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Islamism can boast of no such ordinances. In the sixth section of the last chapter we have a curious account of the elevation of the Pope, which is intended to show that he is the regular descendant of St. Peter, and Vicar of Jesus Christ on earth; and that he is both the spiritual and temporal ruler on earth: that it is in his power to dethrone or set up kings at his pleasure, and to bind or loose both in earth or heaven." -(Preface, p. xl.)

And again: "We have evident intimations that God approves of the worship of these images, and this He has evinced by miracles, which He has wrought in favour of those who have paid particular reverence to them; as it may be seen from past, histories, and witnessed even now in Christian countries." Then follows a string of shrines, where the Moslem is invited to go and witness such exhibitions for himself. To all this his opponent quietly replies: "We need not now notice your worshipping wooden images of the Virgin Mary and Jesus, whether such worship be intended as respectful to their persons, or for the purpose of paying them divine honours. And as a word is enough for the wise, believing as we do that you are such, we shall content ourselves with the mere hint."

To this tract an answer was published about twelve years afterwards by a learned Mohammedan, Ahmed Ibn Zain-alabidin, copious extracts from which, comprising about sixty pages, are given by Lee in his Preface. The author combats Xavier's objections against Mohammedanism, occasionally with skill and sometimes with effect; but his direct arguments against Christianity consist chiefly of the usual components of a Mohammedan attack, -groundless reasonings and perverted interpretations of Scripture. These are, however, more to be excused in this writer, because of his very slender means of acquiring any Christian knowledge. The mode of reasoning does not seem to differ essentially from that adopted in the present day, except that some of the positions taken up by his Romanist opponent afford the Moslem a peculiar and advantageous line of argument. As a specimen of the manifest perversion characterising almost every Mohammedan polemical production, we may quote the passage in which verse 20 of Psalm ix. is turned into a prophecy of Mohammed's advent: "'Oh God, send a lawgiver, that he may come and teach man that he is a man.' Hence it is plain that God informed David of what the Christians would say respecting Christ. After which David is informed that God would send some one who would establish a law, and teach


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