In Syraic (= Christian Aramaic) qeryaanaa: scriptural reading. Occurs 66 times in the Qur'an. See also ARABIC, WORD OF GOD.
According to Dr. Sobhy as-Salih, this word is not Arabic but Aramaic. He said: "Allah chose to His revelation new names different from those used by the Arabs, in general and in detail." (Sobhy as-Salih, Mabahith fi 'Ulum al-Qur'an, Dar al-'Ilm lel-Malayeen, Beirut, 1983, p.17) He also said, "When the Arabs before Islam used the word (qara') it meant 'to be pregnant or to have a child'. But the word qara' as 'to recite' is of an Aramaic origin." (ibid, p. 19). [Aside: If the latter is true, then those Muslims who try to show that Muhmmad was illiterate will find this funny. Of course, when Gabriel told him to "be pregnant or have a child," it must be he cannot, a perfectly logical and correct answer!]
Further reference for this etymological derivation (in German): Christoph Luxenberg, Die syro-aramäische Lesart des Koran: ein Beitrag zur Entschlüsselung der Koransprache, Berlin 2000 (ISBN 3-86093-274-8). Luxenberg gives the complete etymology of qur'aan from qeryaanaa in detailed steps.
The Qur'an is also called al-Furqan. According to Dr. Sobhy as-Salih, this word is not Arabic but Aramaic (ibid, p. 20). The Qur'an was also called Mushaf meaning "sheets or leaves". According to Dr. Salih, "when the Qur'an was collected and written on paper they wanted to give it A NAME. The word, Sifr, was suggested by some. It was rejected on the grounds that this is what the Jews call their books. Some suggested the word Mushaf because this is what the Ethiopian [Christians] call their holy books." (ibid, p. 78)
It seems strange that for all the titles of the Qur'an, none of them were actually Arabic, especially when the Qur'an says that Allah sent it down in Arabic (Yusuf 12:2; ar-Ra`d 13:37; an-Nahl 16:103; ash-Shu`ara' 26:195; az-Zumar 39:28; Ha Mim Sajdah 41:3; ash-Shura 42:7; az-Zukhruf 43:3; al-Ahqaf 46:12).
The Qur'an was not written down in full, but in piecemeal.
Summary of Qur'an details:
|s/no||name||English Names||#verses||place||chronological order|
|3||Al-Imran||The Family of Imran||200||Madina||89|
|7||Al-A`raf||The Elevated Places||206||Mecca||39|
|8||Al-Anfal||The Spoils of War||75||Madina||88|
|17||Bani Isra'il||The Israelites||111||Mecca||50|
|20||Ta Ha||Ta Ha||135||Mecca||45|
|36||Ya Sin||Ya Sin||83||Mecca||41|
|40||Al-Mu'min||The Forgiving One||85||Mecca||60|
|41||Ha Min Sajdah||Revelations Well Expounded||54||Mecca||61|
|44||Ad-Dukhan||The Evident Smoke||59||Mecca||64|
|56||Al-Waqi`ah||That Which is Coming||96||Mecca||46|
|58||Al-Mujadilah||She Who Pleaded||22||Madina||105|
|60||Al-Mumtahanah||She Who is Tested||13||Madina||91|
|62||Al-Jum`ah||The Day of Congregation||11||Madina||110|
|73||Al-Muzammil||The Mantled One||20||Mecca||3|
|74||Al-Mudathir||The Clothed One||56||Mecca||4|
|79||An-Naziat||Those Who Pulled Out||46||Mecca||81|
|82||Al-Infitar||The Cleaving Asunder||19||Mecca||82|
|87||Al-A`la||The Most High||19||Mecca||8|
|88||Al-Ghashiyah||The Overwhelming Calamity||26||Mecca||68|
|93||Ad-Duha||The Early Hours||11||Mecca||11|
|101||Al-Qari`ah||The Terrible Calamity||11||Mecca||30|
|107||Al-Ma'un||The Daily Necessaries||7||Mecca||17|
The challenge of the Qur'an to anyone to produce a verse like it is in strange land. Muslims have often said that it refers to the eloquence, beauty of the verses. Unfortunately, however, there is no objective criteria by which one can judge this. Interestingly enough, no Muslim has ever put up an objective criteria by which to judge such a contest. Secondly, there is no concensus as to who will be the judge of such a contest. In other words, there are no rules and no judge. At the same time, there are others who have pointed out grammatical errors in the Qur'an. Some Muslims responded that the Qur'an is the final arbitar of correct Arabic, and if the grammar books do not conform to the Qur'an, then the grammer books have to be changed. But clearly, that is not acceptable, for the Qur'an was supposedly revealed in the midst of a people who were masters of eloquence and poetry, and the challenge was issued to them. (Do we not remember that Muhammad originally thought that he was becoming one of the poets after the first revelation? see Muhammad)
There are many obscure passages in the Qur'an, that this verse cannot be referring to the whole Qur'an. This verse actually say that the Jews and Christians know that it is revealed in truth!
