Click to View


Al Ghazzali has defined Islam as "Submission1 and resignation in subjection and obedience, the renunciation of objecting and disobedience"; while other orthodox writers compare the pious man's attitude towards GOD to that of a corpse2 in the hands of the washers of the dead. "Man3 has no refuge from his rebellion against Him but only His help and His mercy, nor hath man any

Imam and Din.

power to perform any duty towards Him but through His love and will." The Muhammadan doctors sometimes treat of their religion under two heads, viz. Belief (Iman) and Practical Observance (Din). It is related in the Mishkatu'l Masabih4 on the authority of 'Umr bin al Khattab that one day, when he and some others were conversing with Muhammad, the angel Gabriel appeared to them in the disguise of a very tall and strong man

Essence of Islam
according to

clothed in white, who for their information and instruction said to the "Prophet," "O Muhammad, tell me about Islam." Muhammad replied, "Islam is that thou bear witness that there is no God but GOD and that Muhammad is the Apostle of God; and that thou offer prayer and pay thine alms and fast during the months of Ramadhan and perform the pilgrimage to the House6 if thou art

1 A. von Kremer, "Geschichte der herrsch. Ideen," p. 234.
1 Hauri, "Der Islam," p. 76.
1 Al Ghazzali (quoted by Ockley).
1 Book I., "On Faith" (Iman), sect i.
1 I.e. the Ka'abah or "House of God" (Baitu'llah) at Mecca.

able for the journey." The angel continued, "I accept it as true, now tell me about Faith." Muhammad said, "It is that thou believe in God and in His Angels, and in His Books, and in His Messengers, and in the Last Day, and that thou believe in Fate regarding good and evil." The angel rejoined, "I accept it as true, now tell me about well-doing." Muhammad answered, "It is that thou serve GOD just as if thou didst see Him, even though thou seest Him not, for

of Islam.

indeed He seeth thee." Ibn 'Umr states that Muhammad said on another occasion, "Islam1 is founded upon five things: (I) the testifying that there is no God but God and that Muhammad is His Servant and His Apostle; (2) the offering of prayer; (3) the payment of (the stated) alms (zakat); (4) the Pilgrimage to Mecca; (5) and fasting during Ramadhan." An Urdu 2 writer says, "In the opinion of Muslims, Faith is the pivot upon which all kinds of good works turn, and the root of all acts of worship. And its great support is to believe in and trust with sincerity of heart to whatever things His Excellency Muhammad stated. Moreover, the prevalence in the world of the injunctions of Islam depends upon their confession with the tongue. Therefore in the opinion of Muslims, while, in order to be a true Believer, belief with the heart is necessary, yet at the same broken

1 Mishkat, Bk. i, p. 4 (Arabic edition).
2 "Rusum-i-Hind," Muhammadan portion (Part II.), p. 261.

Click to View