir, do not be afraid; for we are come to make thee King of Israel; and we have bound thee, because we know thou hast refused the kingdom. And Judas said, Ye have lost your senses."
"I came to show you Jesus, that ye might take Him: and ye have bound me, who am your guide. The Soldiers lost their patience, hearing this, and they began to go with him, striking and buffeting him, till they reached Jerusalem &c,&c." (Chapter 218)
"They carried him to Mount Calvary, where they executed criminals, and crucified him striping him asked for the greater ignominy. Then he did nothing but cry out. O my God, why hast thou forsaken me, that I should die unjustly when the real malefactor hath escaped? I say in truth that he was so like in person, figure and gesture to Jesus, that as many as knew Him believed firmly that it was He, except Peter; for which reason many left his doctrine, believing that it had been false; as he had said that he should not die till the end the world."
"But those who stood firm were oppressed with grief, seeing him die whom they understood to be Jesus: not recollecting, what He had told them. And in company with His mother, they were present at his death, weeping continually, And by means of Joseph Abarimatheas (sic), they obtained from the president the body of Judas. And they took him down from the cross burying him with much lamentation in the new sepulcher of Joseph; having wrapped him up in linen and precious ointments." (Chapter 2l9.)
"They all returned, each man to his house: and he who writeth, with James and John, went with the mother of Jesus to Nazareth. And the disciples who did not fear God with truth, went by night and stole the body of Judas, and hid it, spreading a report that He (i.e. Jesus) had risen again, from whence sprung great confusion among the people."
"And the High Priest commanded, under pain of anathema that no one should talk of him; and on this account raised a great persecution, banishing some, tormenting others, and even stoning some to death: because it was not in the power of anyone to be silent on this subject. And then came news to Nazareth, that Jesus had risen again. And he that writeth desired the mother of Jesus to leave off her lamentation. And Mary said, Let us go to Jerusalem, to see if it is truth. If I see Him I shall die content." (Chapter 220).
"The virgin returned to Jerusalem with him that writeth and James and John, the same day that the decree of the High Priest came out."
"And as she feared God, though she knew
the command was unjust, she entreated those who talked with her not to speak of her Son. Who can say, how we were then affected? God, who knows the heart of man, knows that between the grief for the death of Judas, whom we understood to be Jesus, and the pleasure of seeing him risen again, we almost expired. And the angels who were the guardians of Mary went up to heaven the third day, and told Jesus what was passing. And He, moved with compassion for His mother, entreated of God that He might be seen by His disciples. And the Compassionate God ordered His four favourite angels to place Him within His own house, and to guard Him three days; that they and they only might see Him, who believed in His doctrine. Jesus descended, surrounded with light, into the house of His mother, where were the two sisters, Martha and Mary, and Lazarus, and he that writeth, and John and James, and Peter. And when they saw Him, they fell with their faces on the earth as if dead. And Jesus lifted them up, saying, Fear not, for I am your Master. Lament not henceforth, for I am alive. They were astonished at seeing Jesus, because they thought Him dead. And Mary weeping said, Tell me, my Son, why, if God gave Thee power to raise up the dead, did He consent that Thou shouldest die, with so much reproach and shame to Thy relations and friends, and so much hurt to Thy doctrine, leaving us all in desolation? Jesus replied, embracing His mother, Believe me for I tell thee the truth, I have not been dead; for God has reserved Me for the end of the world. In saying this He desired the angels to manifest themselves, and to tell how He had passed through everything At the instant they appeared like four suns and all present prostrated themselves on the ground, overcome by the presence of the angels. And Jesus gave to all of them something to cover themselves with, that they might be able to hear the angels speak."
"And Jesus said to his mother, These are the Ministers of God Gabriel knows His secrets; Michael fights with His enemies; Asrateil will cite all to judgement; and Azrael receives their souls. And the holy angels told how they had, by the command of God, taken up Jesus, and transformed Judas, that he might suffer the punishment which he wished to bring on Jesus. And he that writeth said, Is it lawful for me to ask of Thee, in the same manner as when thou wast in the world? And Jesus answered. Speak, Barnabas, what thou wishest."
"And he said, I wish that Thou wouldest tell me how God, being so compassionate, could afflict us so much in giving us to understand that Thou wast he that suffered, for we have been very near dying? And Thou being a prophet, why did He suffer Thee, to fall under disgrace, by (apparently) placing Thee on a cross, and between two robbers? Jesus answered, Believe Me, Barnabas, let the fault be ever so small God chastiseth it with much punishment. And as my mother and faithful disciples loved me with a little earthly love, God chastised that love by this grief; that He might not chastise it in the other world. And though I was innocent, yet as they called Me God, and His Son, that the devils might not mock Me on the Day of Judgment, He has chosen that I should be mocked in this world."
"And this mocking shall last till the holy Messenger of God (i.e. Muhammad) shall come, who shall undeceive all believers. And then He said, Just art Thou, O God I and to Thee only belongeth the honour and glory, with worship, for ever." (Chapter 221.)
"And then He said, Barnabas, that thou by all means write my gospel, relating everything which has happened in the world concerning Me; and let it be done exactly; in order that the faithful may be undeceived, knowing the truth. He that writeth said, Master, I will do it as Thou commandest me, God willing: but I did not see all that happened with Judas. Jesus answered, Here stand Peter and John, who saw it, and will relate it to thee."
"And He told James and John to call the seven apostles who were absent, and Nicodemus, and Joseph Abarimatheas (sic), and some of the seventy-two disciples. When they were come, they did eat with Him; and on the third day He commanded them all to go to the mount of Olives with His mother: because He was to return to heaven. All the apostles and disciples went, except twenty-five of the seventy-two, who had fled to Damascus with fear. And exactly at mid-day, while they were all in prayer, Jesus came with many angels (blessing God), with so much brightness that they all bent their faces to the ground. And Jesus raised them up, saying, Fear not your Master, who comes to take leave of you; and to recommend you to God our Lord, by the mercies received from His bounty: and be He with you!"
"And upon this He disappeared with the angels; all of us remaining amazed at the great brightness in which he left us." (Chapter 222).
AL-BARR One of the ninety-nine special names of God. In its ordinary sense it means "pious," or "good." As applied to God, it means "The Beneficent One."
