becomes converted to any other faith is ipso facto sentenced to death.1
Attempts have in recent times been made in Turkey and Persia, owing to the pressure
brought to bear upon the court by the representatives of various Christian countries, to
give to all religions equal toleration, but as yet it has been found that this cannot be
done, because of the conviction entertained by all true Muslims that such toleration is
contrary to the express teaching and example of Muhammad himself, and therefore repugnant
to the will of the Most Merciful GOD.
§ 15. The five sources of Islam are therefore, as we have now seen,(1) Pre-Islamic
beliefs among the Arabs; (2) Talmudic Judaism; (3) Heretical Christianity and apocryphal
Christian traditions; (4) Zoroastrian ideas emanating from Persia; and (5) last but not
least, Muhammad's own character and pronounced personality. The latter had sufficient
influence to mould all the other elements into a more or less harmonious whole, and to
develop a system of religion which has for many ages exercised an unmeasured influence
upon a very large and important section of the human race. The question whether that
influence has been beneficial or otherwise, we must reserve for consideration in the
concluding lecture of the present course.