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190. M. If, as you hold, God is the Author of all good and Satan of all evil, we are still not responsible for our actions1.

C. We hold that God enables us "both to will and to work" (Phil. ii. 12, 13) what is good, but we do not hold that He compels us to do so or deprives us of freedom of will. He gives us grace to withstand the temptations of the devil, if we wish. The very existence of conscience proves our responsibility, for we feel2 our guilt when we have done wrong even in thought.

191. M. Christ's atonement is needless: Muhammad's intercession is sufficient for us. He is God's chosen, greater than Christ. His name was written on the Preserved Tablet, on the base of God's throne (العرش Al 'Arsh), before the creation of the world. All things were made for him, and his light (نور nur) was the first of all created things3.

C. In saying this you say what cannot be proved. It is mere assertion4. Moreover, we have already proved from the Qur'an Christ's superiority to Muhammad (§§ 116, 117; cf. §§ 85-90). Muhammad

1 Note the latent Dualism in this assertion. (Mr. H. G. Harding.)
2 A good Pagan proof is given in the 13th Satire of Juvenal.
3 Vide the 'Araisu't Tijan, Story of Adam (p. 36 of Indian Edition), and traditions there recorded.
4 Moreover, Muhammad is dead, Christ is alive in Heaven, as you confess. Hence Muhammad cannot now intercede for men. You say he will do so at the Judgment Day, but that Tradition is not confirmed by the Qur'an. Besides, it will be too late then. (Rev. Dr. Wherry. Vide § 196.)

was a mere man, born in the ordinary way, while even the Qur'an acknowledges Christ's superhuman generation (vide §§ 117, 118), and gives Him higher titles than it does to Muhammad. This theory about the light of Muhammad is taken from what the Gospel (John i. 4, 5) says about Christ, and it is of Christ and not Muhammad that we are told that "In Him were all things created, in the heavens and upon the earth, things visible and things invisible; . . . all things have been created through Him, and unto Him" (Col. i. 16). These things are true of the Word of God (كلمة الله ), but of no mere man, of no creature, can they be true.

192. M. Jesus' great work was to bear witness to Muhammad [vide chapter VII, §§ 196, sqq.], and He will come again to slay the swine, to break the cross, and to bring all men to Islam. He will marry, and ultimately die, and be buried in Medina, where His empty tomb is ready for Him, since "Every soul shall taste of death" (Surah XXI., Al Anbiya', 36). [See commentators on Surahs XIX., Maryam, 34, and IV., An Nisa', 156-157.]

C. Christ did not bear witness to Muhammad, [unless possibly Matt. vii. 15, 16; xxiv. 11, and similar passages include a reference to him], nor will He do so when He comes again. But He will certainly come again to judge the world (Matt xxv. 31 sqq.), and receive His own unto Himself (John xiv. 3). This is what is meant by the reference to His metaphorical "marriage" with His Church

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