BARZAKH . (1) A thing that intervenes between any two things; a bar, an obstruction or a thing that makes a separation between two things. In which sense it is used in the Qur'an in two places. Surah xxv. 55, "He hath put an interspace between them (i.e. the two seas), and a barrier which it is forbidden them to pass." Surah lv. 20, "Yet between them (the two seas) is a barrier
(2) The interva1 between the present life and that which is to come. See Qur'an, Surah xxiii. 99, "And say, My Lord, I seek refuge with Thee from the inciting of the devils, and I seek refuge with Thee from their
presence. Until when death comes to any one of them, he says, My Lord! send me back (to life), if haply I may do right in that which I have left. Not so! A mere word that he speaks! But behind them there is barzakh (a bar), until the day when they shall be raised. And when the trumpet shall be blown, there shall be no relation between them on that day, nor shall they beg of each other then." Upon this verse the commentator Baizawi says: "Barzakh is an intervening state (ha'il a barrier) between death and the Day of Judgment, and whoever dies enters it." The commentator Husain remarks "Barzakh is a partition (mani') between the living and the Day of Judgment, namely, the grave in which they will remain until the resurrection." The commentators al-Ja1alain speak of it as a hajiz, or intervening state between death and judgment. 'Abdu'r-Razzaq in his Dictionary of Technical Terms of the Sufis (Sprenger's Edition), gives a similar definition.
The word is employed by Muhammadan writers in at least two senses, some using it for the place of the dead, the grave, end other is for the state of departed souls between death and judgment.
The condition of believers in the grave is held to be one of undisturbed rest, hut that of unbelievers one of torment: for Muhammad is related to have said, "There are appointed for the grave of the urbeliever ninety-nine serpents to bite him until the Day of Resurrection." (Mishkat, i. C.5, p.12.) The word seems generally to be used in the sense of Hades, for every person who dies is said to enter al-Barzakh.
BA'S . Lit. "Raising." (1) The Day of Resurrection. (2) The office of a messenger or prophet.
BASE MONEY. The sale of one pure dirham and two base ones in exchange for two pure dirhams and one base one is lawful. By two base ones (ghalatain), are to be understood such as pass amongst merchants but are rejected at the public treasury. (Hidayah, vol. ii. 560.)
al-BASIR . One of the ninety-nine special names of God. It frequently occurs in the Qur'an, and means "The All-seeing One."
BASIRAH . Lit. "Penetration." The sight of the heart as distinguished from the sight of the eye (Basarah or Basar). A term used by theologians to express that enlightenment of the heart "whereby the spiritual man can understand spiritual things with as much certainty as the natural man can see objects with the sight of the eye." The word occurs twice in the Qur'an, Surah xii. 108, "This is my way; I cry unto God, resting on clear evidence;" Surah lxxv. 14, "A man shall be evidence against himself."
AL-BASIT One of the ninety-nine special names of God. It means "He who spreads, or stretches out," and occurs in the Qur'an, Surah xiii. 15. As applied to God, it means, "He who dispenses riches," &c.
BASTARD waladu 'z-mina) An illegitimate child has, according to Muhammadan law, no legal father, and consequently the law does not allow the father to interfere with his illegitimate child, even for the purposes of education. He cannot inherit the property of his father, but he is acknowledged as the rightful heir of his mother. (Bai1lie's Digest, p. 432). The evidence of a bastard is valid, because he is innocent with respect to the immorality of his parents; but the Imam Malik maintains that his testimony is not to be accepted with respect to a charge of whoredom. (Hidayah, vol. ii. 692.)
BATHING. The Arabic for ordinary bathing is ghasl, and that br the religious purification of the whole body ghusl. In all large mosques, and in most respectable dwellings in Muhammadan countries, there are bathing rooms erected, both for the ordinary purposes of bathing and for the religious purification. An account of the legal purification will be found in the article GHUSL. Although purifications and bathing form so essential a part of the Muslim religion, cleanliness does not distinguish Muhammadans, who are generally in this respect a striking contrast to their Hindu fellow subjects in India. According the saying of Muhammad, decency should he observed in bathing, and the clothes from the waist downwards should not be taken off at such times. (Mishkat, ii. c. iv.)
BATIL . That which is false in doctrine.
AL-BATIN (1) One of the ninety-nine special names of God. It means "that which is hidden or concealed," "The Hidden One," or "He that knows hidden things." (2) A term used in theology (or that which is hidden in its meaning, in contradistinction to that which is evident.
BATUL . Lit. "A shoot or offest" of a palm-tree cut off from its mother tree "a virign" (as cut off or withheld from men). The term al-Batul is applied to Fatimah, the daughter of Muhammad, because she was separated from the other women of her age by her excellences, Heb. Bethulah.
BA'US A Syriac word, (i.e. "petition, prayer"), which, in the dictionary of al-Qamus, is said to mean the Christian Easter; and also prayers for rain, or the Istisqa of the Christians. (Majmu 'l-Bihar, p. 101.)
BAZAQ or BAZIQ A prohibited liquor. The juice of the grapes boiled
until a quantity less than two-thirds evaporates.
BEARD. Arabic lihyah or zaqan. The beard is regarded by Muslims as the badge of the dignity of manhood. The Prophet is related to have said, - "Do the opposite of the polytheists and let your beard grow long." (Mishkat, xx. iv.) And the growing of a beard is said to be Fitrah, or one of those customs which have been observed by every Prophet. [FITRAH.]
BEAUTY, Female. "The maiden, whose loveliness inspires the most impassioned expression in Arabic poetry and prose, is celebrated for her slender figure she is like the cane among plants, and is elegant as the twig of the oriental willow. Her face is like the full moon, presenting the strongest contrast to the colour of her hair, which (to preserve the nature of the simile just employed) is of the deepest hue of night, and descends to the middle of her back. A rosy blush overspreads the centre of each cheek; and a mole is considered an additional charm. The Arabs, indeed, are particularly extravagant in their admiration of this natural beauty spot, which, according to its place is compared to a globule of ambergris upon a dish of alabaster, or upon the surface of a ruby. The eyes of the Arab beauty are intensely black, large, and long, of the form of an almond they are full of brilliancy but this is softened by a lid slightly depressed, and by long silken lashes, giving a tender and languid expression, which is full of enchantment, and scarcely to be improved by the adventitious aid of the black border of the kuhl; for this the lovely maiden adds rather for the sake of fashion than necessity, having what the Arabs term natural kuhl. The eye-brows are thin and arched, the forehead is wide, and fair as ivory, the nose straight, the mouth small the lips are of a brilliant red, and the teeth "like pearls set in coral." The forms of the bosom are compared to two pomegranates; the waist is slender; the hips are wide and large; the feet and hands small; the fingers tapering, and their extremities dyed with the deep orange-red tint imparted by the 1eaves of hinna.