three other codices were in existence before the official Uthmanic codex compiled by Zaid ibn Thabit, the more famous ones being Ubayy b. Ka'ab, Abdullah ibn Mas'ud and Abu Musa. Some allege even more. These codices had some significant variants with the Uthmanic codex. for more details from the hadiths.
see "Material for the history of the text of the Qur'an: the old codices: the Kitab al-masahif of Ibn Abu Dawud together with a collection of the variant readings of the codices of Ibn Ma'sud, Ubai, 'Ali, Ibn 'Abbas, Anas, Abu Musa and other Qur'anic authorities which present a type of text anterior to that of the canonical text of 'Uthman," by Arthur Jeffery, Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1937.
``Of all the divine books the Koran is the only one of which the text, words and phrases have been communicated to the prophet by an audible voice." (Ibn Khalkan, as quoted in Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics, Vol 7, p.335, quoted by Abdul-Haqq p.58)It seems that ibn Khalkan ignored that God spoke to Moses directly. This distinction from previous revelations, however, make it difficult for the Muslim to push that it is the same as previous revelations.
This is an argument of the "Qur'an-only" party. They argue based on al-A`raf 7:185; Yunus 10:36; Luqman 31:6; az-Zumar 39:23,29; al-Jathiyah 45:6; at-Tur 52:34; al-Qalam 68:44; al-Mursalat 77:50.
Muslim in the seventh part of his Sahih (commentary of An-Nawawi) in the book of Al-Zakat about the virtue of being satisfied with whatever God gives and about urging people to have that virtue, pages 139-40, reported that Abu Al-Aswad reported that his father said: Abu Musa Al-Ashari invited the Qur'an readers of Basra. Three hundred readers responded to his invitation. He told them: You are the readers and the choice of the people of Basra. Recite the Qur'an and do not neglect it. Otherwise, a long time may elapse and your hearts will be hardened as the heartsw of those who came before you were hardened.
We used to read a chapter from the Qu'ran similar to Bara'ah in length (about 130 verses) and seriousness, but I forgot it. I can remember from that chapter only the following words:
"Should a son of Adam own two valleys full of wealth, he would seek a third valley, and nothing would fill Ibn Adam's abdomen but the soil."
We used to read a chapter similar to the Musabihat and I forgot it. I only remember the following:
"Oh you who believe, why do you say what you do not do? Thus, a testimony will be written on your necks and you will be questioned about it on the day of judgement."
Muslim also reported in the book Al-Ridhaa (book of nursing), part 10, page 29, that Ayeshah [reportedly] said the following: There was in what was revealed in the Qur'an that ten times of nursing known with certainty makes the nursing woman a mother of a nursed child. This number of nursings would make the woman "haram" (forbidden) to the child.
Muhammad died while these words were recorded and read in the Qur'an.
Umar reportedly said that Chap 33 is incomplete
Al-Muttaqi Ali Ibn Husam Ad-Deen, in his book "Mukhtasar Kanz al-Ummal," (printed on the margin of Imam Ahmad's Musnad, part two, page two), in his hadith about chapter 33, said that Ibn Murdawayh reported that Huthaifah said: Umar said to me "How many verses are contained in the chapter of Al-Ahzab?" I said, "72 or 73 verses." He said it was almost as long as the chapter of the Cow, which contains 287 verses, and in it was the verse of stoning.
