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LXXIX., LIV., XXXIV., XXXI., LXIX., LXVIII., XLI., LXXI., LII., L., XLV., XLIV., XXXVII., XXX., XXVI., XV., LI. With this period begin narratives from the Jewish Scriptures, and rabbinical and Arab legends. The temporary compromise with idolatry is connected with Sura LIII.

FIFTH PERIOD.— From the . Tenth year of Mahomet's Ministry (the period of the removal of the Ban) to the Flight from Mecca..

Suras XLVI., LXXII., XXXV., XXXVI., XIX., XVIII., XXVII., XLII., XL., XXXVIII., XXV., XX., XLIII., XII., XI., X., XIV., VI., LXIV., XXVIII., XXIII., XXII., XXI., XVII., XVI., XIII., XXIX., VII., CXIII., CXIV. (the last two indeterminate). The Suras of this period contain some narratives from the Gospel. The rites of pilgrimage are enjoined. The cavillings of the Coreish are refuted; and we have vivid picturings of the Resurrection and Judgment, of Heaven and Hell, with proofs of God's unity, power, and providence.

From stage to stage the Suras become, on the average, longer, and some of them now fill many pages. In the later Suras of this period we meet not unfrequently with Medina passages, which have been interpolated as bearing on some connected subject. As examples may be taken v. 41 of Sura XXII., in which permission is given to bear arms against the Meccans; v. 33, Sura XVII., containing rules for the administration of justice; v. 110, Sura XVI., referring to such believers as had fled their country and fought for the faith; being all passages which could have been promulgated only after the Flight to Medina.

LAST PERIOD.—Suras revealed at Medina.

Sura XCVIII. A short chapter of eight verses, regarding good and bad Jews and Christians. Nothing very determinate about its chronology.

Sura II. Considerably the longest Sura in the Corân. It is named Sura Bacr, or the Cow, from the Red heifer described in v. 67 as having been sacrificed by the Israelites at the direction of Moses. The chapter was so named in Mahomet's lifetime, as we have seen by its mention at the battle of Honein. In this Sura have been collected together passages, on various subjects, which were delivered during the first two or three years after the


Flight. The greater part relates to the Jews, who are at times exhorted in friendly terms (these being the earlier passages), and at times reprobated. Biblical and rabbinical stories abound; and we have the order to change the Kibla (or direction at prayer), denunciation of the disaffected citizens of Medina, injunctions to fight, and permission to bear arms in the sacred months. There is likewise much matter of a legislative character promulgated on first reaching Medina, with passages interpolated on the same subject, but of later date.

Sura III. Also of very considerable length. A part belongs to the time immediately after the battle of Bedr (A.H. 2), which is described. Another and longer portion relates to the defeat at Ohod (A.H. 3); and the second expedition to Bedr (A. H. 4) is also alluded to. The Jews are referred to at great length, and in terms of bitter hostility. The interview with the Christian deputation from Najrân (vv. 57-63) belongs to a much later period. And, finally, there are some passages appertaining to the Farewell pilgrimage (A.H. 10), introduced in connection with other (probably) earlier texts on the rites of pilgrimage.

Sura VIII. contains instructions on the division of the spoil taken at Bedr, and is mostly of that period. Some parts are in the old Meccan style, and the Coreish are frequently referred to.

Sura XLVII. War and slaughter strenuously enjoined, and the idolaters of Mecca threatened.

Sura LXII. A short Sura, in which the Jews are denounced for their ignorance. The Friday service is to take precedence of secular engagements.

Sura V. A long chapter, composed in great part of abuse of the Jews. The doctrines held by Christians are controverted, though they themselves are spoken kindly of (v. 91). The opening passage, prescribing the rites of pilgrimage, is of later date; part probably appertains to the Hodeibia journey (A.H. 6), but part also to the Farewell pilgrimage, as v. 4 : "This day have I perfected your religion unto you." We have also many civil ordinances, as the law of inheritance, and miscellaneous instructions.

Sura LIX. Of inconsiderable length, and relating to the siege and expulsion of the Bani Nadhîr (A.H. 4).


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