The following is the meet complete analysis of Arabian beauty given by an unknown author, quoted by Al-Ishaqi:-
"Four things in a woman should be black: the hair of the head, the eye-brows, the eye lashes, and the dark part of the eyes; four white: the complexion of the skin, the white of the eyes, the teeth, and the legs; four red: the tongue, the lips, the middle of the cheeks, and the gums; four round: the head, the neck, the fore-arms, and the ankles; four long the back, the fingers, the arms, and the legs four wide: the forehead, the eyes, the bosom, and the hips; four fine: the eye-brows the nose, the lips, and the fingers; four small: the lower part of the back, the thighs, the calves of the legs, and the knees; four small: the ears, the breasts, the hands, and the feet." (Lanes Arabian Nights. vol. i, p.25.)
BEGGING. It is not lawful for any person possessing sufficient food for a day and night to beg (Durru 'l-Mukhtar, p. 108), and it is related that the Prophet said "Acts of begging are scratches and wounds-with which a man wounds his own face." "It is better for a man to take a rope and bring in a bundle of sticks to sell than to beg." "A man who continues to beg will appear in the Day of Judgment without any flesh on his face." (Mishkat. Book vi. chap. v.)
BEINGS. According to Muhammadan belief, there are three different species of created intelligent beings: (1) Angels (Mala'ikah), who are said to be created of light; (2) Genii (Jinn), who are created of fire; (3) Mankind (Insan) created of earth. These intelligent beings are called Zawu 'l-Uqil, or "Rational beings," whilst unintelligent beings are called Ghair Zawi 'l-'Uqul Hayawani-Natiq is also a term used for rational beings (who can speak), and for all irrational creatures. [JINN.]
BELIEVERS. The terms used for believers are - Mu'min, pl. Mu'minun; and Muslim pl. Musilmun. The difference expressed in these two words is explained in the Traditions, in a Hadis given in the Sahih of Muslim (p.27), where it is recorded by 'Umar, as having been taught by Muhammad, that a Mu'min is one who has iman, or "faith;" Faith being a sincere belief in God, His angels, His inspired books, His prophets, the Day of Resurrection, and the predestination of good and evil; and that a Muslim is one who is resigned and obedient to the will of God, and bears witness that there is no god but God, and that Muhammad is His Apostle, and is steadfast in prayer, and gives zakat, or "legal alms," and fasts in the month of Ramazan, and makes a pilgrimage to the Temple (Bait) at Makkah, if he have the means.
The rewards in store for the believer are as follows (see Suratu 'l-Baqarah, Surah ii, 76):-
"They who have believed and done the things that be right, they shall be the inmates of Paradise,-therein to abide forever."
Surat 'n-Nisa, Surah iv. 60 -
"Those who have believed, and done the things that are right, we will bring them into gardens beneath which the rivers flow - therein to abide eternally therein shall they have wives of stainless purity; and we will bring them into shadowing shades."
Suratu 'l-A'raf, Surah vii. 40:-
"Those who have believed and done the things which are right, (we will lay on no one a burden beyond his power) - these shall be inmates of Paradise: for ever shall they abide therein;"
"And will we remove whatever rancour was in their bosoms rivers shall roll at their feet; and they shall say, 'Praise be to God who hath guided us hither! We had not been guided had not God guided us! Of a surety
the Apostles of our Lord came to us with truth.' And a voice shall cry to them, This is paradise, of which, as the meed of your works, ye are made heirs.'"
"And the inmates of Paradise shall cry to the inmates of the Fire "Now have we found what our Lord promised us to be true. Have ye too found what your Lord promised you to be true?' And they shall answer, 'Yes.' And a Herald shall proclaim between them: 'The curse of God be upon the evil doers."
"Who turn men aside from the way of God, And seek to make it crooked, and who believe not in the life to come!"
"And between them shall be a partition: and on "the wall" al-A'raf, shall be men who will know all, by their tokens, and they shall cry to the inmates of Paradise 'Peace be on you!' but they shalt not yet enter it, although they long to do so."
"And when their eyes are turned towards the inmates of the Fire, they shall say, 'O our Lord! place us not with the offending people'."
"And they who are upon al-A'raf shall cry to those whom they shall know by their tokens, 'Your amassings and your pride have availed you nothing."
"'Are these they on whom ye aware God would not bestow mercy? Enter ye into Paradise! where no fear shall be upon you neither shall ye put to grief.'"
"And the inmates of the Fire shall cry to the inmates of Paradise 'Pour upon us some water, or of the refreshments God hath given you?' They shall they, 'Truly God hath forbidden both to unbelievers.'"
For a further descriptions of the Muhammadan future state the reader is referred to the article PARADISE, which deals more directly with the sensual character of the heaven supposed to be in store for the believer in the mission of Muhammad.
The following is a description of the believer which is given in the Qur'an. Suratu 'l-Muminin, the xxxiiird Surah, v 1. :-
"Happy now the Believers,
Who humble themselves in their prayer,
And who keep aloof from vain words,
And who are doers of alms-deeds (zakat),
And who restrain their appetites,
(Save with their wives or the slaves whom their right hands possess; for in that case they shall be free from blame:
But they whose desires reach further than this are transgressors)
And who tend well their trusts and their covenants,
And who keep them strictly to their prayers:
These shall be the heritors, who shall inherit Paradise, to abide therein for ever."
BENEFICENCE. (Arabic samaha) is commended by Muhammad as one of the evidences of faith (Mishkat, Book i. c. i part 3.)
Amr ibn 'Abaratah relates: "I came to the Prophet and said 'O Prophet, what is Islam?' And he said, It is purity of speech and hospitality.' I then said, "And what is faith?' And he said. 'Patience and beneficence."
BENJAMIN. Heb. Arabic The youngest of the children of Jacob. He is not mentioned by name in the Quran, but he is referred to in Surah xii. 69, "And when they entered in unto Joseph, he took his brother (i.e. Benjamin) to stay with him. He said Verily I am thy brother, then take not that ill which they have been doing. And when he had equipped them with their equipment, he placed the drinking cup in his brother's pack," &C [JOSEPH.]
