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some of these contain new matter, others are merely variations, or old traditions supported by better authorities than those already known. 

The chapter of most value for us is that on the "Deputations." The chief authority here relied on by Ibn S'ad is Ibn Kalby, the Commentator (d. 146) ; but Wâckidi is so constantly referred to, that we may presume he wrote a monograph on that subject also. This chapter, and indeed the Secretary's whole work, excepting the "Campaigns," resembles closely in its composition the Sunna; the authorities for each tradition are recited with the same punctiliousness of detail, his own opinion being rarely given, and then only in an extremely short form. The greatest portion of the materials is taken from Wâckidi: but many very valuable traditions of his own collecting are added by the Secretary. 

According to the canons of traditional criticism, Wâckidi is reckoned untrustworthy, partly because he was not orthodox (he inclined to the Shiea doctrine), partly because he was uncritical in the choice of his authorities, and not himself invariably true. His Secretary, Ibn S'ad, on the contrary, is held so trustworthy that many adopt the traditions of Wâckidi only when attested by his pupil, quoting in this way:—"the following is from Wâckidi, supported, however, by Ibn S'ad." He seems thus to have sifted the materials collected by his Master, and in the process, no doubt, cast much aside.

The merit of Wâckidi and his Secretary does not in the least consist in their rejection of legendary matter, or in their narrative having less the colour of the age than that of Ibn Ishâc. If they put aside certain improbable traditions, because founded on no better authority than Ibn Ishâc, they have, on the other hand, embodied many legends which escaped that author, and given new authorities more ancient than Ibn Ishâc himself, for many of his stories. Their real worth consists chiefly in the additional matter which they supply. By giving (which the Sunna-collectors also do) the more ancient and rudimentary versions of the legends, they aid us in searching out their origin, and thus enable us to demolish the dogmatic biography (III., p. lxxvi.). 

We are now in a position to receive, but with some reserve, the conclusion of Sprenger. "According to my judgment," he says, "the Sunna contains more truth than falsehood, the Biographies more falsehood than truth. Further, the numberless versions in the former, of one and the same tradition, serve as a means of criticism. Hence I hold the Sunna, after the Coran and original documents of which copies have been preserved, to be the most trustworthy of our sources." (III., p. civ.). But the main difference, as we have seen, is, not that the Collectors of the


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