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India one of the distinctions between a Muslim mendicant and a Hindu beggar is that the former thus utters the name "Allah" in an unceasing chant or whine, while the latter substitutes the name of his deity, Ram or Hari generally, and reiterates it in precisely the same way. Merit is


also gained by repeated recitations or readings of the Qur'an, or of portions of it; and this may be done for the benefit of those who are dead.

ยง 4. The character of Muslim piety may easily be inferred from what we have said regarding GOD'S attributes and their notions concerning prayer. It is legal, slavish, mechanical, un-spiritual. Good works are commanded to be done for the sake of the reward which they bring and as a means of salvation. For example, the Qur'an tells all true Believers, "If ye1 cause your alms


to appear, then how excellent are they! and if ye conceal them and give them to the poor, then that is good for you and will atone for your evil deeds; and GOD is aware of what ye do." Tradition represents Muhammad as saying, "Offer2 ye your 

1 Surah ii., v. 273[271]:
إِن تُبْدُواْ الصَّدَقَاتِ فَنِعِمَّا هِيَ وَإِن تُخْفُوهَا وَتُؤْتُوهَا الْفُقَرَاء فَهُوَ خَيْرٌ لُّكُمْ وَيُكَفِّرُ عَنكُم مِّن سَيِّئَاتِكُمْ وَاللّهُ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ خَبِيرٌ
2 Mishkat, "Kitabu's Salat," sect. ii.:
صلّوا خمسكم وصوموا شهركم وادّوا زكوة اموالكم واطيعوا ذا امركم تدخلوا جنّة رّبكم

five prayers, and fast during your month,1 and pay the appointed alms out of your goods, and obey him who has authority over you, thus shall ye enter the Paradise of your Lord." And again, "Whoever2 prays with two acts of adoration and makes no blunder in them, him will his Lord pardon, whatever offence he may previously have committed."

Yet we must in fairness remark that the Qur'an distinctly teaches that faith is necessary

But faith

to render the giving of alms or the doing of any kind of good works effectual for the acquirement of merit, and that hypocrisy annuls the value of the action, however good in itself. Thus in the second Surah we read, "Kindly3 speech and forgiveness4 is better than alms which is followed by injury." And again, "O5 ye who believe, do not make your

1 I.e., during Ramadhan.
2 Mishkat, ibid., sect. iii.:
من صلّى سجدتين لا يسهو فيهما غفر الله له ما تقدم من ذنِبِه
3 Surah ii., v. 265[263]:
قَوْلُ مَعْرُوفُ وَمَغْفِرَةٌ خَيْرٌ مِنْ صَدَقَةٍ يتبَعْهَاُ اَذىً
4 The original word used for "forgiveness" (مَغْفِرَةٌ ) here shows that the meaning is God's forgiveness.
5 Surah ii., v. 266[264]:
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ لاَ تُبْطِلُواْ صَدَقَاتِكُم بِالْمَنِّ وَالأذَى كَالَّذِي يُنفِقُ مَالَهُ رِئَاء النَّاسِ وَلاَ يُؤْمِنُ بِاللّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الآخِرِ

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