BEQUESTS. Arabic wasiyah, p1. wasaya. A bequest or will can be made verbally, although it is held to be, better to execute it in writing. Two lawful witnesses are necessary to establish either a verbal bequest or a written will. A bequest in favour of a stranger to the amount of one-third of the whole property, is valid, but a bequest to any amount beyond that is invalid, unless the heirs give their consent. If a person make a bequest in favour of another from whom he has received a mortal wound it is not valid, and if a legatee slay his testator the bequest in his favour is void. A bequest made to part of the heirs is not valid unless the other heirs give their consent. The bequest of a Muslim in favour of an unbeliever, or of an unbeliever in favour of a Muslim, is valid. If a person be involved in debt, legacies bequeathed by him are not lawful. A bequest in favour of a child yet unborn is valid, provided the foetus happen to be less than six months old at the time of the making of the will.
If a testator deny his bequest, and the legatee produce witnesses to prove it, it is generally held not to be a retractation of it. If a person on his death-bed emancipate a slave, it takes effect after his death.
If a person will that "the pilgrimage incumbent on him be performed on his behalf after his death," his heirs must depute a person [or the purpose, and supply him with the necessary expenses. (Hamilton's Hidayah, vol. iv. 468.)
BESTLALITY is said by Muslim jurists to be the result of the most vitiated appetite and the utmost depravity of sentiment. But if a man commit it, he does not incur the Hudd or stated punishment, as the act is not considered to have the properties of whoredom; the offender is to be punished by a discretionary correction (Ta'zir). According to Muslim law, the beast should he killed, and if it be of an eatable species, it should be, burnt. (Hidayah, vol. ii. 27.) Obs According to the Mosaic code, a man guilty of this crime was surely to be put to death. (Ex. xviii. 19.)
BI'AH . A Christian church. The word occures in a tradition in the Mishkat (iv. c. vii. 2), and is translated by 'Abdu 'l-Haqq "Kalisah." [CHURCH]
BID'AH A novel or innovation in religion; heresy ; schism.
BIER. Arabic jindzah and janazah. The same word is used for the corpse, the bier, and the funeral. In most Muhammadan countries the ordinary charpoy, or "bedstead," is used for the bier, which, in the case of a female, is covered with a canopy. [BURIAL.]
BIHISHT . The Persian word for the celestial regions. [PARADISE, JANNAH, FIRDAUS.]
BILADU 'L-ISLAM . "The countries of Islam." A term used in Muhammadan law for Muslim countries. It is synonymous with the term Daru 'l-Islam. [DARU 'L-ISLAM.]
BILAL . The first Mu'aszzin or caller to prayer appointed by Muhammad. He was an Abyssinian slave who had been ransomed by Abu Bakr. He was tall, dark, and gaunt, with negro features and bushy hair, Muhammad honoured and distinguished him as the "first fruits of Abyssinia." He survived the Prophet.
BILQIS . The Queen of Saba', who visited Solomon and became one of his queens. An account of her, as is is given in the Qur'an, will be found in the story of King Solomon. [SOLOMON.]
BINT LABUN . "The daughter of a milk-giver." A female camel two years old: so called because the mother is then suckling another foal. The proper age for a camel given in zakat, or legal "alms," for camels from thirty-six in number up to forty-five.
BINT MAKHAZ.. "The daughter of a pregnant." A female camel passed one year; so called because the mother is again pregnant. This is the proper age for a camel given in zakat, or "alms," for camels from twenty-five in number up to thirty-five.
BIOGRAPHERS OF MUHAMMAD. Although the Qur'an may be said to be the keystone to the biography of Muhammad, yet it contains but comparatively few references to the personal history of the Prophet. The Traditions, or Ahadis, form the chief material for all biographical histories. [TRADITION.] The first who attempted to compile an account of Muhammad in the form of a history, was az-Zuhri, who died A.H. 124, and whose work no longer extant, is mentioned by Ibn Khallikan. The earliest biographical writers whose works are extant are Ibn Ishaq, A.H. 151; Al-Waqidi, A.H. 207; Ibn Hisham, A.H. 218; Al-Bukhari (history), A.H. 256; Al-Tabari, A.H.310. Amongst more recent biographies, the most noted are those bv Ibn 'l-Asir, A.H. 630, and Ima'il Abu 'l-fidi', A.H. 732. Abu 'l-fida's work was translated into Latin by John Gagnier, Professor of Arabic at Oxford, A.D. 1723, and into English by the Rev. W. Murray, Episcopal clergymen at Duffus in Scotland, and published (without date) at Elgin. The first life of Muhammad published in English is that by Dean Prideaux, which first appeared in 1723, and afterwards passed through several editions. Dr. Sprenger commenced a life of Muhammad in English, and printed the first part at Allahabad, India, A.D. 185l; but it was never completed. The learned author afterwards published the whole of his work in German, at Berlin, 1869. The only complete life of Muhammad in English which has any pretension to originsal research, is the well-known Life of Mahomet, by Sir William Muir, LL.D. (First Edition, four vols., London, 1858-6l; Second Edition, one vol. London 1877).
BIOGRAPHY. A Dictionary of Biography is called asma' u 'r-rijal, (lit. "The Names of Men"). The most celebrated of these is, amongst Muslims, that by Ibn Khallikan, which has always been considered a work of the highest importance for the civil and literary history of the Muhammadan people. Ibn Khallikan died A.H. 681 (A.D. 1282), but his dictionary received numerous additions from subsequent writers. It has been translated into English by Mac-Guckin De Slane (Paris, 1843).
BIRDS. It is commonly believed by the Muhammadans that all kinds of birds, and many, if not all, beasts, have a language by which they communicate their thoughts to each other, and in the Qur'an (Surah xxvii. 16) it is stated that King Solomon was taught the language of birds.
BI'R ZAMZAM . The well of Zamzam [ZAM-ZAM.]
BI'R MA'UNAH The well of Ma'unah. A celebrated spot four marches from Makkah, where a party of Muhammad's followers were slain by the Banu 'Amir and Banu Sulaim. He professed to have received a special message from heaven regarding these martyrs, which runs thus : - "Acquaint our people that we have met our Lord. He is well pleased with us, and we are well pleased with Him." It is a remarkable verse, as having for some reason or other been cancelled, and removed from the Qur'an. (Muir's Life of Mahomet, vol. iii. p. 207.)
