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IT is convenient to divide a Muhammadan's difficulties in the way of accepting the Gospel and salvation through Christ into two great divisions: (1) those arising from his unregenerate human nature; and, (2) those arising from his belief in Islam and his ignorance of the true nature of the Christian Faith.

The difficulties which arise under the first head are those which are common to men everywhere, because "the carnal mind is enmity against God" (Rom. viii. 7). It is due to this that we often find educated Muhammadans availing themselves of all the modern European arguments against Christianity with which they are acquainted. These are to be answered just as in England or America. To deal with arguments of this description is not within the province of this book, for they are not properly described as Muhammadan objections, and to deal with them at all adequately would require whole volumes. It suffices to say that such arguments are really quite as much opposed to Islam itself as to Christianity, at least for the most part, for they are levelled at all


revealed religion, or what professes to be such. The men who adduce such arguments are not really Muhammadans at all, and a Muhammadan audience can often be led to see this and to take part with the missionary against such men.

Another form of thought which largely prevails among educated and thoughtful professing Muslims, at least in certain countries, is Mysticism. This may be said to be Protean in its forms, but it generally resolves itself into Pantheism 1. As such it may, in large measure, be traced back to Hindu philosophy. The Masnavi affords a good example of this. That work, though professing to be an orthodox Muhammadan composition, in reality—to those who understand it aright—holds Islam up to ridicule. It was for a long time prohibited in Persia for this reason. "Muhammadan" mystics must not be considered as really Muslims at all; hence we cannot here deal with their difficulties.

We are concerned in this book only with

1 "Not only the Shaikhi but the Mutasharri' also is entangled in the Pantheistic net. Aggressive Muhammadanism to-day is largely of the darvish type, and this is Pantheistic. It is important to bring before the Muslim mind the fact that the great truths (Introd. §§ 11 and 14, b) of primitive Islam have been and are being undermined by an insidious Pantheistic teaching, and that the only refuge for those who would hold these truths is in the acceptance of a full-orbed Christianity." (Rev. P. Z. Easton.) Mr. Harding says, "I find almost all thoughtful Muslims tinged with mysticism of a kind which predisposes them to Christianity." Of such mysticism as this the missionary should make good use, while opposing the Pantheistic element in it.

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