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as Baur and De Wette in Germany, can be considered to represent the orthodox Christianity of all ages. All Muslims but the members of their own party openly style the "Nechuris" heretics and unbelievers.

§ 14. Attempts have been made to acquit Muhammad of the charge of intolerance, and of

Muhammad and
the Charge of

permitting Islam to be spread by the sword. It is well known how Islam was propagated by Muhammad himself after his acceptation by the people of Medinah gave him the power to use more effectual arguments than words alone. Nor does history, whether written by Christians or by Muslims themselves, allow us to entertain any doubt as to the method adopted for the conversion of Syria and Palestine, of Armenia and Azarbijan, of Persia, of Egypt, of Spain, and even of European Turkey. The Turkish and Tatar tribes of Central Asia seem to be nearly the only nations that in the past embraced the Religion of Islam without compulsion. If we examine the Qur'an itself, we find three clearly marked stages in Muhammad's teaching with reference to religious toleration towards those that differed


from him. Before the Hijrah, it was impossible for him to persecute his opponents. But when his power increased we find a remarkable change in this respect. The first step was to give his followers liberty to fight in their own1 defence. Thus in Suratu'l Hajj

1 Cf. Ibn Hisham, vol. i., p. 164.

(Surah XXII. 40, 41) we read, "It1 is permitted unto those who fight because they are wronged . . . those who are expelled from their homes unjustly only because they say, 'Our Lord is GOD."' But with success in battle the principles of the religion underwent a change. Accordingly in Suratu'1 Baqarah (Surah II. vv. 212 sqq.) we find Muhammad saying; "War 2 is fated for you"; and again a few verses further on, "They will 3 ask concerning the month in which war is forbidden. Say thou, War in it is grievous; but turning any one away from GOD'S way, and unbelief in Him and the Holy Mosque, and the expulsion of His people from it is more grievous in the sight of GOD, and leading astray is worse than slaying." The Muslims


are here taught that they ought to fight rather than allow the Quraish to hinder them from going to the Ka'abah. A little later we reach the second stage, for in Suratu'l Maidah (Surah V. 27) we read, "Truly 4 the recompense of those who wage war

1 Surah xxii. 40, 41[39,40]: ....
أُذِنَ لِلَّذِينَ يُقَاتَلُونَ بِأَنَّهُمْ ظُلِمُوا ‫..... ‬الَّذِينَ أُخْرِجُوا مِن دِيَارِهِمْ بِغَيْرِ حَقٍّ إِلَّا أَن يَقُولُوا رَبُّنَا اللَّهُ‫..... ‬
2 Surah ii. 212[216]: كُتِبَ عَلَيْكُمُ الْقِتَالُ
3 Surah ii. 214[217]:
يَسْأَلُونَكَ عَنِ الشَّهْرِ الْحَرَامِ قِتَالٍ فِيهِ قُلْ قِتَالٌ فِيهِ كَبِيرٌ وَصَدٌّ عَن سَبِيلِ اللّهِ وَكُفْرٌ بِهِ وَالْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ وَإِخْرَاجُ أَهْلِهِ مِنْهُ أَكْبَرُ عِندَ اللّهِ وَالْفِتْنَةُ أَكْبَرُ مِنَ الْقَتْلِ‫..... ‬
4 Surah v. 37[33]:
إِنَّمَا جَزَاء الَّذِينَ يُحَارِبُونَ اللّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ وَيَسْعَوْنَ فِي الأَرْضِ فَسَادًا أَن يُقَتَّلُواْ أَوْ يُصَلَّبُواْ أَوْ تُقَطَّعَ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَأَرْجُلُهُم مِّنْ خِلافٍ أَوْ يُنفَوْاْ مِنَ الأَرْضِ ذَلِكَ لَهُمْ خِزْيٌ فِي الدُّنْيَا وَلَهُمْ فِي الآخِرَةِ عَذَابٌ عَظِيمٌ

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