BIRTH, Evidence of. According to the Imam Abu Hinifah, if a married woman should claim to be the mother of a child, her claim is not to be valid unless the birth of the child is attested by the testimony of one woman. But in the case of a father, as
much as the claim of parentage is a matter which relates purely to himself, his testimony alone is to be accepted.
The testimony of the midwife alone is sufficient with respect to birth but with regard to parentage, it is established hy the fact of the mother of the child being the wife of the husband.
If the woman be in her 'iddah ['IDDAH] from a complete divorce, the testimony of the midwife is not sulficient with respect to birth, but the evidence of two men, or of one man and two women, is requisite. (Hamilton's Hidayah, vol. iii. p.134.)
It is also ruled that it is not lawful for a person to give evidence to anything which he has not seen, except in the case of birth, death, and marriage. (Vol. ii. 676.)
BI-SHAR' Lit. "Without the law." A term applied to those mystics who totally disregard the teaching of the Qur'an. Antinomians. [SUFI]
BISMILLAH Lit. "In the name of God." An ejaculation frequently used at the commencement of any undertaking. There are two forms of the Bismillah: -
1. Bi-'smi 'llahi 'r-rahim, i.e. "In the name of God, the Compassionate. the Merciful." This is used at the commencement of meals, putting ou new clothes, beginning any new work, and at the commencement of books. It occurs at the head of every chapter or surah in the Qur'an, with the exception of the ixth (i.e. the Suratu 'l-Bara' ah).
2. Bi-'smi 'llahi 'llahi 'l-akbar, i.e. "In the name of God. God the Most Great." Used at the time of slaughtering of animals, at the commencement of a battle, &C, the attribute of mercy being omitted on such occasions.
The formula Bi-'smi 'llahi 'r-rahmani 'r-rahim is of Jewish origin. It was in the first instance taught to the Quraish by Umaiyah of Ta'if, the poet, who was a contemporary but somewhat older than, Muhammad, and who, during his mercantile journeys into Arabia Petraea and Syria, had made himself acquainted with the sacred books and doctrines of Jews and Christians. (Kitaba'l -Aghani, 16, Delhi; quoted by Rodwell.)
BIZA'AH A share in a mercantile adventure. Property entrusted to another to be employed in trade.
BLACK STONE. [AL-HAJARU L ASWAD.]
BLASPHEMY. Arabic, kufr. Lit. "to hide" (the truth). It includes a denial of any of the essential principles of Islam.
A Muslim convicted of blasphemy is sentenced to death in Muhammadan countries. [APOSTASY.]
BLEEDING. Arabic hija-mah The two great cures recommended by Muhammad were blood-letting and drinking honey; and he taught that it was unlucky to be bled on a Friday, Saturday, or Sunday, the most lucky day being Tuesday, and the most lucky date the seventeenth of the month. (Mishkat, xxi. c. 1.)
BLIND The Arabic A'ma, pl. 'Umyan. It is not incumbent upon a b1ind man to engage in Jihad, or a religious war. And, according to the Imam Abu-Hanifah, the evidence of a blind person is not admissible, but the Imam Zufar maintains that such evidence is lawful when it affects a matter in which hearsay prevails. Sales and purchases made by a blind person are lawful. (Hamilton's Hidayah, vol. ii., pp, 141, 402, 682)
BLOOD. The sale of blood is unlawful. (Hamilton's Hidiyah, vol. ii p.428.)
BLOOD. The Avenger of. [QISAS.]
BLOOD, Issue of. [ISTIHAZAH.]
BOASTING. Arabic kharah. Muhammad is related to have said, I swear by God, a tribe must desist from boasting of their forefathers; for they are nothing more than coals from hell-fire (i.e. they were idolaters); and if you do not leave off boasting, verily you will be more hateful in the sight of God than a black-beetle. Mankind are all the sons of Adam, and Adam was of the earth" (Mishkat, xxii. c. 13.)
BOOKS OF MOSES. [TAURAT.]
BOOKS, Stealing. The hand of a thief is not to be cut off for stealing a book, whatever be the subject of which it treats, because the object of the theft can only be the contents of the book, and not the book itself. But yet, it is to be observed, the hand is to be cut off for stealing "an account book," because in this case it is evident that the object of the theft is not the contents of the book, but the paper and material of which the book is made. (Hamilton's Hidayah, vol. ii. 92.)
BREACH OF TRUST. Arabic khiyanah. The punishment of amputation of the hand is not inflicted for a breach of trust. And if a guest steal the property of his host whilst he is staying in his house, the hand is not cut off. Breach of trust in Muslim law being a less offence than ordinary theft, the punishment for breach of trust is left to the discretion of the Judge. (Hamilton's Hidayah vol. ii, pp. 93-102.)
BRIBERY. (Arabic ) riswah) is not mentioned in the Qur'an. In the Fatawa Alamgiri it is stated that presents to magistrates are of various kinds; for example, if a present be made in order to establish a friendship, it is lawful but if it be given to influence the decision of the judge in the donor's favour, it is unlawful. It is also said, if a present be made to a judge from a sense of
fear, it is lawful to give it, but unlawful to accept it. (Hamilton's Hidayah, vol. iii, p. 332)
BU'AS, Battle of. Arabic Harb Bu'as. A battle fought between the Bani Khazraj and Banu Aus, about six years before the flight of Muhammad from Makkah.
BUHTA A false accusation; calumny.
The word occurs twice in the Qur'an:
Surah iv. 112: "Whose commits a fault or sin, and throws it upon one who is innocent, he hath to bear calumny (buhtan) and manifests in."
Surah xxiv. 15: - "And why did ye not say when ye heard it, 'It is not for us to speak of this'? Celebrated be Thy praises, this is a mighty calumny (buhtan)." [BACKBITING]
BUKA Heb. he wept Weeping and lamentation for the dead. Immoderate weeping and lamentation over the graves of the dead is clearly forbidden by Muhammad, who is related to have said, "Whatever is from the eyes (i.e. tears), and whatever is from the heart (i.e. sorrow), are from God; but what is from the hands and tongue is from the devil. Keep yourselves, O women, from wailing, which a the noise of the devil. (Mishkat, v. c. vii) The custom of wailing at the tombs of the dead is, however, common in all Muhammadan countries. (See Lane's Modern Egyptians, Shaw's Travels in Barbary.) [BURIAL.]
