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conviction he remained until the conversion to Christianity of a friend led him to study the Bible in order to convince his friend that Christianity was false. But in the providence of GOD the reading of His Word brought peace to 'Imadu'd Din's heart and drew him to the feet of Christ.

§ 7. Man's need of Salvation is clearly taught of Salvation in the Qur'an and is acknowledged

Man's need
of Salvation.

by every Muslim. But their religion gives them an entirely false view of what salvation really is and in what it consists. The most common words used in Arabic for salvation, خَلاَصٌ (najah) and نَجاةٌ (khalas) strictly mean "escape" and "deliverance.'' If a Muslim be asked from what he hopes to be saved, his reply will generally be "From the punishment of my sins." If a mystic he will more probably say, "From intellectual ignorance of the Nature of GOD," or "from want of Union with Him." The latter view is allied to that of the Hindu Pantheists, who believe that they are really parts, so to speak, of GOD, and differ from Him only as the1 rain-drop differs from the ocean, from

1 The same metaphor is used by the Sufis, who are very numerous in Persia especially. (V. Osborn, ut supra, p. 100.) The following verses from the Masnavi contain the Pantheistic idea very clearly expressed:—
قُرب نى بالا وبستى رفتن است
قُربِ حقّ از قَيدِ هستى رستن است
("Lubb-i Libab," p. 102): that is, "To approach near to GOD is not to go up or to go down: to approach the Truth
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which it has sprung and towards which it tends. In this respect it is altogether alien to the principles of the Muhammadan faith, which teaches that the Creator is separated from His creatures, as far as essence is concerned, by an impassable gulf. Although Pantheistic ideas assert themselves very extensively among Muslims, especially among those prone to Mysticism, yet we need not discuss them here.

The main point to which each and every answer regarding the meaning of Salvation to the Muhammadan mind calls attention, is that the Muslim does not believe that it denotes, and must necessarily denote, deliverance from the bondage of Sin. Our Lord has taught us this very clearly by saying, "Whosoever committeth1 sin is the slave of sin," and before His birth the angel Gabriel announced that Christ's name should be called Jesus, "for2 He shall save His people FROM THEIR SINS." Muhammadanism has no such Saviour, no such hope, no such teaching of the true nature of

[Footnote continued from previous page]
(i.e., God) is to escape from the prison of existence." The Persian poet Hafiz is supposed to signify the soul's search for GOD in his verses, which, taken in their literal sense, are erotic and bacchanalian. Quum Dei amorem laudare velint,
ερωτος (عِشق) metaphora utuntur poetae mystici praesertim Persici, eo tamen modo ut numen feminae, cultor antem mariti partes agat.
1 John viii. 34:
αμην λεγω υμιν οτι πας ο ποιων την αμαρτιαν δουλος εστιν της αμαρτιας
2 Matt. i. 21.

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