through the medium of later Jewish legends, which were deeply coloured through the influence of
Thus nearly every leading doctrine of Islam can be traced with perfect certainty to some
Pre-Islamic creed. Even in Muhammad's lifetime accusations were brought against him of deriving the
doctrines which he inculcated from various human teachers, as for instance Waraqah and Abdu'llah ibn
Sallam. This he strenuously denied, asserting that all his teaching was given him by GOD Himself
through the Angel Gabriel, and that his knowledge of the histories of the Prophets in particular was
a manifest proof of his Divine mission and of the truth of his lofty claims.
§ 11. This brings us to deal very briefly with Muhammad's life and character. His biography has
been so well treated by Sir William Muir, Weil, Sprenger, and others in recent times that it will
not be necessary for me to say much on the subject here. The earliest Arabic biographer of Muhammad
was Zuhri, who died in A.H. 124. He derived his information in large measure from a relative of 'Ayishah
named Urwa, but also from traditions handed down by the Companions of the "Prophet."
Although Zuhri's work is no longer extant, we possess large portions, if not the whole of another
life of Muhammad written by a disciple of his, Ibn Ishaq (died A.H. 151), and edited with
amplifications by Ibn Hisham (died, A.H. 213) under the title "Siratu'r Rasul." These