Al-BUKHARI A short title given to the well known collection of Sunni traditions by Abu 'Abdn 'llah Muhammad ibn Isma'il Ibn Ibrihim ibn al-Mughirah al-Ju'fi al-Bukhari, who was born at Bukhara A.H. 194 (A.D. 310), and died at the village of Kartang near Samarqand, A.H. 256 (A.D. 870). His compilation comprises upwards of 7,000 traditions of of the acts and sayings of the Prophet, selected from a mass of 600,000. His book is called the Sahih of al-Bukhari, and is said to have been the result of sixteen years labour. It is said that he was so anxious to record only trustworthy traditions that he performed a prostration in worship before the Almighty before he recorded each tradition.
BUKHTU NASSAR "Nehuchadnezzar." It is thought by Jalalu 'd-din that there is a reference to his army taking Jerusalem in the Qur'an, Surah xvii 8, "And when the threat for the last (crime) came (to be inflicted, we sent an enemy) to harm your faces, and to enter the temple as they entered it the first time." The author of the Qamus says that Bukht is "son," and Nasser, "an idol," i.e. "the Son of Nasser."
BULAS "Despair." The name of one of the chambers of hell, where the proud will drink of the yellow water of the infernal regions. (Mishkat, xxii. c. 20)
BURAQ Lit. "The bright one." The animal upon which Muhammad is said to have performed the nocturnal journey called Miraj. He was a white animal, between the size of a mule and an ass, having two wings. (Majma'u 'l-Bihar, p. 89.) Muhammad's conception of this mysterious animal is not unlike the Assyrian gryphon, of which Mr. Layard gives a sketch. [MI'RAJ.]
THE ASSYRIAN GRYPHON (Layard ii. 459).
BURGLARY is punished as an ordinary theft, namely by the amputation of the hand, but it is one of the niceties of Muhammadan law, according to the Hanafi code, that if a thief break through the wall of the house, and enter therein, and take the property, and deliver it to an accomplice standing at the entrance of the breach, amputation of the head is not incurred by either of the parties, because the thief who entered the house did not carry out the property. (Hidayah, vo1 ii 103.)
BURIAL OF THE DEAD (Jinazah or Janazah). The term Janazah is used both for the bier and for the Muhammadan funeral service. The burial service is founded upon the practice of Muhammad, and varies but little in different countries, although the ceremonies connected with the funeral procession are diversified. In Egypt and Bukhari, for instance, the male relations and friends of the deceased precede the corpse, while the female mourners follow behind. In India and Afghanistan, women do not usually attend funerals, and the friends and relatives of the deceased walk behind the bier. There is a tradition amongst some Muhammadans that no one should precede the corpse, as the angels go before. Funeral processions in Afghanistan are usually very simple in their arrangements, and are said to be more in accordance with the practices of the Prophet, than those of Egypt and Turkey. It is considered a very meritorious act to carry the bier, and four from among the near relations, every now and then relieved by an equal number, carry it on their shoulders. Unlike our Christian custom of walking slowly to the grave, the Muhammadans carry their dead quickly to the place of interment; for Muhammad is related to have said, that it is good to carry he dead quickly to the grave, to cause the righteous person to arrive soon at happiness
and if he be a bad man, it is well to put wickedness away from one's shoulders. Funerals should always be attended on foot; for it is said that Muhammad on one occasion rebuked his people for following on horseback. "Have you no shame?" said he, "since God's angels go on foot, and you go upon the backs of quadrupeds?" It is a highly meritorious act to attend a funeral, whether it be that of a Muslim, a Jew, or a Christian. There are, however, two traditions which appear to mark a change of feeling on the parts of the Prophet of Arabia towards the and Christians. "A bier passed by the Prophet, and he stood up; and it was said to the Prophet, this is the bier of a Jew. 'It is the holder of a soul,' he replied,' from which we should take warning and fear."' This rule is said to have been abrogated, for, "on one occasion the Prophet sitting on the road when a bier passed, and the Prophet disliked that the bier of a Jew should be higher than his head, and he therefore stood up." (Mishkat v c.v.) Notwithstanding these contradictory traditions, we believe that in all countries Muhammadans are wont to pay great respect to the funerals of both Jews and Christians.
The Muhammadan funeral service is not recited in the graveyard, it being too polluted a place for so sacred an office; but either in a mosque, or in some open space near the dwelling of the deceased person or the grave-yard. The owner of the corpse, i.e. the nearest relative, is the proper person to recite the service; but it is usually said by the family Imam, or the Qasi.
The following is the order of the service: -
Some one present calls out,- "Here begin the prayers for the dead."
Then those present arrange themselves in three, five, or seven rows opposite the corpse, with their faces Qiblah-wards (i.e. towards Makkah). The Imam stands in front of the ranks opposite the head (the Shi'ahs atand opposite the loins of a man) of the corpse, if it be that of male, or the waist, if it be that of a female.
The whole company having taken up the up the Qiyam or standing position, the Imam recites the Niyah.
"I purpose to perform prayers to God for this dead person, consisting of four Takbira."
Then placing his hands to the lobes of his ears, he says the first Takbir.
Then folding his hands, the right hand upon the left, below the navel, he recites the Sabhan: -
Then follows the second Takbir: -
Then the Durud: -
"O God, have mercy on Muhammad and upon his descendants, as Thou didst bestow mercy, and peace, and blessing, and compassion, and great kindness upon Abraham and upon his descendants."
"Thou art praised. and Thou art great!"
"O God, bless Muhammad and his descendants, as Thou didst bless and didst have compassion and great kindness upon Abraham and upon his descendants."
Then follows the third Takbir: -
After which the following prayer (Du'a) is recited: -
"O God, forgive our living and our dead and those of us who are present, and those who are absent, and our children, and our full grown persons, our men and our women. O God, those whom Thou dost keep alive amongst us, keep alive in Islam, and those whom Thou causest to die, let them die in the Faith."
Then follows the fourth Takbir : -
Turning the head round to the right, he says: -
"Peace and mercy be to Thee".
Turning the head round to the left, he says:-
"Peace and mercy be to Thee."
The Takbir is recited by the Imam aloud, but the Subhan, the Slalam, the Durad, and the Du'a; are recited by the Imam and the people in a low voice.
The people then seat themselveS on the ground, and raise their hands in silent prayer in behalf of the deceased's soul, and afterwards addressing the relatives they say, "It is the decree of God." To which the chief mourner replies, "I am pleased with the will of God" He then gives permission to the people to retire by saying, "There is permission to depart."
