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and afterwards asserting that absolute metaphysical unity would land its professor in the Sufie error of regarding the Divinity as a mere existence, and all creation his attributes. He distinctly denies that they or any other Mussulmans look upon the Deity as a rigid metaphysical unity,—but as a being endowed with attributes and perfections, although absolutely one in person and individuality.

Pfander's most important and concluding chapter he treats with contempt, and allots but six pages to its reply. The knowledge of God can be obtained only in accordance with reason and revelation, both of which he affirms point to unity and not to trinity. That the salvation of man is dependent upon these doctrines, he ridicules as the height of absurdity, because we hold that Christ actually descended into Hell, a shocking blasphemy which no other people ever dared to affirm of their prophet.1 The all-important doctrine of Christ's vicarious suffering he treats with scorn, and applies to us the proverb

"They flee for refuge from the rain,
And stand for shelter 'neath the drain,"—

that is, in seeking to escape from a slight misfortune, viz. the punishment of our sins, we run into the greater danger of charging God with injustice by inflicting the punishment of the guilty upon the innocent. Having thus abandoned the atonement, he satisfies himself with saying that the faith in Christ, to which pardon is promised, is nothing more nor less than the faith and obedience which every prophet has insisted upon, and in return for which he has promised the same blessings.

Upon the whole, there is nothing to discourage us in this production. The fallacy of the greater part of the reasoning must be recognised by the majority of thinking Mussulmans if they choose to reflect with impartiality; and though it may for a time throw dust unto the eyes of the lass candid and intelligent portion of the community, still, as Pfander's entire2 work is

1 This popular delusion the Mohammedans have probably picked up from the Apostles' creed; it certainly appears to be very generally promulgated among them.
2 The eleventh page alone is omitted, we cannot see with what object.


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