Al-Hakim An-Nisaboori in his book "Al-Mustadrak" in the book of commentary on the Qur'an, part two, page 224, reported that Ubayy Ibn Kaab (whom the Prophet called the leader of Al-ansar), said that the Messenger of God said to him: Certainly the Almighty commanded me to read the Qur'an in front of you, and he read "The unbelievers from the people of the Book and the pagans will not change their way until they see the evidence. Those who disbelieve among the people of the scripture and the idolators could not change until the clear proof came unto them. A Messenger from Allah, reading purified pages..." And of the very excellent part of it "Should Ibn Adam ask for a valley full of wealth and I grant it to him, he would ask for another valley. And if I grant him that, he would ask for a third valley. Nothing would fill the abdomen of Ibn Adam except the soil. God accepts the repentance of anyone who repents. The religion in the eyes of God is the Hanafiyah (Islam) rather than Yahudiyya (Judaism) or Nasraniya (Christianity). Whoever does good, his goodness will not be denied.
Narrated Ibn Abbas:Interestingly, this hadith tells us that it was not Gabriel (hence Allah) who initiated the reading in seven different ways, but was on Muhammad's initiative.
Allah's Apostle said, "Gabriel read the Qur'an to me in one way (i.e. dialect) and I continued asking him to read it in different ways till he read it in seven different ways." (Sahih Bukhari 4.442, also Sahih Bukhari 6.513)
Book of Jubilee 3:10 states that the law of purification of woman after childbirth are written in the tablets in heaven. Jubilee 12:8 regard "Feast of Booths" ( Leviticus 23:40-43). Jubilee 5:13 states that the divine judgement on all that exists on earth is written on tablets in heaven. Book of Enoch prophesied future from contents of this tablet. (XCII:2, LXXXI, CIII:2, CVI:19, Also Encyclopaedia of Islam, p.288 quoted by Abdul-Haqq)
Narrated 'Umar bin Al-Khattab:
Once a Jew said to me, "O the chief of believers! There is a verse in your Holy Book Which is read by all of you (Muslims), and had it been revealed to us, we would have taken that day (on which it was revealed as a day of celebration." 'Umar bin Al-Khattab asked, "Which is that verse?" The Jew replied, "This day I have perfected your religion For you, completed My favor upon you, And have chosen for you Islam as your religion." (al-Ma'idah 5:3) 'Umar replied, "No doubt, we know when and where this verse was revealed to the Prophet. It was Friday and the Prophet was standing at 'Arafat (i.e. the Day of Hajj)" (Sahih Bukhari 1.43)
Abu Juhaifa said, "I asked Ali, 'Have you got any book (which has been revealed to the Prophet apart from the Qur'an)?' 'Ali replied, 'No, except Allah's Book or the power of understanding which has been bestowed (by Allah) upon a Muslim or what is (written) in this sheet of paper (with me).' Abu Juhaifa said, "I asked, 'What is (written) in this sheet of paper?' Ali replied, it deals with The Diyya (compensation (blood money) paid by the killer to the relatives of the victim), the ransom for the releasing of the captives from the hands of the enemies, and the law that no Muslim should be killed in Qisas (equality in punishment) for the killing of (a disbeliever). (Sahih Bukhari 1.111)
``Rabbi Simeon ben Laqish saith, "What is it that which is written, 'And I shall give thee tablets of stone, and the Law, and the commandment which I have written, that thou mayest teach them' (Ex XXIV:12)?"
The tablets -- these are the ten commandments; the Law, that which is read; and the Commandments; this is the Mishnah, which I have written, these are the Prophets and the Hagiographa: that thou mayest teach them, this denotes the Gamara. This teaches that all of them were given to Moses from Sinai. (Tract Berakhoth quoted in vol 5. Col. 1)
Caliph Alwalid ibn Yazid, who ruled the Muslims in the year 743 A.D. said:
"Talaaba be-inoboati Hashimeon bela wahion attaho wala kitabo w" (The Islamic Caliphate, p. 59)which means
Muhammad the Hashemite manipulated people by his claim that he was a prophet, without true inspiration or an inspired book.Caliph Abd Al-Malik ibn Marwan, who was a Muslim leader and scholar of the Qur'an, after becoming the Caliph, folded the Qur'an and said, "this is the last time I will ever use you." (The Islamic Caliphate, p. 173)
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