Those who wish to return to their houses do so at this time, and the rest proceed to the grave. The corpse is then placed on its back in the grave, with the head to the north and feet to the south, the face being turned towards Makkah. The persons who place the corpse in the grave repeat the following sentence: "We commit thee to earth in the name of God and in the religion of the Prophet"
The hands of the shroud having been loosed, the recess, which is called the lahd closed in with unburnt bricks and the grave filled in with earth. [GRAVE.] In some countries it is usual to recite verse 57 of the xxth Surah of the Qur'an as the clods of earth are thrown into the grave; but this practice is objected to by the Wahhabis, and by many learned divines. The verse is as follows: -
"From it (the earth) have We (God) created you, and unto it will We return you, and out of it will We bring you forth the second time."
After the burial the people offer fatihah (i.e. the first chapter of the Qur'an) In the name of the deceased, and again when they have proceeded about forty paces from the grave they offer another fatihah for at this
juncture it is said, the two angels Munkir and Nakir examine the deceased as to his faith. [PUNISHMENTS OF THE GRAVE.] After this, food is distributed to beggars and religious mendicants as a propitiatory offering to God, in the name of the deceased person.
If the grave be for the body of s woman it should be to the height of a man's chest if for a man, to the height of the waist. At the bottom of the grave the recess is made on the side to receive the corpse, which is called the lahid or lakd. The dead are seldom interred in coffins, although they are not prohibited.
To build tombs with stones or burnt bricks, or to write a verse of the Qur'an upon them, is forbidden in the Hadis; but large stone and brick tombs are common to all Muhammadan countries, and very frequently they bear inscriptions.
On the third day after the burial of the dead, it is usual for the relatives to visit the grave, and to recite selections from the Qur'an. Those who can afford to pay Maulavis, employ these learned men to recite the whole of the Qur'an at the graves of their deceased relatives; and, the Qur'an is divided into sertions to admit of its being recited by the several Maulavis at once. During the days of mourning the relatives abstain from wearing any article of dress of a bright colour, and their soiled garments remain unchanged.
A funeral procession in Egypt is graphically described by Mr. Lane in his Modern Egyptians. We give the account as it contrasts strikingly with the simple processions of Sunni Muhammadans in India.
The first persons are about aix or more poor men, called 'Yamaniyah,' mostly blind, who proceed two and two, or three and three, together. Walking at a moderate pace, or rather slowly, they chant incessantly, in a melancholy tone, the profession of faith ('There is no deity but God; Muhammad is God's Apostle; God favour and preserve him!'). They are followed by some male relations and friends of the deceased, and, in many cases, by two or more persons of some sect of darweshes, bearing the flags of their order. This is a general custom at the funeral of a darwesh. Next follow three or four or more schoolboys; one of them carries a mushaf (or copy of the Qur'an), or a volume consisting of one of the thirty sections of the Qur'an, placed upon a kind of desk formed of palm-sticks, and covered over, generally with an embroidered kerchief. These boys chant, in a higher and livelier voice than the Yamaniyah, usually some words of a poem called the Hashariyah, descriptive of the events of the last day, the judgment, &c. The school-boys immediately precede the bier, which is bourne head-foremost. Three or four friends of the deceased usually carry it for a short distance, then three or four other friends bear it a little further and then these are in like manner relived. Casual passengers, also, often take part in this service, which is esteemed highly meritorious. Behind this bier walk the female mourners; sometimes a group of more tham a dozen, or twenty; with their hair disheveled, though generally concealed by the head-veil; crying and shrieking as before described and often, the hired mourners accompany them, celebrating the praises of the deceased. Among the women, the relations and domestics of the deceased are distinguished by a strip of linen or cotton stuff or muslin, generally bound round the head, and tied in a single knot behind: the ends hanging down a few inches. Each of these also carries a handkerchief, usually dyed blue, which she sometimes holds over her shoulders, and at other times twirls with both hands over, her head, or before her face. The cries of the women, the lively chanting of the youths, and the deep tones uttered by the Yamaniyah, compose a strange discord.
The funeral procession of a man of wealth, or of a person of the middle classes, is sometimes preceded by three or four or more camels, bearing bread and water to give to the poor at the tomb, and is composed of a more numerous and varied assemblage of person's. The foremost of these are the Yamaniyah, who chant the profession of the faith, as described above. They are generally followed by some male friends of the deceased, and some learned and devout persons who have been invited to attend the funeral. Next follows a group of four or more faqihs, chanting the 'Suratu 'l-An'nam (the vith chapter of the Qur'an); and sometimes, another group, chanting the 'Surat Ya-sin' (the xxxvith chapter): another, chanting the 'Suratu '1-Kahf' (the xviiith chapter); and another chanting the 'Suratu 'd-Dukhan' (the xlivth chapter). These are followed by some munshids, singing the 'Burdah;' and these by certain persons called 'Ashabu-l-Ahzab; who are members of religious orders founded by celebrated shaikhs. There are generally four or more of the order of the Hizbu 's-Sadat, a similar group of the Hizbu 'sh-Shazili., and another of the Hizbu 'sh-Sha'rawi; each group chants a particular forna of prayer. After them are genera1ly borne two or more half-furled flags, the banners of one or other of the principal orders of darweshee. Then follow the school-boys, the bier, and the female mourners, as in the procession before described, and, perhaps, the led horses of the bearers, if these be men of rank. A buffalo, to be sacrificed at the tomb, where its flesh is to be distributed to the poor, sometimes closes the procession.
The funeral of a devout shaikh, or of one of the great 'Ulama, is still more numerously attended, and the bier of such a person is not covered with a shawl. A 'wali' is further honoured in his funeral by a remarkable custom. Women follow his bier, but, instead of wailing, as they would after the corpse of an ordinary mortal, they rend the air with the shrill and quavering cries of joy called 'zagharit': and if these cries are discontinued but for a minute, the bearers of the bier protest that they cannot proceed, that a super-natural power rivets them to the spot on
which they stand. Very often, it is said, a 'wali' impels the bearers of his corpse to a particular spot. The following anecdote, describing an ingenious mode of puzzling a dead saint in a case of this kind, was related to me by one of my friends. Some men were lately bearing the corpse of a 'wali' to a tomb prepared for it in the great cemetery on the north of the metropolis, but on arriving at the gate called Babu 'n-Nasr, which leads to the cemetery, they found themselves able to proceed further, from the cause above-mentioned. 'It seems,' said one of the bearers, 'that the sheik is determined not to be buried in the cemetery of Babu 'n-Nasr, and what shall we do?' They were all much perplexed, but being as obstinate as the saint himself, they did not immediately yield to his caprice. Retreating a few paces, and then advancing with a quick step, they thought by such an impetus to force the corpse through the gateway but their efforts were unsuccessful; and the same experiment they repeated in vain several times. They then placed the bier on the ground to rest and consult; and one of them, beckoning away his comrades to a distance beyond the hearing of the dead saint, said to them, Let us take up the bier again, and turn it round several times till the shaikh becomes giddy; he then will not know in what direction we are going, and we may take him easily through the gate.' This they did; the saint was puzzled as they expected, and - quietly buried in the place which he had so striven to avoid.
