Click to View



rendered to the cause before it became victorious, constituted the grand warrant in the early days of Islam to riches and honour 

The dues rendered by the Mahometan. provinces, and the spoils of war, which streamed from all quarters to Medina, were distributed mainly on these two considerations. Shortly after the Prophet's death, when the tithes came in, Abu Bekr, with his wonted simplicity, called the faithful together, and divided the income equally amongst them all, men, women, and children. In the first year it yielded 9, and in the second year 20, dirhems to each. Under Omar the revenue increased enormously, and he established an Exchequer with a civil list (Dewân). The stipends were then arranged according to the above considerations. First came the Widows and immediate relations of Mahomet, to each of whom was assigned the annual allowance of 12,000 dirhems ; the veterans of Bedr drew 5000 ; other converts who had thrown in their lot with Islam before that battle, 4000 each; their children, 2000 ; and so on, by regular gradation, each was classified in proportion to the strength of claim. Indeed, Omar seems at one time to have conceived the idea of bestowing largesses upon the whole Arab nation, but the intention was never carried into effect. The fruits of Mahometan conquest outside the Peninsula were at the first enjoyed by Mecca and Medina alone; and so continued until the Holy cities were gradually superseded by other centres of power and influence. Thus the Dewân, or Civil list, of Omar, an official register accessible to the public, afforded the traditionist a sure guide to the names, and partially also to the descent, of all who held a place in the history of the first days of Islam. 

The record of tribal distinctions was likewise preserved and fostered by the peculiar organisation of the army. There was no arbitrary constitution of battalions; each corps was formed of a tribe, or of two or more allied tribes. When a province was subdued, a portion of the victors with their families settled in it; but the greater part returned laden with booty to one of the great 


Click to View