"In the funerals of females and boys, the bier is usually only preceded by the Yamaniyah, chanting the profession of the faith, and by some male relation,, of the deceased; and followed by the female mourners unless the deceased were of a family of wealth, or of considerable station in the world; in which case, the funeral procession is distinguished by come additional display. I shall give a short description of one of the most genteel and decorous funerals of this kind that I have witnessed: it was that of a young unmarried lady. Two men, each bearing a large, furled, green flag, headed the procession preceding the Yamaniyah, who chanted in an unusually low and solemn manner. These faqirs who were in number about eight, were followed by a group of fakirs, chanting a chapter of the Qur'an. Next afer the latter was a man bearing a large branch of 'Nahq' (or lote tree), an emblem of the deceased. On each side of him walked a person bearing a tall staff or cane, to the top of which were attached, several hoops ornamented with strips of various coloured paper. These were followed by two Turkish soldiers, side by side, one bearing, on a small round tray, a gilt silver 'qumqum' of rose-water, and the other bearing, on a similar tray, a 'mibkharah' of gilt silver, in which some odoriferous substances (as benzoin, or 'frankincense', was burning, These vessels diffused the odour of their contents on the way, and were afterwards used to perfume the sepulchral vault. Passengers were occasionally sprinkled with the rose-water. Next followed four men, each of whom bore, upon a smal1 tray, several small lighted tapers of wax, stuck in lumps of paste of 'hinna' The bier was covered with rich shawls, and its shahid was decorated with handsome ornaments of the head, having, besides the safa, a 'quasah almas' (a long ornament of gold and diamonds worn over the forhead), and, upon its flat top, a rich diamond qurs. These were the jewels of the deceased, or were, perhaps, as is often the case, borrowed for the occasion. The female mourners, in number about seven or eight, clad in the usual manner of the ladies of Egypt (with the black silk covering, &c.) followed the bier, not on foot as is the common custom in this country, but mounted on high-saddled asses; and only the last two or three of them were waiting these being, probably hired mourners. In another funera1-procession of a female, the daughter of a Turk of high rank, the Yamsniyah were followed by six slaves, walking two by two. The first two slaves bore each a silver 'qumqum' of rose-water, which they sprinkled on the passengers; and one of them honoured me so profusely as to wet my dress very uncomfortably; after which, he poured a small quantity into my hands, and I wetted my face with it, according to custom. Each of the next two bore a silver mibkharah, with perfume; and the other two carried a silver 'azqi (or hanging censer), with burning charcoal of frankincense. The jewels on the shahid of the bier were of a costly description. Eleven ladies, mounted on high-saddled asses, together with several naddabahs followed.
BURNING THE DEAD. There is no express injunction, in either the Qura'n or the Traditions, regarding the burning of dead bodies, although the burning of the living is strictly forbidden. For Muhammad said, "Punish not with God's punishment (which is fire), for it is not fit for anyone to punish with fire but God." (Mishkat xiv c.v. part 1)
The teaching of the Traditions is that a dead body is as fully conscious of pain as a living body for Ayishah said, that the Prophet said, "The breaking of the bones of a corpse is the same as doing it in life. (Mishkat, v. c.v. part 2)
It is therefore, pretty clearly established that cremation of the dead is strictly forbidden by the Muhammadan religion. There is, however, nothing to confirm the impression that the burning of a corpse in any waY prevents its soul entering paradise.'
BURNING TO DEATH Is strictly forbidden by Muslim law. 'Ikrimah relates that some apostates from Islam were brought to the Khalifah 'Ali, and he burnt them; and when Ibn 'Abbas heard of it, he said, "Had they been brought to me, I would not have burnt them; for the Prophet said, 'Punish not with God's punishment. Verily it is not fit for anyone to punish with fire but God.' (Mishkat, c.v. part 1.)
BURQA' The veil or covering used for the seclusion of women when wa1king abroad. [VEILING OF WOMEN]
BURUJ Lit. "Towers" which some interpret as real towers wherein the angels keep watch. A term used for the twelve signs of the zodiac. [SIGNS OF THE ZODIAC.] Al-Buruj is the title of the LXXXVth Surah of the Qur'an.
BURYING OF THE DEAD. It is said by commentators that God taught mankind to bury their dead when "God sent a crow to scratch the earth, to show him (Cain) how he might hide his brothers body." (Qur'an, Surah V. 34; Tafsir-I-Husaini, in loco) The custom of burying their dead is universal in Islam. The ceremonies connected with funerals will be found in the article on Burial. [BURIAL.]
BURYING-GROUND. Arabic maqbarat or maqbarah "The place of graves". Persian Qabristan. They are sometimes spoken of by religious Muslims as Marqad, a "cemetery" or "sleeping-place", but the name has not obtained a general application to burial-grounds in the East as it has in the West. They are generally situated outside the city, the graves being covered with pebbles, and distinguished by headstones, those on the graves of men being with a turban-like head. The graves are dug from north to south. The grave yards are usually much neglected. The Wahhabis hold it to be a meritorious act in accordance with the injunctions of the Prophet to neglect the graves of the dead, the erection of brick tombs being forbidden. (Hidayah Arabic ed., vol. i p. 90) A grave-yard does not become public property until the proprietor formally makes a gift or bequest of it (Hidayah, vol ii., p 357.)
BUSHRA "Good news;" "the gospel." A word used in the Traditions for the publication of Islam (Mishkat xxiv. c. i.) "Accept good news O ye sons of Tamim," which 'Abdu 'l Haqq says means "embrace Islam."
BUZURG Lit. "great." A Persian word used in the East for a saintly person, an old man, or a person of rank.
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